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Hydro Power

How Hydropower Works!

Hydrologic cycle

How Hydropower Works! (ctd)

Water from the reservoir flows due to gravity to drive the turbine. Turbine is connected to a generator. Power generated is transmitted over power lines.

Top ten countries (in terms of capacity)


COUNTRY POWER INSTALLED CAPACITY (GWh) CAPACITY (GW) 527000 341312 319484 285603 204300 160500 121824 84500 82237 77500 4000 66954 79511 57517 65000 44000 27528 27229 22083 77500

TAJIKISTAN CANADA USA BRAZIL CHINA RUSSIA NORWAY JAPAN INDIA FRANCE

The Indian Scenario


The potential is about 84000 MW at 60% load factor spread across six major basins in the country. Pumped storage sites have been found recently which leads to a further addition of a maximum of 94000 MW. Annual yield is assessed to be about 420 billion units per year though with seasonal energy the value crosses600 billion mark. The possible installed capacity is around 150000 MW (Based on the report submitted by CEA to the Ministry of Power)

Continued

The proportion of hydro power increased from 35% from the first five year plan to 46% in the third five year plan but has since then decreased continuously to 25% in 2001. The theoretical potential of small hydro power is 10071 MW. Currently about 17% of the potential is being harnessed About 6.3% is still under construction.

Indias Basin wise potential


Rivers Indus Ganga Central Indian rivers West flowing East flowing Brahmaputra Total Potential at 60%LF (MW) 19988 10715 2740 6149 9532 34920 84044 Probable installed capacity 33832 20711 4152 9430 14511 66065 148701 (MW)

Region wise status of hydro development


REGION POTENTIAL ASSESSED (60% LF) 30155 5679 10763 5590 31857 84044 POTENTIAL % DEVELOPED UNDER DEVELOPED DEVELOPMENT (MW) 4591 1858 5797 1369 389 14003 15.2 32.7 53.9 24.5 1.2 16.7 2514 1501 632 339 310 5294

NORTH WEST SOUTH EAST NORTH EAST INDIA

Major Hydropower generating units


NAME BHAKRA NAGARJUNA KOYNA DEHAR SHARAVATHY KALINADI SRISAILAM STATA PUNJAB ANDHRA PRADESH MAHARASHTRA HIMACHAL PRADESH KARNATAKA KARNATAKA ANDHRA PRADESH CAPACITY (MW) 1100 960 920 990 891 810 770

Installed Capacity
REGION NORTH WEST SOUTH EAST N.EAST HYDRO 8331.57 4307.13 9369.64 2453.51 679.93 25141.78 THERMAL 17806.99 25653.98 14116.78 13614.58 1122.32 72358.67 WIND 4.25 346.59 917.53 1.10 0.16 1269.63 NUCLEAR 1320 760 780 0 0 2860 TOTAL 27462.81 31067.7 25183.95 16069.19 1802.41 101630.08

INDIA

Region wise contribution of Hydropower


REGION NORTH WEST SOUTH EAST NORTH-EAST INDIA PERCENTAGE 30.34 13.86 37.2 15.27 37.72 24.74

Annual gross generation (GWh)


YEAR 85/86 90/91 91/92 92/93 93/94 94/95 95/96 96/97 97/98 98/99 99/2000 00/01 GROSS GENERATION 51021 71641 72757 69869 70643 82712 72579 68901 74582 82690 80533 74346

Annual Gross Generation (GWh)


Electricity Generated 85000 80000 (GWh) 75000 70000 65000 60000 1991 1993 1995 1997 1999 2001 Year

Potential of Small Hydropower


Total estimated potential of 180000 MW. Total potential developed in the late 1990s was about 47000 MW with China contributing as much as one-third total potentials. 570 TWh per year from plants less than 2 MW capacity. The technical potential of micro, mini and small hydro in India is placed at 6800 MW.

