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Dr. Akepati S. Reddy
Thapar University
Patiala (PUNJAB) – 147 004
INDIA
Primary Dimensions and Units Secondary Dimensions
Other basic dimensions
Amount of substance
Electrical current
Luminous intensity
Plane angle
Solid angle
Dimensions and units
Multiplying factors
and their prefixes and symbols
Fluids (Liquids and Gases)
• Solids and fluids
– Solids resist shear forces
– Fluids undergo continuous deformation due to shear forces – fluids
flow
• Liquids and gases
– Liquids are denser and have some order in the molecular structure –
very less intermolecular distance (<108 m) – molecular movement is
quite small (only vibration)
– Gases have quite large intermolecular distance – intermolecular forces
are very small and moleculaes move randomly and colloide
• Critical temperature and pressure
• The maximum temperature at which a gas can be liquified through
application of pressure is critical temperature and the pressure
needed is critical pressure  Critical temp. and pressure for
– CO2 are 31.1C and 75 atmos.
– Ammonia are 132C and 111.5 atmos.
– Water are 374C and 217.7 atmos.
Continuum and Fluid Properties
• Continuum: Disregarding the wide spacing of molecules, gas is
viewed as a continuous (homogeneous) matter with no holes.
– Continuum is valid as long as size of the system is large in comparison
to distance between molecules.
– Continuum allows treatment of fluid properties as smoothly varying
• Fluid properties
– Intensive properties: Properties independent of mass of the system 
temperature, pressure, and density.
– Extensive properties: Properties that depends on the size or mass of
the system  Total mass, total volume, and total momentum
– Specific properties: Extensive properties per unit mass  specific
volume and specific total energy
– Kinematic Properties: Linear velocity, angular velocity, vorticity,
acceleration, strain rate
– Transport Properties: Viscosity, thermal conductivity, mass diffusivity
– Thermodynamic Properties: Pressure , density, temperature, enthalpy,
entropy, bulk modulus, coefficient of thermal expansion
– Other miscellaneous properties: Surface tension, vapour pressure,
eddydiffusion coefficients
Density, Specific Gravity and Equation of State
• Defined as mass per unit volume (µ = m/V) Units: kg/m
3
– Specific volume: v = 1/µ = V/m. Inverse of density
– For a gas, density depends on temperature and pressure
• Specific gravity (relative density): the ratio of density of a
substance to the density of some standard substance (usually
water at 4°C)
– SG=µ/µ
H
2
0
dimensionless quantity
• specific weight (weight density): weight per unit volume
– µ
s
= µg where g is gravitational acceleration Units for µ
s
: N/m
3
• Equation of State (equation for relationship between pressure,
temperature, and density) or idealgas equation:
P v = R T or P = µ R T Holds for most gases
– At low pressures and high temperatures, the density of a gas decreases,
and the gas behaves as an ideal gas under these conditions
– However, dense gases such as water vapor and refrigerant vapor should
not be treated as ideal gases
How does fluid volume change with P and T ?
• Fluids expand as T ↑ or P ↓
• Fluids contract as T ↓ or P ↑
• The amount of volume change is different for different fluids
T
T
P P
v
v
k µ
µ
  c c
 
= ÷ =
 
c c
\ .
\ .
1 1
P P
v
v T T
µ

µ
c c
   
= = ÷
 
c c
\ . \ .
P T
v v
dv dT dP
T P
c c
   
= +
 
c c
\ . \ .
Coefficient of compressibility
Coefficient of volume expansion
Combined effects of P and T
Relating volume changes to changes in P and T
( )v dP k dT ÷ = 
Coefficient of Compressibility
• Also called as bulk modulus of compressibility or bulk modulus
of elasticity
• Fluids act like elastic solids with respect to pressure.
• A larger value of k indicates that a large change in pressure is
required to cause very small change in volume  fluid with a
large k is essentially incompressible
• coefficient of compressibility of an ideal gas k
ideal gas
= P (Pa)
T
T
P P
v
v
k µ
µ
  c c
 
= ÷ =
 
c c
\ .
\ .
Isothermal Compressibility: inverse of the coefficient of
compressibility  represents the fractional change in volume or
density corresponding to a unit change in pressure

.

