Abalone (Haliotis midae) farming and seaweed harvesting in South Africa

:
Industry interdependencies and socio-economic importance
Robertson-Andersson Deborah1; Troell2, M.; Halling2, C.; Anderson3, R.; Maneveldt4, G. and Bolton1 J. J.
1Botany 2Department

Department, UCT
Research Unit, MCM Department, UWC

of Systems Ecology, Stockholm University
4Botany

3Seaweed

“Abalone farming in South Africa has developed rapidly and the country is now the

largest producer outside Asia”.
World Aquaculture March 2003

Abalone industry development in SA Farm Types: 22 rights holders 13 exporting farms 2 hatcheries .

South African abalone farming Cleaning Feeding Eating .

Roman Bay Sea Farm .

SA kelp resources Seaweed Concession Areas .

Kelp harvest vs abalone production 600 7000 500 6000 Abalone (tons) 5000 400 4000 300 3000 200 2000 100 1000 0 0 1957 1960 1963 1966 1969 1972 1975 1978 1981 1984 1987 1990 1993 1996 1999 Years Abalone production WW beach cast DW Kelp as abalone feed WW 2002 Abalone feed and beach cast (tons) .

Seaweed concession areas and MSY Concession MSY Harvest Total Area (t f wt) (t f wt) Harvest as % of MSY 5 (3) 1165 696 60 Beach cast (t f wt) 354 6 (3) 7 (3) 8 (3) 11 (2) Totals 2680 644 956 1550 10399 897 348 951 1158 4050 33 54 99 75 52 878 528 0 112 1872 Kelp: Maximum Sustainable Yields. for the year 2003. . harvests. by concession area (MCM Data). and beach-cast amounts of fronds supplied as abalone feed.

SCA 8 – Relationships between abalone produced and seaweed harvested 100 80 % of MSY 60 40 20 0 years Abalone (tons) SCA 8 140 120 100 80 60 40 20 0 0 20 40 60 80 100 % harvest of MSY .

Potential Problems  Largest farm 120 T expanding to 240 T  Smallest farm 35 T  Average 70 T  18 farms with 70 T of abalone  Feeding 10 % body mass  kelp demand has the potential to increase or exceed 35 280 T per year just for abalone feed  Farms are concentrated in certain areas .

Marharaj .Poaching G.

Abalone distribution .

midae) from: Namibia. . Swaziland. “…if poaching continues at the current rate. Zimbabwe and Botswana. abalone will be fished to extinction in less than three years…” (Duvenhage 2002 of the South African abalone resource). Lesotho. Mozambique. Wet to dry ratio – 10 kg wet (live abalone meat shucked) = 1 kg dried abalone 500 X 10 = > 5 000 kg illegally harvested abalone from South Africa.Abalone exports to Hong Kong from Southern Africa for 2004 were 500 kg dried abalone 500 kg dried abalone (H.

Abalone industry multiplier effects SEAWEED HARVESTING SECURITY ELECTRICITY EDUCATION AND TRAINING FEED INDUSTRY ABALONE FARMING EXPORT AND TRANSPORT VETERINARY RESEARCH AND R&D CANNING CIVILS AND MAINTENANCE .

Growth in industry Year No of producing farms Investment (R millions) Tons.a-1 Annual Percentage increase No of employees Percentage increase in employees 2004 2005 2006 13 13 13 197 182 576 745 890 27 21 556 776 840 28 7. 2005) .6* *Decrease in employment is due to economies of scale FOB (free on board .) is around 26.8 $.kg and has remained at this level for the last three years (Loubser.describes a price which includes goods plus the services of loading those goods onto some vehicle or vessel at a named location.

5 63 1. .6 ZAR 15.62 Average Total ZAR 1.75 ZAR 346.6 17 0.Some facts and figures of the abalone industry: Min Investment per farm (millions) Workers per farm Employees per ton Gross Industry turnover for 2005 = ZAR 200 million Max ZAR 30 110 1.1 814 Race distribution within the abalone industry: *South African government classification to quantify racial imbalances introduced during the apartheid era Black* Coloured* White* 49 % 35 % 16 % An immature non producing farm has almost 100 % male workers while a mature farm has approximately 74 % males with 26 % females.

