# Avionics Engineering-1

AEAV 325 LECTURE-1

AIM
• The aim of this class is to
– Introduce the concept of navigation – Key terms associated with navigation – Differentiate between True North, Mag North and Compass North. – Effect of atmospheric wind in planer motion of a body. – Catagorize various navigation methods.

INTRODUCTION
• Navigation is the process of monitoring and controlling the movement of a craft or vehicle from one place to another. • Process of piloting an aircraft from one geographical position to another while monitoring one’s position as the flight progresses. • All navigational techniques involve locating the navigator's position compared to known locations or patterns.

KEY TERMS & CHALLENGES ASSOCOATED WITH NAVIGATION

• Longitude is a geographic coordinate that specifies the east-west position of a point on the Earth's surface. It is an angular measurement, usually expressed in degrees, minutes and seconds, and denoted by the Greek letter lambda (λ).

• In geography, the latitude of a location on the Earth is the angular distance of that location south or north of the equator. The equator has a latitude of 0°, the North pole has a latitude of 90° north (written 90° N or +90°), and the South pole has a latitude of 90° south (written 90° S or −90°)

Measurement of direction
• Using meridians, direction from one point to another can be measured. • Reference is taken as true north. • If lat-long of point origin and destination are known, drawing a line between the two and knowing the angle with respect to true north, can give true course of the aircraft. • Direction is measured using a compass.

N

(0, 90W) (30S, 150E)

S

EFFECT OF EARTH MAGNETIC FIELD

Magnetic Deviation: Magnetic influencenorthmagneticsuch as(the direction the Magnetic It’s the angle the angle between and magnetic north. Its either Variation: Declination is between true within aircraft north electrical circuits, radio, lights, magnetised metal parts etc also effect compass neddle, and its north endfrom normal variation points) andon whether magneticCompass east variationaor west reading. The reading of compass is The declination (MN) deflected of compass needle depending true north. called as north is positive when of magnetic (TN) . is east or west thetrue north north is east of true north. TH heading (CH) = Magnetic Heading (MH) ± Variation (V)

Magnetic Heading (MH) ± Deviation (D) = Compass Heading (CH)

EFFECT OF ATMOSPHERIC WIND
Speed in Air= speed on ground - wind speed

1 - True North

2 - Heading, the direction the vessel is "pointing towards" 3 - Magnetic north, which differs from true north by the magnetic variation. 4 - Compass north, including a two-part error; the magnetic varation (6) and the ship's own magnetic field (5) 5 - Magnetic deviation, caused by vessel's magnetic field. 6 - Magnetic variation, caused by variations in earth's magnetic field. 7 - Compass heading or compass course, before correction for magnetic deviation or magnetic variation. 8 - Magnetic heading, the compass heading corrected for magnetic deviation but not magnetic variation; thus, the heading reliative to magnetic north. 9, 10 - Effects of crosswind and tidal current, causing the vessel's track to differ from its heading. A, B - Vessel's track.

1 - True North

2 - Heading, the direction the vessel is "pointing towards" 3 - Magnetic north, which differs from true north by the magnetic variation. 4 - Compass north, including a two-part error; the magnetic variation (6) and the ship's own magnetic field (5) 5 - Magnetic deviation, caused by vessel's magnetic field. 6 - Magnetic variation, caused by variations in earth's magnetic field. 7 - Compass heading or compass course, before correction for magnetic deviation or magnetic variation. 8 - Magnetic heading, the compass heading corrected for magnetic deviation but not magnetic variation; thus, the heading relative to magnetic north. 9, 10 - Effects of crosswind and tidal current, causing the vessel's track to differ from its heading. A, B - Vessel's track.

1 - True North

2 - Heading, the direction the vessel is "pointing towards" 3 - Magnetic north, which differs from true north by the magnetic variation. 4 - Compass north, including a two-part error; the magnetic variation (6) and the ship's own magnetic field (5) 5 - Magnetic deviation, caused by vessel's magnetic field. 6 - Magnetic variation, caused by variations in earth's magnetic field. 7 - Compass heading or compass course, before correction for magnetic deviation or magnetic variation. 8 - Magnetic heading, the compass heading corrected for magnetic deviation but not magnetic variation; thus, the heading relative to magnetic north. 9, 10 - Effects of crosswind and tidal current, causing the vessel's track to differ from its heading. A, B - Vessel's track.

1 - True North

2 - Heading, the direction the vessel is "pointing towards" 3 - Magnetic north, which differs from true north by the magnetic variation. 4 - Compass north, including a two-part error; the magnetic variation (6) and the ship's own magnetic field (5) 5 - Magnetic deviation, caused by vessel's magnetic field. 6 - Magnetic variation, caused by variations in earth's magnetic field. 7 - Compass heading or compass course, before correction for magnetic deviation or magnetic variation. 8 - Magnetic heading, the compass heading corrected for magnetic deviation but not magnetic variation; thus, the heading relative to magnetic north. 9, 10 - Effects of crosswind and tidal current, causing the vessel's track to differ from its heading. A, B - Vessel's track.

1. Navigation by Pilotage: The navigator fixes position of aircraft by observing known visible landmarks. Features like- river, coast lines, hills, major infrastructures etc. At night- light beacons, city lights etc.
• • Also, possible with air-borne microwave radar. Electronic pilatage advantage- Range is higher than human pilotage Both methods depend on availability of accurate maps Both depend on reorganization of ground features- either electronically or visually.

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2. Celestial Navigation: Celestial navigation systems are based on observation of the positions of the Sun, Moon, Planets and navigational stars. Accomplished by measuring angular position of celestial bodies.
• Angular position ( azimuth and elevation) is measured using Saxtent. Along with precise time of measurement and angular position, position of craft can be determined on any place on globe. Advantage: Relative independence of external aids. Drawbacks: Visibility, accuracy of measuring instrument, accuracy in indetification of celestial body.

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3. Navigation by Dead Reckoning (DR): Position of craft at any instant of time is calculated from the previously determined position, speed of motion wrt earth, direction of motion and time elapsed.
– Requires means of finding direction of motion of craft or aircraft heading or track angle and speed or acceleration. – Direction from magnetic compass or gyroscope – Speed from air-data sensors or Doppler radars.

3. Dead Reckoning (DR): Complications by Wind
North
A Heading Track Angle C OA: Apparent direction of aircraft – ‘heading’ OB: Wind direction OC: Velocity vector wrt to ground

B
O

VELOCITY TRIANGLE

• Heading angle and track angle are not same • Air Speed ≠ Ground Speed

– Wind velocity is obtained by weather broadcasts. – Earlier methods- for long distance flightsbarometric altimeter and radio altimeter to measure pressure altitude and absolute altitude. – Aim is to fly at constant pressure altitude – New methods- Doppler radar and inertial navigation

WIND

DIRECTION

• The three components of position vector and three components of velocity make up a six component state vector that fully describes the translational motion of a vehicle in space.
THREE COMPONENTS OF WIND

4. Radio Navigation: Based on use of EM waves to find position of a/c. RN system have network of txr/ rxr on grounds, satellites or on other vehicles. All these have a precise, known position.
• • • Dependence of a/c on installations. Hence, RN is not self contained as compared to DR. Property of rectilinear propagation and constant velocity of EM waves is utilised. Navigation parameters- direction, distance , velocity etc are obtained by direct/ indirect measurement of time delay of arrival. Provides locus of a/c on a line, circle or hyperbola Intersection of two or more loci gives a fix.

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