\

c
µ c
µ
=

.

\

c
c
÷ = = o
P
1
P
v
v
1
k
1
T
Coefficient of Volume Expansion
• The density of fluid depends more on temperature  variation of
density with temperature is responsible for rise of plumes in
chimney, use of ventilators in room, operation of hot air balloons,
heat transfer by natural convection, etc.
• Coefficient of volume expansion:
• A large value of  for a fluid means a large change in density with
temperature
P P
T
1
T
v
v
1

.

\

c
µ c
µ
÷ =

.

\

c
c
= 
) T T (
T T
/ ) (
· ·
·
·
÷ µ = µ ÷ µ
÷
µ µ ÷ µ
÷ = 
• Natural convection is initiated by the buoyancy force, which is
proportion to the density difference, which is proportional to
temperature difference at constant pressure.
Volume expansion coefficient of an ideal gas
) K / 1 (
T
1
gas ideal
= 
Energy and Specific Heats
• Total energy E is comprised of thermal, mechanical, kinetic,
potential, electrical, magnetic, chemical, and nuclear
• Units of energy: joule (J)
• Microscopic energy
– Internal energy u is for a nonflowing fluid and is due to
molecular activity.
– Enthalpy for a flowing fluid: h=u+Pv Pv: flow energy
• Macroscopic energy
– Kinetic energy ke=V
2
/2
– Potential energy pe=gz
• In the absence of electrical, magnetic, chemical, and nuclear
energy, the total energy is e
flowing
=h+V
2
/2+gz.
Vapour Pressure
• Molecules escape and reenter a liquid/water that is in
contact with atmosphere/air/gas
• Partial pressure: Pressure of a gas/vapour P
p
in a mixture with
other gases
P
p
of vapour
< P
v
when no liquid is in contact
P
p
of vapour
= P
v
when the liquid is in contact
P
v
= vapour or saturation pressure
• Vapour pressure of water at 20°C is 2.34 kN/m
2
while
atmospheric pressure is 101.0 kN/m
2
• Vapor Pressure (P
v
): pressure exerted by its vapor in phase
equilibrium with its liquid at a given temperature
• If the pressure is below the vapour pressure net escape of
molecules from liquid to gas occurs
• At this pressure a dynamic equilibrium exists between the
escaping and reentering molecules
Vapour Pressure
• When heated to a temperature at which the vapour pressure
equals atmospheric pressure, liquids boils
• Increasing atmospheric pressure increases liquid boiling point
• If pressure of the gas in contact with liquid is reduced to vapour
pressure then vaporation of the liquid occurs
• If P drops below P
v
, liquid is locally vaporized and cavities of
vapor are created – the vapor cavities collapse when local P
rises above P
v
(cavitation) and create problems
– Cavitation, since it reduces performance, generates annoying
vibrations and noise and causes damage to equipment, must be
avoided in flow systems
– When the liquid flows through valves, elbows, turbine blades,
etc., pressure can drop to sufficiently low value (a cause of
cavitation problem)
– Large number of bubbles collapsing near the solid surface over a
long period of time may cause erosion, surface pitting, fatigue
failure and destruction of components or machinery.
– The presence of cavitation in a flow system can be sensed by its
characteristic tumbling sound
Viscosity
• Internal stickiness of a fluid is viscosity  Internal resistance for flow
• The viscosity of a fluid is directly related to the pumping power
needed to transport a fluid in pipe or to move a body through a fluid
– Magnitude of the drag force (force exerted by flowing fluid on a body in
the flow direction) depends, in part, on viscosity
• Viscosity is related to velocity through shear stress
• Consider fluid between two very large
parallel plates separated by a distance l
• Shear stress t = F/A. Units: N/m
2
• For noslip condition
• u(0) = 0 and u(l) = V
• Velocity profile and gradient are
• du/dy=V/l
