Computer Netwroks -1 06CS55

Venugopala Rao Dept of CSE SSE, Mukka

there is a transition.Differential Manchester: DATA. but the bit values are determined at the beginning of the bit. if the next bit is 1. SSE Mukka 03/08/12 . AND DIGITAL TRANSMISSION  Combines the ideas of RZ and NRZ-I. there is none. SIGNALS.  There is always a transition at the middle of the bit.  If the next bit is 0. 2 Venugopala Rao A S.

and differential Manchester overcomes several problems associated with NRZ-I. There is no DC component because each bit has a positive and negative voltage contribution. The signal rate for Manchester and differential Manchester is double that for NRZ.  There is no baseline wandering. SSE Mukka 03/08/12 . SIGNALS. AND DIGITAL TRANSMISSION  The Manchester scheme overcomes several problems associated with NRZ-L. 3 Venugopala Rao A S.  The reason is that there is always one transition at the middle of the bit and maybe one transition at the end of each bit.  The only drawback is the signal rate.Features: DATA.  Note that Manchester and differential Manchester schemes are also called biphase schemes.

 Here bit 0 is represented by neutral zero voltage and bit 1 is represented by alternating positive and negative voltages. and zero.  The voltage level for one data element is at zero. SIGNALS. negative. Pseudo ternary:  Bit 1 is encoded as a zero voltage and the bit 0 is encoded as alternating positive and negative voltages.  There are two variations of polar scheme: Alternate mark inversion and pseudo ternary Alternate mark inversion (AMI):  Common bipolar format  Mark means bit ‘1’. 4 Venugopala Rao A S.DATA. while the voltage level for the other element alternates between positive and negative.positive. SSE Mukka 03/08/12 . AND DIGITAL TRANSMISSION Bipolar Schemes (Multilevel binary Schemes) :  Here there are three voltage levels.

SIGNALS. SSE Mukka 03/08/12 . signal contains alternate 1’s and 0’s. AND DIGITAL TRANSMISSION Unlike NRZ scheme here the energy not concentrated around zero frequency. As shown in the figure. energy is concentrated around frequency N/2. 5 Venugopala Rao A S. DC component is not present due to fact that. DATA.

 Here a pattern of m data elements into a pattern of n signal elements. SSE Mukka 03/08/12 . m different data 6 Venugopala Rao A S.Multilevel schemes: DATA. SIGNALS. AND DIGITAL TRANSMISSION  To cater the need of higher data rate with less bandwidth multilevel coding schemes are developed.  Since our data elements are only 0 and 1.

AND DIGITAL TRANSMISSION 7 Venugopala Rao A S. SIGNALS. SSE Mukka 03/08/12 .DATA.

AND DIGITAL TRANSMISSION 8 Venugopala Rao A S. SIGNALS. SSE Mukka 03/08/12 .DATA.