5.

4 DATA BUSES

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BITS, BYTES,WORD
• The traditional data hierarchy are:
– Bit – either 0 or 1 – Bytes – a collection of bits to make a character – Word – a collection of bytes to have a meaningful word. – Field – a collection of words – A record – a collections of field on a related subject.

2

Traditional Example – STUDENTS FILE
• Student’s File – consist of 100 records of student. • A record – for example – information on a student. • Fields – example students name or address or telephone number e.g Abraham Maslow • Word – the name of a student e.g Abraham • Bytes – e.g A is represented by 10000001 • Bit – either 0 or 1
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ARINC 429 DATA WORD
• In computing, word is the natural unit of data used by a particular processor design. • It is basically a fixed sized group of bits that are handled as a unit by the instruction • The number of bits in a word (the word size, word width, or word length) is determined by the computer architecture.

4

INTRODUCTION TO DATA BUSES
• Data buses are used to transmit data from one component to another. • The buses can be electrical or fibre optic. • The specification for data transmission is drawn by ARINC. • The standard used in aircrafts is the ARINC 429.

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ABOUT ARINC 429
• It defines how avionics equipment should talk with each other. • Defines the electrical and data characteristics and protocol. • A 32 bits serial bus with data flow in one direction. If two directions are required, then two sets of buses are required. (max 20 receivers) • The signal uses three level -10v, 0 and +10v.
(measured between 2 wires)

• High speed 100k and low speed of 12-14k/sec (cannot be mixed)
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ARINC 429 DATA WORD
• Five Basic Parts
– Label (e.g True air speed, TAT) – Source /Destination Identifier (SDI) – Data Field (bit 11-28) – Sign Status Matrix (SSM) (e.g +, - , North) – Parity Bit ( Odd parity)

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8

DATA TRANSMISSION

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ARINC DATA WORD

1- 8 Label – information about the data 9-10 SDI – Source Destination Information 11-28 – Data 29-31 – SSM Sign Status Matrix 32 – Parity bit - sum of all logic is ODD

10

DATA FORMAT
• It is using Bipolar return to zero (RZ) modulation.
– The data in 3 states, hi, null, lo (1, null, 0) – A 4 null period separate the words.

11

DATA BUS
• Operates on one of the two speeds
– High - 100kbits/sec – Low - 12.0kbits/sec

• Self clocking – the receiver receives the null between the bits to generate its internal clock. • Self synchronous – the 4 bits null is recognized and used to generate word synchronisation.

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VOLTAGE LEVEL
• The voltage used is +10 , 0 and -10 volts. • +10volts signifies logic 1 and (-10v) is logic 0
(obsolute voltage +- 5 )

• The second half of the bit is always null. • The shield is grounded at both end of he wire.

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INSTALLATION

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1977

=> Boeing began to work on “DATAC”
project

1977 - 85 => DATAC Emerged as ARINC 629 1989 1990 => ARINC 629 was adopted by AEEC => ARINC 629 was first implemented in BOEING-777
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Triple-Triple Redundant 777 Primary Flight Computer

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Time Division Multiplex Linear Bus Multiple Transmitter Access 2 Mbps Data Rate Current Mode Coupling (Present implementation)

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ARINC 629
• • • • • • ARINC 629 introduced in May 1995 Used on B777, A330 andA340 . Multiple-source, multiple sink system Each terminal can transmit receive data ARINC 629 can handle total of 120 terminals It supports a data rate of 2 Mbps

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ARINC 629 SYSTEM - COMPONENTS

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ARINC 629 DATA BUS CABLE

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ARINC 629
BUS INSTALLATION • Most of the wires are in electronics compartment. This to enable the black boxes to talk to each other. BUS COUPLER • The coupler is used to connect the LRU to the data bus. • A maximum of 120 couplers can be connected.

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429 V 629 BUSES

• • • •

A pair if wire per link One way flow Max 100kb Receiver max 20

• • • •

Shared buses – max 120 Two ways Max 2 mega Receiver – max 120
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ARINC 629 MESSAGE STRUCTURE
Message

Max 31 word string / gap 4 bits

Each word string Label + 256 datawords Each label 20bits/label-12/ext-4/3 syncro/1 parity Each data word 20bits/ 16 data/ 3 syn/ 1 parity

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MESSAGE STRUCTURE

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