dy
du
µ t =
τ is shear stress (N/m
2
)
µ is viscosity (Poise or N.s/m
2
)
du/dy is velocity gradient
u is velocity and y is flow depth/thickness
Viscosity
• Viscosity (also called dynamic viscosity, absolute viscosity or
coefficient of viscosity)
µ = t (du/dy) = vµ v is kinematic viscosity
Units: Ns/m
2
or poise ( Poise = 0.1 Ns/m
2
)
• Kinematic viscosity (units: m
2
/sec.)
– Units: m
2
/s or Stoke (1 Stoke = 1 cm
2
/s = 10
4
m
2
/s)
– In gases it depends both on temperature and pressure (density
of a gas is function of both temperature and pressure)
( )
( )
( ) µ
µ
v
density
ity vis dynamic
viscoisity Kinematic
cos
=
Viscosity and temperature
Viscosity depends on temperature – for liquids decreases with
increasing temperature and for gases increases with increasing
temperature – in liquids viscosity is due to cohesive forces and in
gases it is due to collisions of molecules
For gases, temperature influence on viscosity can be approximated
by either power law or Sutherland law:
For liquids, influence of temperature on viscosity can be shown
by the following empirical expression:
Viscosity – Types of Fluids
• Newtonian fluids and nonNewtonian fluids
– Fluids that exhibit linear relationship between shear stress and
velocity gradient are Newtonian fluids
– Many common fluids (air, water and oils) are Newtonian fluids
– Dilatants, pseudoplastics and ideal plastics are nonNewtonian fluids
(rheological fluids)
Viscosity – types of fluids
• Dilatant, or shearthickening fluid increases resistance with
increasing applied stress (solutions of suspended starch and
sand)
• Pseudoplastic, or shearthinning fluid decreases resistance with
increasing stress (paints , polymer solutions)
• If the thinning effect is very strong, the fluid is termed plastic. The
limiting case of a plastic is a finite yield stress before it begins to flow
• Bingham plastic: requires yield stress before it begins to flow
and flow behaviour after the yield is nonlinear (toothpaste)
• Rheopectic fluids: require a
gradually increasing shear stress
to maintain a constant strain
rate
• Thixotropic fluids: these thin out
with time and require
decreasing stress to maintain a
constant strain rate
Viscosity measurement and viscometer
• A long cylinder rotating at angular speed ‘Ω’ inside a static
(zero velocity) second cylinder by an applied torque of ‘T’
– Radius of the inner cylinder is ‘R’ and its surface velocity is ‘RΩ’
– Gap between the two cylinders is ‘h’ and velocity distribution in
this gap is essentially linear
• Shear stress in the above case can be related with the applied
toque as follows:
L R
h T
h
L R
R RL
h
R
T
arm Moment Area stress Shear Torque
h
R
O
=
O
= × ×
O
=
× × =
O
=
3
3
2
2 2
t
µ
µ
t t µ
µ t
Here ‘L’ is length of the cylinder
Here the shear acting on the ends of the long cylinders has been neglected
R is radius of the rotating cylinder
Ω is angular velocity
h is gap between the static outer cylinder and
rotating inner cylinder
Fluid sheared between two long cylinders
Bulk modulus
• Bulk modulus (has same units as pressure)
– 2100 Mpa is the bulk modulus of water at 20°C
– Water needs 21000 kPa pressure for changing the volume by 1%
– Bulk modulus of water is used for determining speed of sound in liquid
µ
B
c =
B is bulk modulus
Speed of sound in water is 1450 m/sec. at 20°C
Surface Tension
• Liquid droplets behave like small spherical balloons filled with liquid
and the liquid surface like a stretched membrane under tension
• This tension is due to cohesive forces between the fluid molecules
and acts parallel to the surface
• Forces from interior molecules cause the liquid to minimize its
surface area and attain spherical shape
