Ozone is a colorless gas,consist of 3 oxygen molecules,found in the upper atmosphere of the Earth and formed by the

action of ultraviolet radiation on oxygen. Ozone forms a layer in the stratosphere, which protects life on Earth from the harmful effects of ultraviolet radiation. The ozone layer is a region in the stratosphere, between 17 and 25 km above the earth’s surface. Without the ozone layer WE WOULD ALL DIE (because UV light kills all living tissue). This layer absorbs about 97-99% of the

Ozone Absorption in the UV Band •
• UV-A • UV-B • UV-C • UV-C
• Nearly all UV-C is absorbed in the upper atmosphere

UV radiation includes wavelengths from 200 to 400 nm 320-400 nm 200-320 nm 200-290 nm

• UV-B
• 90% of UV-B is absorbed by the atmosphere, mostly by O3

• UV-A

o Presence of chloroflurocarbones(CFCs) o Hydrofluorocarbons (HCFCs): They are much less harmful to stratospheric ozone than CFCs,But HCFCs they still cause some ozone destruction and are potent greenhouse gases o methyl chloroform (used in  industry — for vapour degreasing, some aerosols, cold cleaning, adhesives and chemical processing) o Presence of halons (used in fire extinguishers). o Presence of oxides of nitrogen o Presence of bromide such as methyl bromine (used as a pesticide). o Hydrogen chloride o Carbon tetrachloride(industrial solvent) o Hyrdobromofluorocarbon(HBFCs)

What is CFC (freon)?? that contain  A hydrocarbon or haloalkan
chlorine,flourine and carbon atoms  CFC or freon damage the ozone layer when released in the envionment,but also saves lives by keeping food from spoiling , fire fighting and sterilization of surgical tools.  Non toxic  Non-flammable  Noncorrosive  Inexpensive  long-lived “Dream Chemical” 

• CFC-11 (trichlorofluoromethane CFCl3) • CFC-12 (dichlorodifluoromethane - CF2Cl2) • CFC-113 (trichlorotrifluoroethane - C2F3Cl3) • CFC-114 (dichlorotetrfluoroethane - C2F4Cl2) • CFC-115

Air Conditioners Refrigerators Fire extenguisher Fire extenguisher Spray cans Pesticides Insulation materials Cleaners for electronic parts Sterilizing medical instruments

United States accounts for largest part of world-wide consumption o CFC’s

29% of global consumption of CFC is from US Americans use six times more CFC’s than global average Vehicle air conditioners accounted for about 75% of annual CFC emissions in the US in 1990 Since 1978 the use of CFC’s in aerosol cans has been banned in many countries; however,

The Antarctic ozone hole was discovered in 1985 by British scientists Joesph Farman, Brian Gardiner, and Jonathan Shanklin of the British Antarctic Survey.


Total ozone (Dobson units)

October monthly means 350

Figure 21-22 Page 485




150 100 1955 1960 1965 1970 1975 1980 1985 1990 1995 2000 2005


22 2

22 2

22 22 22 22 22 22 22 22 22 22 22 22

22 22 22 2 22 2 22 2 22 22 22 22

22 2

22 2

22 11 22 11 11 11 11 11 11 11 22 22 22 22

22 2

22 22 22 22 22 22
22 2 22 2 22 2 22 2

oz one layer depletio (4).FLV

Skin cancer Premature aging (photoaging) of the skin Sun burn

This long-wavelength (low-energy) form of UV radiation causes aging of the skin, tanning, and sometimes sunburn. It penetrates deeply and may contribute to skin cancer.

This shorter-wavelength (high-energy) form of UV radiation causes sunburn, premature aging, and wrinkling. It is largely responsible for basal and squamous cell carcinomas and plays a role in malignant Ultraviolet A Ultraviole melanoma. tB Hair

Thin layer of dead cells Squamous cells Basal layer Melanocyte cells

Epidermis Sweat gland Dermis

Basal cell Squamous Cell Carcinoma Basal Cell Carcinoma

Blood vessels


Each 1% loss of ozone leads to a 2% increase in UV radiation striking the earth. A 2% increase in UV radiation results in a 5% to 7% increase in skin cancer, including a 1% increase in deadly malignant melanoma An additional 940,000 cases annually of basal-cell and squamous-cell skin cancer An additional 30,000 cases annually of melanoma skin cancer (often fatal). There are 9,000 American deaths per year from

Protect the skin against the solar radiation using skin creams with SPF or other sunscreen.

• Stay out of the sun especially between 10 A.M and 3 P.M • Donot expose yourself to the sun if you are taken antibiotics and contraceptive pills • Examine your skin and scalp at least once a month for moles or warts that change in size,shape,color,or sores that keep oozing,bleeding and crusting over.if you observe any of this

Stop producing CFCs or Reduce emission of ozone deplating chemicals that contains CFC. Reduce the uses of aerosol sprays. Uses of aerosol spray that is free in CFCs compound instead. properly recycle old CFCs Use safe alternatives Educate other governments for environmental policies
Montreal Protocol 36 nations: Goal: reduce CFCs by 35% by 2000 Copenhagen Protocol

Solutions : Protecting the Ozone Layer

http://www.bom.gov.au/lam/Students_Tea www.theozonehole.com/ozonedestruction.  

australia.jrn.msu.edu/.../ozonepage.html http://www.nas.nasa.gov/About/Education/ http://www.bcairquality.ca/101/ozone-depl http://www.ozonedepletion.info/education/

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