Robbins & Judge

Organizational Behavior
13th Edition

Motivation Concepts


Defining Motivation
Three key elements: 1) Intensity – How hard a person tries 2) Direction – Efforts channeled toward organizational goals

3) Persistence – How long a person can maintain effort


Defining Motivation
The result of the interaction between the individual and the situation.  The processes that explain an individual’s intensity, direction, and persistence of effort toward attaining a goal – specifically, an organizational goal.


Motivation and Individual Needs
 Motivation
– The willingness to exert high levels of effort to reach organizational goals, conditioned by the effort’s ability to satisfy some individual need

 Need
– An internal state that makes certain outcomes appear attractive


Early Theories of Motivation
These early theories may not be valid, but they do form the basis for modern theories and are still used by practicing managers. 1) Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs Theory 2) Alderfer’s ERG (Existence, Relatedness, and Growth) 3) McGregor’s Theory X and Theory Y 4) Herzberg’s Two-Factor Theory

5) McClelland’s Theory of Needs


drink. Self-actualization: personal growth and fulfillment (Meaningful work) 8–6 . shelter. as each need becomes satisfied. 1. sex (Wages) 2. friendship (Friendly Co-Workers) 4. Recognition. status. the next need becomes dominant. Social: affiliation with others. and attention (Promotions. affection. and Rewards) 5. Esteem or Ego: achievement. Safety: physical safety (Benefits/Pension) 3. Physiological: food.Early Theories Of Motivation Hierarchy of needs theory (Maslow)  There is a hierarchy of five human needs.

As each need is substantially satisfied. Assumptions Self-Actualization Esteem Social Higher Order Internal Lower Order External – Individuals cannot move to the next higher level until all needs at the current (lower) level are satisfied – Must move in hierarchical order Safety Physiological 6-7 .Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs There is a hierarchy of five needs. the next need becomes dominant.

Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs 8–8 .

 Three groups of core needs: 1. theory E R G 6-9 . Relatedness (Maslow: social and status) 3. but not accurate. Existence (Maslow: physiological and safety) 2.Alderfer’s ERG Theory A reworking of Maslow to fit empirical research. Growth (Maslow: esteem and self-actualization)  Removed the hierarchical assumption – Can be motivated by all three at once  Popular.

Concepts: More than one need can be operative at the same time. Relatedness. If a higher-level need cannot be fulfilled. Core Needs Existence: provision of basic material requirements. Relatedness: desire for relationships. the desire to satisfy a lowerlevel need increases. . and Growth. Growth: desire for personal development.ERG Theory (Clayton Alderfer) ERG Theory There are three groups of core needs: • Existence.

Theory Y Assumes that employees like work. seek responsibility. avoid responsibility. . and must be directed and coerced to perform. and exercise self-direction and self-control when committed to a goal. lack ambition.Theory X and Theory Y (Douglas McGregor) Theory X Assumes that employees dislike work. are capable of making decisions.

Managers used a set of assumptions based on their view The assumptions molded their behavior toward employees  No empirical evidence to support this theory.McGregor’s Theory X and Theory Y  – – Two distinct views of human beings: Theory X (basically negative) and Theory Y (positive). Theory X • Workers have little ambition • Dislike work • Avoid responsibility Theory Y • Workers are self-directed • Enjoy work • Accept responsibility 6-12 .

Herzberg’s Two-Factor Theory • Key Point: Satisfaction and dissatisfaction are not opposites but separate constructs Hygiene Factors Motivators Extrinsic and Related to Dissatisfaction Company Policies Salary Work Conditions Growth Responsibility Intrinsic and Related to Satisfaction Achievement 6-13 .

when adequate in a job. and salary—that. supervision. Hygiene Factors Factors—such as company policy and administration. people will not be dissatisfied. while extrinsic factors are associated with dissatisfaction. placate workers. .Two-Factor Theory (Frederick Herzberg) Two-Factor (Motivation-Hygiene) Theory Intrinsic factors are related to job satisfaction. When factors are adequate.

September–October 1987. An exhibit from One More Time: How Do You Motivate Employees? by Frederick Herzberg. Copyright © 1987 by the President and Fellows of Harvard College: All rights reserved.Comparison of Satisfiers and Dissatisfiers Factors characterizing events on the job that led to extreme job dissatisfaction Factors characterizing events on the job that led to extreme job satisfaction Source: Reprinted by permission of Harvard Business Review. .

then satisfaction can occur. but didn’t research.  Herzberg is limited by his procedure • Participants had self-serving bias  Reliability of raters questioned • Bias or errors of observation  No overall measure of satisfaction was used  Herzberg assumed.Criticisms of Two-Factor Theory Herzberg says that hygiene factors must be met to remove dissatisfaction. If motivators are given. a strong relationship between satisfaction and productivity 6-16 .

to achieve in relation to a set of standards.David McClelland’s Theory of Needs Need for Achievement The drive to excel. Need for Affiliation The desire for friendly and close personal relationships. to strive to succeed. Need for Power The need to make others behave in a way that they would not have behaved otherwise. nPow nAch nAff .

to strive to succeed  Need for Power (nPow)  The need to make others behave in a way that they would not have behaved otherwise  Need for Affiliation (nAff)  The desire for friendly and close interpersonal relationships  People have varying levels of each of the three needs. to achieve in relation to a set of standards.  Hard to measure 6-18 .McClelland’s Three Needs Theory  Need for Achievement (nAch)  The drive to excel.