• Magnitude of this force per unit length is called surface tension
(also called surface energy) Units: os (N/m)
• droplets to form, and small droplets and bubbles to be spherical all
are due to surface tension
• Surface tension varies from substance to substance
• Presence of impurities reduce surface tension (can be reduced by
adding surfactants, detergents!)
• Surface tension decreases with increase in temperature and
becomes zero at the critical temperature point
• Effect of pressure on surface tension is negligible
Surface Tension: pressure inside a liquid
droplet/air bubble
r
P
is inside pressure bubble a For
r
P
r r P
droplet the inside f orce pressure tension surf ace to due f orce
o
o
o t t
4
2
2
2
=
=
=
=
Here
‘r’ is droplet/bubble radius
‘σ’ is surface tension
‘P’ is inside pressure
Water drop Air Bubble
For a spherical droplet
pressure force inside the
droplet balances the force
due to surface tension
around the bubble
circumference
For a bubble there are two
surfaces and hence the
surface tension force is
double to that of a droplet
Surface Tension: Capillary Rise
Surface tension causes rise of liquid in a
capillary tube
Weight of the raised column of the liquid is
balanced by the surface tension force
Weight of the raised liquid column
Surface tension force
Capillary rise
D
Cos
h
Cos D f orce tension surf ace
h
D
g W
¸
 o
 t o
t
µ
4
4
2
=
=
=
g µ ¸ =
Here
A liquid is said to wet the surface if  < 90
o
and not to wet the surface when  > 90
o
The strength of capillary effect is quantified
by contact angle (the angle that the
tangent to the liquid surface makes with
solid surface at the point of contact)
Capillary rise/drop h = 2oscos  / µgR
Capillary Effect
Capillary effect is the rise or fall of a liquid in a
smalldiameter tube.
The curved free surface in the tube is called the
meniscus.
Water meniscus curves up because water is a
wetting fluid.
Mercury meniscus curves down because
mercury is a nonwetting
Force balance can describe magnitude of
capillary rise.
P
gage
=P
abs
 P
atm
P
vac
=P
atm
 P
abs
Absolute, gauge, and vacuum pressures
Actual pressure at a give point is called the absolute pressure.
Pressuremeasuring devices are usually calibrated to read zero in the atmosphere
Pressure above atmospheric pressure is called gage pressure and pressure below
atmospheric pressure is called vacuum pressure
Pressure at a Point
• Compressive force exerted per unit area
• Units: N/m
2
, (called a Pascal, Pa)  Other units used: bar, atm,
kgf/cm
2
, lbf/in
2
=psi.
• Pa is too small for pressures encountered in practice, hence kPa
and Mpa are commonly used
• Pressure at any point in a fluid is the same in all directions
(Pascal’s Law) (P
x
=P
y
=P
z
)
• Pressure has magnitude, but no direction, and hence it is a
scalar quantity
• Pressure increases with depth (more fluid rests on deeper
layers)
Points a, b, c, and d are at equal depths
in water and therefore have identical
pressures.
Point D has different pressure from A, B,
and C because it is not connected to
them by a water path
1 2 2 2
1 2
1 2 1 1
F F F A
P P
A A F A
= ÷ = ÷ =
Ratio A2/A1 is the ideal mechanical advantage
Pressure changes through a
column of fluids & multiple fluids
Manometry: Pressure
measuring devices based on
liquid columns in vertical or
inclined tubes
Piezometer Tube
UTube Manometer
Differential UTube Manometer
Can be used to measure small pressure differences accurately
InclinedTube Manometer
C atm
atm
P gh P
P gh
µ
µ
+ =
=
The Barometer
Atmospheric pressure is often referred to as barometric
pressure.
P
C
can be taken as zero (only Hg vapor is above point C,
and pressure exerted by it is negligible)
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