Small Hydro in India


STATE ARUNACHAL PRADESH HIMACHAL PRADESH UTTAR PRADESH & UTTARANCHAL JAMMU & KASHMIR KARNATAKA MAHARASHTRA TOTAL CAPACITY (MW) 1059.03 1624.78 1472.93 1207.27 652.51 599.47

Sites (up to 3 MW) identified by UNDP


STATE
NORTH

TOTAL SITES
562

CAPACITY
370

EAST

164

175

NORTH EAST

640

465

TOTAL

1366

1010

TECHNOLOGY

Technology
Hydropower Technology

Impoundment

Diversion

Pumped Storage

Impoundment facility

Dam Types

Arch Gravity Buttress Embankment or Earth

Arch Dams

Arch shape gives strength Less material (cheaper) Narrow sites Need strong abutments

Concrete Gravity Dams

Weight holds dam in place Lots of concrete (expensive)

Buttress Dams

Face is held up by a series of supports Flat or curved face

Embankment Dams

Earth or rock Weight resists flow of water

Dams Construction

Diversion Facility

Doesnt require dam Facility channels portion of river through canal or penstock

Pumped Storage

During Storage, water pumped from lower reservoir to higher one. Water released back to lower reservoir to generate electricity.

Pumped Storage

Operation : Two pools of Water Upper pool impoundment Lower pool natural lake, river or storage reservoir Advantages : Production of peak power Can be built anywhere with reliable supply of water The Raccoon Mountain project

Sizes of Hydropower Plants


Definitions

may vary. Large plants : capacity >30 MW Small Plants : capacity b/w 100 kW to 30 MW Micro Plants : capacity up to 100 kW

Large Scale Hydropower plant

Small Scale Hydropower Plant

Micro Hydropower Plant

Micro Hydropower Systems

Many creeks and rivers are permanent, i.e., they never dry up, and these are the most suitable for micro-hydro power production Micro hydro turbine could be a waterwheel Newer turbines : Pelton wheel (most common) Others : Turgo, Crossflow and various axial flow turbines

Generating Technologies

Types of Hydro Turbines: Impulse turbines Pelton Wheel Cross Flow Turbines Reaction turbines Propeller Turbines : Bulb turbine, Straflo, Tube Turbine,

Kaplan Turbine
Francis

Turbines Kinetic Turbines

Impulse Turbines

Uses the velocity of the water to move the runner and discharges to atmospheric pressure. The water stream hits each bucket on the runner. No suction downside, water flows out through turbine housing after hitting. High head, low flow applications. Types : Pelton wheel, Cross Flow

Pelton Wheels

Nozzles direct forceful streams of water against a series of spoon-shaped buckets mounted around the edge of a wheel. Each bucket reverses the flow of water and this impulse spins the turbine.

Pelton Wheels (continued)

Suited for high head, low flow sites. The largest units can be up to 200 MW. Can operate with heads as small as 15 meters and as high as 1,800 meters.

Cross Flow Turbines


drum-shaped elongated, rectangularsection nozzle directed against curved vanes on a cylindrically shaped runner squirrel cage blower water flows through the blades twice

Cross Flow Turbines (continued)


First

pass : water flows from the outside of the blades to the inside Second pass : from the inside back out Larger water flows and lower heads than the Pelton.

Reaction Turbines
Combined

action of pressure and moving water. Runner placed directly in the water stream flowing over the blades rather than striking each individually. lower head and higher flows than compared with the impulse turbines.

Propeller Hydropower Turbine


Runner with three to six blades. Water contacts all of the blades constantly. Through the pipe, the pressure is constant Pitch of the blades - fixed or adjustable Scroll case, wicket gates, and a draft tube Types: Bulb turbine, Straflo, Tube turbine, Kaplan

Bulb Turbine

The turbine and generator are a sealed unit placed directly in the water stream.

Others

Straflo : The generator is attached directly to the perimeter of the turbine. Tube Turbine : The penstock bends just before or after the runner, allowing a straight line connection to the generator Kaplan : Both the blades and the wicket gates are adjustable, allowing for a wider range of operation

Kaplan Turbine

The inlet is a scroll-shaped tube that wraps around the turbine's wicket gate. Water is directed tangentially, through the wicket gate, and spirals on to a propeller shaped runner, causing it to spin. The outlet is a specially shaped draft tube that helps decelerate the water and recover kinetic energy.

