Controlling Quality

Waqas Ali Tunio Pakistan Navy Engineering College (PNEC), National University of Sciences & Technology (NUST) - Pakistan

Scheme of Presentation
• • • • • • • • • Introduction – Quality Control Project Quality Management? Quality Assurance QC in Production Systems Designing the QC System Inspection/Testing Points Gauges and Measuring Instruments HACCP System Quality Control in Services

Quality Assurance
• Quality assurance includes all the activities related to satisfying the relevant quality standards for a project
– Another goal of quality assurance is continuous quality improvement

• Benchmarking generates ideas for quality improvements by comparing specific project practices or product characteristics to those of other projects or products within or outside the performing organization • A quality audit is a structured review of specific quality management activities that help identify lessons learned that could improve performance on current or future projects
– Performed by in-house auditors or third parties

Quality Control (QC)
• Control – the activity of ensuring conformance to requirements and taking corrective action when necessary to correct problems • Importance
– Daily management of processes – Prerequisite to longer-term improvements


Quality Control
Although one of the main goals of QC is to improve quality, its main outcomes are:
–Acceptance decisions- are the products/services acceptable or should they be rejected and rework is then necessary –Rework – action taken to bring rejected items into compliance with products specs. Can be very expensive –Process adjustments – correct or prevent further quality problems based on quality control measurements (purchase faster server if response time is too slow)

Designing the QC System
• Quality Policy and Quality Manual
– Contract management, design control and purchasing – Process control, inspection and testing – Corrective action and continual improvement – Controlling inspection, measuring and test equipment (metrology, measurement system analysis and calibration) – Records, documentation and audits

Quality Policy - Key Objectives

• Fitness for use or Fitness for Service (FFS) • Performance • Safety • Dependability

• Customer Satisfaction (Meet/Exceed) • Conformance to Requirements • Continuous Improvement • Management must also provide adequate resources to achieve objectives set forth in quality policy.

What Is Project Quality Management?

Project quality management ensures that the project will satisfy the needs for which it was undertaken Processes include:
– Quality planning: identifying which quality standards are relevant to the project and how to satisfy them – Quality assurance: periodically evaluating overall project performance to ensure the project will satisfy the relevant quality standards – Quality control: monitoring specific project results to ensure that they comply with the relevant quality standards

Project Quality Management Summary

Who’s Responsible for the Quality of Projects? • Project managers are ultimately responsible for quality management on their projects
• Several organizations and references can help project managers and their teams understand quality
– International Organization for Standardization (
• When products, systems, machinery and devices work well and safely, it is often because they meet standards. The organization responsible for many thousands of the standards which benefit the world is ISO (derived from the Greek isos, meaning “equal”)

– IEEE – Standards Association (
• A leading, developer of industry standards in a broad-range of industries (Power and Energy, Information Technology, Telecommunications, Transportation, Medical and Healthcare, nanotechnology, cyber security, information assurance, and green technology) . Globally recognized

Matrix Management and QC • Project priorities force functional bypassing

• Quality control (QC) includes the activities from the suppliers, through production, and to the customers. • Incoming materials are examined to make sure they meet the appropriate specifications. • The quality of partially completed products are analyzed to determine if production processes are functioning properly. • Finished goods and services are studied to determine if they meet customer expectations.

QC in Production Systems

QC Throughout Production Systems

Inspection/Testing Points
• Receiving inspection • In-process inspection • Final inspection

• Spot check procedures • 100 percent inspection • Acceptance sampling

Receiving Inspection


Prevention and Inspection
Prevention: Keeping errors out of the process Inspection: Keeping errors out of the hands of the customer.

In-Process Inspection

• What to inspect?

• Where to inspect?

– Key quality characteristics that are related to cost or quality (customer requirements) – Key processes, especially highcost and value-added – All, nothing, or a sample

• How much to inspect?

Human Factors in Inspection
•complexity •defect rate •repeated inspections •inspection rate
Inspection should never be a means of assuring quality. The purpose of inspection should be to gather information to understand and improve the processes that produce products and services.

Gauges and Measuring Instruments

• Variable gauges • Fixed gauges • Coordinate measuring machine • Vision systems

Example of QC: HACCP System
HACCP is referred as the prevention of hazards rather than finished product inspection

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7.

Hazard analysis Critical control points Preventive measures with critical limits for each control point Procedures to monitor the critical control points Corrective actions when critical limits are not met Verification procedures Effective record keeping and documentation

Quality Control in Services
• Identify important quality characteristics
– Time, errors, behavior

• Measure and collect data using check sheets, check lists, or other means • Take corrective action

• important part of quality management system
• goal is to identify errors and eliminate them

• “Quality questions create a quality life. Successful people ask better questions, and as a result, they get better answers”
Waqas Ali Tunio


Controlling Quality

Waqas Ali Tunio Pakistan Navy Engineering College (PNEC), National University of Sciences & Technology (NUST) - Pakistan