Population)      Want to do things better Desire rapid and unambiguous feedback Desire personal responsibility Intrinsically motivated Believe in a 50/50 chance for success   Avoid what they perceive to be very easy or very difficult tasks (intermediate degrees of risk) Not good supervisors 6-19 . to strive to succeed. – High Achievers (10-20% of U.McClelland’s Three Needs Theory  Need for Achievement (nAch): – The drive to excel. to achieve in relation to a set of standards.S.

and moderate risk Not necessarily make good managers – too personal a focus.or high-risk situations Be motivated in jobs that offer high degree of personal responsibility. avoiding very low.Performance Predictions for High nAch  People with a high need for achievement are likely to: – – – Prefer to undertake activities with a 50/50 chance of success. – – Most good general managers do NOT have a high nAch Need high level of nPow and low nAff for managerial success  Good research support. feedback. but it is not a very practical theory 6-20 .

Reinforcement Theory 5. Self-Efficacy Theory  Also known as Social Cognitive Theory or Social Learning Theory 4. Equity Theory 6. Expectancy Theory 6-21 . Cognitive Evaluation Theory 2. Goal-Setting Theory  Management by Objectives (MBO) 3.Modern Theories of Motivation 1.

• The theory may only be relevant to jobs that are neither extremely dull nor extremely interesting. .Cognitive Evaluation Theory Cognitive Evaluation Theory • Providing an extrinsic reward for behavior that had been previously only intrinsically rewarding tends to decrease the overall level of motivation.

tangible rewards reduce it  Self-concordance • When the personal reasons for pursuing goals are consistent with personal interests and core values (intrinsic motivation).Cognitive Evaluation Theory Providing an extrinsic reward for behavior that had been previously only intrinsically rewarding tends to decrease the overall level of motivation  Major Implications for work rewards – Intrinsic and extrinsic rewards are not independent – Extrinsic rewards decrease intrinsic rewards – Pay should be non-contingent on performance – Verbal rewards increase intrinsic motivation. people are happier and more successful 6-23 .

Self-Efficacy The individual’s belief that he or she is capable of performing a task. and national culture. lead to higher performance.Goal-Setting Theory (Edwin Locke) Goal-Setting Theory The theory that specific and difficult goals. with feedback. adequate self-efficacy. Factors influencing the goals– performance relationship: Goal commitment. . task characteristics.

with self-generated feedback. well-learned) Culture (best match is in North America) 6-25 . lead to higher performance  Difficult Goals: • • Focus and direct attention Energize the person to work harder • • Difficulty increases persistence Force people to be more effective and efficient  Relationship between goals and performance depends on: • • • Goal commitment (the more public the better!) Task characteristics (simple.Locke’s Goal-Setting Theory  Basic Premise: • That specific and difficult goals.

All rights reserved.7–26 © 2005 Prentice Hall Inc. .

All rights reserved.Cascading of Objectives Overall organizational objectives Divisional objectives Departmental objectives Individual objectives 7–27 © 2005 Prentice Hall Inc. .

Management by Objectives Four ingredients common to MBO programs: 1. All rights reserved. Goal specificity 2. . Participative decision making 3. Explicit time period 4. Performance feedback 7–28 © 2005 Prentice Hall Inc.

individual) Lower-level managers participate in setting their own goals Results in hierarchy of objectives that links one level to the next If all individuals achieve goals. organizational objectives will be attained 7–29 © 2005 Prentice Hall Inc. department. All rights reserved.Management by Objectives     Organizational objectives translated to specific objectives for each level (division. .

Goal specificity 2. Key Elements 1. with feedback on goal progress. Performance feedback 7–30 © 2005 Prentice Hall Inc. for an explicit time period. All rights reserved. .Management by Objectives Management by Objectives (MBO) • A program that encompasses specific goals. participatively set. Participative decision making 3. An explicit time period 4.

Cascading of Objectives 7–31 .

Linking MBO and Goal-Setting Theory MBO Goal-Setting Theory Goal Specificity Goal Difficulty Feedback Participation Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes No (qualified) 7–32 .

Why MBO’s Fail  Unrealistic expectations about MBO results    Lack of commitment by top management Failure to allocate reward properly Cultural incompatibilities 7–33 © 2005 Prentice Hall Inc. . All rights reserved.

