# Lecture 9 - Flexure

February 4, 2002 CVEN 444

Lecture Goals
• Basic Concepts • Rectangular Beams • Balanced Beams

Example . (1)If the reinforcement consists of 3 #6 (2)If the reinforcement consists of 3 #9 . fc = 3 ksi.Class For the given beam find the maximum allowable moment and the neutral axis fy = 40 ksi.

Analysis of Doubly Reinforced Sections Effect of Compression Reinforcement on the Strength and Behavior Less concrete is needed to resist the T and thereby moving the neutral axis (NA) up. T = As f y C =T .

M n = As f y  d −  s 2  and ( a2 < a1 ) Analysis of Doubly Reinforced Sections . M n = As f y  d −  2  Doubly Reinforced ⇒ a2   C = Cc + C′ .Effect of Compression Reinforcement on the Strength and Behavior Singly Reinforced ⇒ a1   C = Cc .

Reasons for Providing Compression Reinforcement • Reduced sustained load deflections. – – – – – Creep of concrete in compression zone transfer load to compression steel reduced stress in concrete less creep less sustained load deflection .

Fig 5-14 MacGregor .Reasons for Providing Compression Reinforcement Effective of compression reinforcement on sustained load deflections.

.Reasons for Providing Compression Reinforcement • Increased Ductility reduced stress block depth increase in steel strain larger curvature are obtained.

Reasons for Providing Compression Reinforcement Effect of compression reinforcement on strength and ductility of under reinforced beams. ρ < ρb Fig 5-15 MacGregor .

Effective reinforcement ratio = (ρ − ρ’) . addition of As strengthens. When ρ > ρbal. Compression zone allows tension steel to yield before crushing of concrete.Reasons for Providing Compression Reinforcement • Change failure mode from compression to tension.

.Reasons for Providing Compression Reinforcement • Eases in Fabrication use corner bars to hold & anchor stirrups.

Effect of Compression Reinforcement Compare the strain distribution in two beams with the same As .

85 f c′ bβ1 Addition of A’s strengthens compression zone so that less concrete is needed to resist a given value of T. . NA goes up (c2 <c1) and εs increases (εs2 >εs1).85 f c′ bβ1c1 As f s c1 = 0.85 f c′ ba2 = As′ f s′ + 0.85 f c′ bβ1c2 As f s − As′ f s′ c2 = 0.85 f c′ ba = 0.85 f c′ bβ1 T = As f s T = Cs′ + Cc1 Section 2: = As′ f s′ + 0.Effect of Compression Reinforcement Section 1: T = As f s T = Cc1 = 0.

Doubly Reinforced Beams Four Possible Modes of Failure • Under reinforced Failure – ( Case 1 ) Compression and tension steel yields – ( Case 2 ) Only tension steel yields • Over reinforced Failure – ( Case 3 ) Only compression steel yields – ( Case 4 ) No yielding Concrete crushes .

85 f c′ ba T = As f y Cs′ = As′ ( f y − 0.85 f c′) .Analysis of Doubly Reinforced Rectangular Sections Case 1 Assume As yields fs=fy ′ Cc = 0.

85 f c′) ′ T = Cc + Cs′ ⇒ a = 0.Analysis of Doubly Reinforced Rectangular Sections Case 1(cont.85 f c′b a c= β1 .) Using equilibrium and find a As f y − As′ ( f y − 0.

Analysis of Doubly Reinforced Rectangular Sections Case 1 (cont.) Check assumption  c − d′  ε s′ =  ε cu  c  d −c εs =  ε cu  c  .

) Confirm ε s′ ≥ ε y = Calculate: fy Es .Analysis of Doubly Reinforced Rectangular Sections Case 1 (cont. εs ≥ ε y a  ′ M n = Cc  d −  + Cs′ ( d − d ′) 2  .

85 f c′ bβ1c T = As f y .85 f c′ ba = 0.Analysis of Doubly Reinforced Rectangular Sections Case 2 Assume A’s has not yielded Cc = 0.

85 f c′) . f s′ = Esε s′ .Analysis of Doubly Reinforced Rectangular Sections Case 2(cont. where.) Using similar triangles  c − d′  ε cu ε s′ =     c  Cs′ = As′ ( f s′ − 0.

Analysis of Doubly Reinforced Rectangular Sections Case 2 (cont.) Equilibrium T = Cc + Cs′ *Solve for NA. depth c (quadratic equation in terms of NA depth c) .

) Check Assumptions ε s′ ≤ ε y Calculate: a = εs ≥ ε y β1c a  M n = Cc  d −  + Cs′ ( d − d ′) 2  .Analysis of Doubly Reinforced Rectangular Sections Case 2 (cont.