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Presented to: Dr. Betty T. Polido In Partial Fulfillment Of the Subject N414-F
Tayo, April Rose V. Tinasas, Anne Jillian D. July 10, 2012
Objectives 1. To be able to define and show examples to the different problem description Pareto Chart, Check Sheet, Line Graph, Bar
tools such as Force File Analysis, Graph, and Pie Chart. 2.
To be able to differentiate the uses of problem description tools.
Introduction Understanding processes so that they can be improved by means of a systematic approach requires the knowledge of a simple kit of tools or techniques. The effective use of these tools and techniques requires their application by the people who actually work on the processes, and their commitment to this will only be possible if they are assured that management cares about improving quality. Managers must show they are committed by providing the training and implementation support necessary.
Force Field Analysis It is a technique for identifying forces which may help or hinder achieving a change or improvement. By assessing the forces that prevent making the change, plans can be developed to overcome them. It is also important to identify those forces that will help with the change. Once these forces have been identiﬁed and analyzed, it is possible to determine if a proposed change is viable. What It Is Used For • To show how process variables or factors impact the process status quo. When to Use It • When looking at a complex situation to organize the variables that affect the situation in one direction or another.
Arrows are drawn to signify the forces pushing on an issue or situation.
The relative size of each arrow should be adjusted to indicate its relative impact on the issue. • Parties from all aspects of the issue or situation should be involved in setting up the force field.
A Pareto chart, named after Vilfredo Pareto, is a type of chart that contains both bars and a line graph, where individual values are represented in descending order by bars, and the cumulative total is represented by the line.
Simple example of a Pareto chart using hypothetical data showing the relative frequency of reasons for arriving late at work.
The purpose of the Pareto chart is to highlight the most important among a (typically large) set of factors. In quality control, it often represents the most common sources of defects, the highest occurring type of defect,
or the most frequent reasons for customer complaints, and so on.
Wilkinson (2006) devised an algorithm for producing statistically based acceptance limits (similar to confidence intervals) for each bar in the Pareto chart. A Pareto diagram or chart pictorially represents data in the form of a ranked bar chart that shows the frequency of occurrence of items in descending order. Usually, Pareto diagrams reveal that 80% of the effect is attributed to 20% of the causes; hence, it is some-times
known as the 80/20 rule.
Check Sheet Also called: defect concentration diagram A check sheet is a structured, prepared form for collecting and analyzing data. This is a generic tool that can be adapted for a wide variety of purposes. When to Use a Check Sheet 1. 2. 3. When data can be observed and collected repeatedly by the When collecting data on the frequency or patterns of events, When collecting data from a production process. same person or at the same location. problems, defects, defect location, defect causes, etc.
Check Sheet Procedure 1. Decide what event or problem will be observed. Develop operational definitions.
Decide when data will be collected and for how long.
Design the form. Set it up so that data can be recorded simply by
making check marks or Xs or similar symbols and so that data do not have to be recopied for analysis. 4. 5. Label all spaces on the form. Test the check sheet for a short trial period to be sure it collects the
appropriate data and is easy to use.
Each time the targeted event or problem occurs, record data on
the check sheet.
Check Sheet Example
The figure below shows a check sheet used to collect data on telephone interruptions. The tick marks were added as data was collected over several weeks.
A line graph, at its simplest, is a diagram that shows a line joining
several points, or a line that shows the best possible relationship between the points. Sometimes the line will go through all of the points, and sometimes it will show the best possible fit. The line does not have to be a straight one; it can be a curve, though the techniques for drawing curved line graphs are beyond the scope of this unit. Line graphs are the most versatile and most extensively used
family of graphs. It is also called line chart.
Each type of graph has characteristics that make it useful in certain situations. Some of the strengths of line graphs are that: • They are good at showing specific values of data, meaning that
given one variable the other can easily be determined.
They show trends in data clearly, meaning that they visibly show
They enable the viewer to make predictions about the results of
how one variable is affected by the other as it increases or decreases. data not yet recorded.
When is line graph used? A line graph shows a relationship between two variables. In other words, it shows how one thing varies by comparison to another. For
distance varying against the time of day, or the start time of a journey. The distance increases when a vehicle is moving but remains the same when the vehicle is stationary.
Bar Graph Bar graphs are used to display data in a similar way to line graphs. However, rather than using a point on a plane to define a value, a bar graph uses a horizontal or vertical rectangular bar that levels off at the appropriate level. There are many characteristics of bar graphs that make them useful. Some of these are that:
• They make comparisons between different variables very easy to see.
• They clearly show trends in data, meaning that they show how one variable is affected as the other rises or falls. • Given one variable, the value of the other can be easily determined. When to Use It • To display data.
A pie chart is a circular chart in which the circle is divided into sectors. Each sector visually represents an item in a data set to match the amount of the item as a
percentage or fraction of the total data set. Pie charts
are perhaps the most ubiquitous chart type; they can be found in newspapers, business reports, and many other places. But few people actually understand the function of the pie chart and how to use it properly.
When to Use Pie Charts There are some simple criteria that you can use to determine whether a pie chart is the right choice for your data: • Do the parts make up a meaningful whole? If not, use a different chart. Only use a pie chart if you can define the entire set in a way that makes sense to the viewer.
Are the parts mutually exclusive? If there is overlap
Do you want to compare the parts to each other or the
between the parts, use a different chart.
parts to the whole? If the main purpose is to compare between
the parts, use a different chart. The main purpose of the pie chart is to show part-whole relationships.
How many parts do you have? If there
are more than five to seven, use a different chart. Pie charts with lots of slices (or slices of very different size) are hard to read. • In all other cases, do not use a pie chart. The pie chart is the wrong chart type to use as a default; the bar chart is a much better choice for that. Using a pie chart requires a lot more thought, care, and
awareness of its limitations than most other
Lessons Learned Problem description tools are so essential most especially in terms of quality development. Data are easier to interpret when it is in the form of the different description tools. Knowing the different description tools such as bar graph, check sheet, line
graph, pareto chart, pie chart, and force field analysis makes us
understand more how to apply these to different given problems. It’s also beneficial to know its different functions
because one may differ from another and may have limitations
to its uses. Proper application of these descriptive tools is very important so that it may not defeat its sole purpose or function.
Bibliography Books Tague, Nancy R. (2004) The Quality Toolbox, Second Edition, ASQ Quality Press, pages 141–142. Toma, Amaro R. (1998) Effective Management of Sources and Materials: An Experential/Skill, pages 100-105
http://www.businessballs.com/dtiresources/TQM_process_improvement_tool s.pdf http://mste.illinois.edu/courses/ci330ms/youtsey/barinfo.html http://mste.illinois.edu/courses/ci330ms/youtsey/lineinfo.html http://www.mathsteacher.com.au/year8/ch17_stat/06_pie/charts.htm http://openlearn.open.ac.uk/mod/oucontent/view.php?id=398924§ion =4.1.2 http://www.qualitytrainingportal.com/resources/problem_solving/problemsolving_tools-bar_charts.htm
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