Francis Turbines

The inlet is spiral shaped. Guide vanes direct the water tangentially to the runner. This radial flow acts on the runner vanes, causing the runner to spin. The guide vanes (or wicket gate) may be adjustable to allow efficient turbine operation for a range of water flow conditions.

Francis Turbines (continued)

Best suited for sites with high flows and low to medium head. Efficiency of 90%. expensive to design, manufacture and install, but operate for decades.

Kinetic Energy Turbines


Also called free-flow turbines. Kinetic energy of flowing water used rather than potential from the head. Operate in rivers, man-made channels, tidal waters, or ocean currents. Do not require the diversion of water. Kinetic systems do not require large civil works. Can use existing structures such as bridges, tailraces and channels.

Hydroelectric Power Plants in India

Baspa II

Binwa

Continued

Gaj

Nathpa Jakri

Continued

Rangit

Sardar Sarovar

ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT

Benefits

Environmental Benefits of Hydro No operational greenhouse gas emissions Savings (kg of CO2 per MWh of electricity): Coal 1000 kg Oil 800 kg Gas 400 kg No SO2 or NOX Non-environmental benefits flood control, irrigation, transportation, fisheries and tourism.

Disadvantages

The loss of land under the reservoir. Interference with the transport of sediment by the dam. Problems associated with the reservoir. Climatic and seismic effects.

Impact on aquatic ecosystems, flora and fauna.

Loss of land

A large area is taken up in the form of a reservoir in case of large dams. This leads to inundation of fertile alluvial rich soil in the flood plains, forests and even mineral deposits and the potential drowning of archeological sites. Power per area ratio is evaluated to quantify this impact. Usually ratios lesser than 5 KW per hectare implies that the plant needs more land area than competing renewable resources. However this is only an empirical relation.

Climatic and Seismic effects

It is believed that large reservoirs induce have the potential to induce earthquakes. In tropics, existence of man-made lakes decreases the convective activity and reduces cloud cover. In temperate regions, fog forms over the lake and along the shores when the temperature falls to zero and thus increases humidity in the nearby area.

Some major/minor induced earthquakes


DAM NAME COUNTRY HEIGHT (m) VOLUME OF RESERVOIR (m3) 2780 4650 10500 2100 240 MAGNITUDE

KOYNA KREMASTA HSINFENGKIANG BENMORE MONTEYNARD

INDIA GREECE CHINA NEW ZEALAND FRANCE

103 165 105 118 155

6.5 6.3 6.1 5.0 4.9

Eutrophication

In tropical regions due to decomposition of the vegetation, there is increased demand for biological oxygen in the reservoir. The relatively constant temperatures inhibit the thermally induced mixing that occurs in temperate latitudes. In this anaerobic layer, there is formation of methane which is a potential green house gas. This water, when released kills the fishes downstream and creates an unattractive odor. The only advantage is that all these activities are not permanent.

Other problems

Many fishes require flowing water for reproduction and cannot adapt to stagnant resulting in the reduction in its population. Heating of the reservoirs may lead to decrease in the dissolved oxygen levels. The point of confluence of fresh water with salt water is a breeding ground for several aquatic life forms. The reduction in run-off to the sea results in reduction in their life forms. Other water-borne diseases like malaria, river-blindness become prevalent.

Methods to alleviate the negative impact


Creation of ecological reserves. Limiting dam construction to allow substantial free flowing water. Building sluice gates and passes that help prevent fishes getting trapped.

Favorable impact

Enhanced fishing upstream. Opportunities for irrigated farming downstream. With the flooding of the forest habitat of the Tsetse fly, the vector of this disease, the problem of Sleeping Sickness has been substantially reduced.

Technological advancements

Technology to mitigate the negative environmental impact. Construction of fish ways for the passage of fish through, over, or around the project works of a hydro power project, such as fish ladders, fish locks, fish lifts and elevators, and similar physical contrivances Building of screens, barriers, and similar devices that operate to guide fish to a fish way

Continued

Evaluating a new generation of large turbines Capable of balancing environmental, technical, operational, and cost considerations Developing and demonstrating new tools to generate more electricity with less water and greater environmental benefits tools to improve how available water is used within hydropower units, plants, and river systems Studying the benefits, costs, and overall effectiveness of environmental mitigation practices