When ratios are equal: state of equity exists – there is no tension as the situation is considered fair When ratios are unequal: tension exists due to unfairness – – Under-rewarded states cause anger Over-rewarded states cause guilt – Tension motivates people to act to bring their situation into equity 6-34 .Adams’ Equity Theory  – – Employees compare their ratios of outcomes-toinputs of relevant others.

Adams’ Equity Theory Equity theory (Adams) – Employees perceive what they get from a job situation (outcomes) in relation to what they put into it (inputs) and then compare their input-outcome ratio with the inputoutcome ratios of relevant others. • Inputs a) b) c) d) Effort Experience Education Competence • Outcomes a) Salary levels b) Raises c) Recognition 8–35 .

and Person B is a relevant other or referent. 8–36 .Equity Theory Relationship Perceived Ratio Comparison Employee’s Assessment *Person A is the employee.

Equity Theory Equity Theory Individuals compare their job inputs and outcomes with those of others and then respond to eliminate any inequities. Referent Comparisons: 1) Self-inside 2) Self-outside 3) Other-inside 4) Other-outside .

Equity Theory (cont’d) .

Change outcomes (increase output) 3.Equity Theory (cont’d) Choices for dealing with inequity: 1. Change inputs (slack off) 2. Distort/change perceptions of self 4. Distort/change perceptions of others 5. Choose a different referent person 6. Leave the field (quit the job) .

2.Equity Theory (cont’d) Propositions relating to inequitable pay: 1. but do higher quality piece work 3. Over-rewarded piece-work employees produce less. Under-rewarded hourly employees produce lower quality work. Over-rewarded hourly employees produce more than equitably rewarded employees. Under-rewarded employees produce larger quantities of lower-quality piece work than equitably rewarded employees . 4.

Reactions to Inequity Propositions relating to inequitable pay: – Paid by time: – – Over-rewarded employees produce more Under-rewarded employees produce less with low quality – Paid by quality: – – Over-rewarded employees give higher quality Under-rewarded employees make more of low quality 6-41 .

Equity Theory (cont’d) Distributive Justice Perceived fairness of the amount and allocation of rewards among individuals. Procedural Justice The perceived fairness of the process to determine the distribution of rewards. .

Equity Theory’s ―Relevant Others‖  Can be four different situations: – Self-Inside • The person’s experience in a different job in the same organization – Self-Outside • The person’s experience in a different job in a different organization – Other-Inside • Another individual or group within the organization – Other-Outside • Another individual or group outside of the organization 6-43 .

6-44 .Justice and Equity Theory Procedural Justice • Fairness of outcome process Distributive Justice • Fairness of outcome Interactional Justice • Being treated with dignity and respect Organizational Justice Overall perception of what is fair in the workplace.

8–45 . and according to the attractiveness of that outcome to the individual.Expectancy Theory (Vroom) Expectancy Theory (Vroom) – A theory of motivation that an individual tends to act in a certain way (effort). – Effort-performance • The perceived probability that exerting a given amount of effort will lead to performance – Performance-reward • The belief that performing at a particular level will lead to the attainment of a desired outcome – Attractiveness • The importance placed on the potential outcome or reward that can be achieved on the job. in the expectation that the act will be followed by given outcome (performance-reward).

Expectancy of performance success Instrumentality of success in getting reward Valuation of the reward in employee’s eyes See E X H I B I T 6-9 6-46 .Vroom’s Expectancy Theory The strength of a tendency to act in a certain way depends on the strength of an expectation that the act will be followed by a given outcome and on the attractiveness of the outcome to the individual.

Expectancy Theory Expectancy Theory (Victor Vroom) The strength of a tendency to act in a certain way depends on the strength of an expectation that the act will be followed by a given outcome and on the attractiveness of that outcome to the individual. E X H I B I T 6–8 .

Rewards–Personal Goals Relationship • The degree to which organizational rewards satisfy an individual’s goals or needs and the attractiveness of potential rewards for the individual.Expectancy Theory Relationships Effort–Performance Relationship • The probability that exerting a given amount of effort will lead to performance. . Performance–Reward Relationship • The belief that performing at a particular level will lead to the attainment of a desired outcome.

Global Implications Motivation theories are often culture-bound. – Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs Theory • Order of needs is not universal – McClelland’s Three Needs Theory • nAch presupposes a willingness to accept risk and performance concerns – not universal traits – Adams’ Equity Theory • A desire for equity is not universal • ―Each according to his need‖ – socialist/former communists Desire for interesting work seems to be universal. – There is some evidence that the intrinsic factors of Herzberg’s Two-Factor Theory may be universal 6-49 .

McClelland. but not very good predictors of behavior    Goal-Setting Theory • While limited in scope. Herzberg) • Well known. good predictor Reinforcement Theory • Powerful predictor in many work areas Equity Theory • Best known for research in organizational justice  Expectancy Theory • Good predictor of performance variables but shares many of the assumptions as rational decision making 6-50 . Alderfer.Summary and Managerial Implications  Need Theories (Maslow.

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