63 3.2 2.5 2.0 From Gerber 2004 .63 7.22 6.08 4.27 21.77 5.5 10.Distribution of running costs of the abalone industry: Salaries and wages Cost of sales Kelp Repairs and maintenance Electricity Artificial feed R&D Security Technology Insurance Miscellaneous 31.2 5.

R 2 142 per ton dried kelp for overseas alginate production FOB.91 (GPR. Expenditure into research and development ranged from R 60 000 to R 600 000. Start up costs range from R 250 000 to R 10 million. The average rand value of turnover per SCA allocated in 2004 was approximately R 2.8 million. (Wet:Dry = 5:1 Anderson et al. 2005).Seaweed work force Increased profitability . The total investment in 2004 was R 255.3 million (GPR. 2005) . The gross industry turnover for 2004 was R 125 44 364. 1989).R 900 – R 1 200 per ton fresh harvested kelp vs.

1998 2000 2002 2004 2006 Wild tons Farmed tons No of contract divers 50 15 6 3 2 95 54 36 23 7.Abalone canning sector The first abalone factories built in the 1960’s and canned wild caught abalone.5 0 4 30 123 200 estimated Decrease in wild quota has caused several factories to close. Jobs in this sector are of a more permanent nature with the staff being well trained and skilled. .

.3. 10 MSc.2 – 5 % . 12 research institutes have been or currently are involved with research into aspects of abalone and seaweed physiology and cultivation (Gerber 2004). 2003) Security Industry .An example at the University of Cape Town. University of Stockholm and the University of the Western Cape through 2 projects in collaboration two farms. the total usage of the three farms in Gansbaai is 13% of the total usage in that area.outsourced security is maintained Scientific equipment. generating of research projects .5 – 15 % of a farms running costs.2 % . 3 Honours. students and 1 PhD student have obtained their degrees and bursaries through research on the abalone industry. (Lawson-Smith. If this compared to the area of Gansbaai.Other employment sectors Electrical industry .

2003). Unskilled = do not need to use reasoning in the performance of their work. write and communicate.Skill distribution within the industries “… unemployment is high and rising and is considered to be one of the most critical socio-political challenges for the government” (Kingdon & Knight. Semiskilled = read. Skilled = some form of tertiary education and or a matric . the overall unemployment in 2000: > 36 % for skilled and > 50 % for unskilled and semi-skilled workers. Lewis (2001).

23 346 500 000 SEAWEED 388 (600 – 1000) 11019 1484 88 1:2 255 779 161 CANNING 57 123 2464 0 1:0.Socio-economic effects from Abalone farming in SA in 2004 ABALONE Laborers Tonnage (tons) Pay (ZAR) UnSkilled (%) Male :female 814 740 1813 61 1:0.23 2 000 000 ABFEED 8 312 2464 50 1:0 750 000 Investment (ZAR) .

Haga Haga – by ward area Male Female Total Black African Coloured 33 39 3 72 3 (Data from Census „05) White 15 24 39 Total 48 66 114 Farm Stats… Black male White Male Black female White female 57 7 1 1 .

Haga Haga – by ward area Male Female Total Black African Coloured 33 39 3 72 3 (Data from Census „05) White 15 24 39 Total 48 66 114 Farm Stats… Black male White Male Black female White female 57 7 1 1 .

6 239 400 L/SC 9 Mexico 1.4 3 150 L/SC 23 USA 0. the world South Africa Laborers per 1.1 840 1200 L 13 Chile Australia 0.25 New Zealand 0.15 25 100 L 8 ton Tonnage (tons) 2005 Tonnage (tons) 2010 Farm type # of farms L/SC 26 L/SC 20 1000 1000 205 350 .South Africa vs.

social groups (50 % unskilled labour). incomes. etc.Socio-economic effects from Abalone farming in SA There are direct socio-economic benefits from the abalone industry through: employees ( > 1200 people employed) salaries.g. the kelp industry) and also other indirect effects on entrepreneurs with 20 % growth in the industry forecasted for the next 5 years . including spill over effects (e. gender.

THANK YOU ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS I would like to extend special thanks to the following organizations without whose help this project would have been impossible: Swedish and South African Collaborative Program I & J Mariculture farm JSP Mariculture farm Abagold NRF JSP .

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