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What is Quality
FEIGENBAUM (1983) DEFINED QUALITY AS FOLLOWS
Quality is total composite product (goods and services)
characteristics, through which the product in use will meet the needs and expectations of the customers. Concept of quality must start with identification of customer quality requirements and must end only when the finished product is placed into the hands of the customer who remains satisfied through various stages of relationship with the seller
American Society of Quality Control (ASQC) and
American National Standard Institute (ANSI) defined
Quality is totality of features and characteristics of product
(goods and services) that bears on its ability to satisfy given needs”
Approaches to define Quality
Transcendent Approach Quality is absolute and universally recognisable. It is common notion used by laymen There is no subjective judgement and is estimated by looking at the product. Innate excellence ex. MB AND RR
Product Based Approach Attributes of a particular product in a specific category Precise and measurable variable These attributes are accepted as bench of quality by the industry Others in the same industry try to produce close to this quality. Ex . Ice cream.- Fat content.
Also known as Customer Oriented Approach Production Based Approach An outcome of engineering or operational excellence and is measured in terms of quality of conformance The producer has specifications and produces the product as per the specifications .Approaches to define Quality User Based Approach Defined as “Fitness for use” Viewed from user’s perspective and is dependent on how well does the product meet needs of the consumer.
if it provides desired performance at an acceptable price Customer looks at the total value proposition and not the price alone Benefits Value Pr ice .Approaches to define Quality Value Based Approach Quality is viewed in context of price Quality is satisfactory.
Features Augmented product – The “bells & whistles” of the product . Ex car Reliability Ability of the product to function at the specified level of performance Conformance Degree to which characteristics of the product meet preestablished standards .Attributes of Quality Performance Product’s primary operating characteristics.
brand name. competence & courtesy Aesthetics Perceived Quality Look.Attributes of Quality Durability Length of time a product can be used before it deteriorates or becomes non functional Serviceability Speed. hearsay . smell Resulting from advertisement. earlier use. taste. feel sound. image.
Evolution of Quality Management Company wide Quality Control Total Quality Control Quality Assurance Quality Control (Acceptance Sampling) Mass Inspection .
Evolution of Quality Management Mass Inspection Inspecting Salvaging Sorting Grading Rectifying Rejecting Quality Control Quality manuals Product testing using SQC Basic quality planning Quality Assurance Emphasis on prevention Proactive approach using SPC Advance quality planning Total Quality Control All aspects of quality of inputs Testing equipments Control on processes .
Operations etc Total Quality Management Measured in all aspects of business.Evolution of Quality Management Company wide Quality Control Measured in all functions connected with production such as R&D Design Engineering Purchasing. Top management commitment Continuous improvement Involvement & participation of employees .
Evolution of Quality Management .
Evolution of Quality Management .
Gurus of TQM Dr. J M Juran Dr. Philip Crosby . W E Deming Dr.
Masaaki Imai .Gurus of TQM Dr. Kaoru Ishikawa Dr. Genichi Taguchi Dr.
Gurus of TQM Dr. Feigenbaum Dr. Yoshio Kondo Dr .Armand V. James Harrington . Shigeo Shingo Dr.
W E Deming Reduction in process variability by extensive use of statistics will lead to improvement in quality and increase in productivity Talked about New Climate (organisational culture) Joy in work Innovation Co-operation Win-Win approach He proposed a 14 point TQM programme .
W E Deming 14 Points .
W E Deming – PDCA Cycle .
Seven Deadly Sins Lack of vision and mission as regards quality & process improvement Emphasis on short term profit Personal performance appraisal systems Mobility of management Running a company on visible figures alone Customer satisfaction level Employee morale Relationship with your vendors Confidence the market has in your company .
Seven Deadly Sins Excess non-productive expenditure Excessive cost of warranty .
the world’s first friction material company to win 2008 – Tata Steel is the first integrated steel plant in Asia to win .Deming’s Prize Establish in 1950 originally for Japanese companies for major advances in quality improvement Deming’s Prize is given under Japanese Union of Scientists & Engineers These days Deming’s Prize is awarded to non Japanese companies and even individuals 2001 – Sundaram Brake Linings.
Malcolm Baldrige National Quality Award
MBNQA is given by United States National Institute of
Standards and Technology Original stated purpose of the award were
promote quality awareness recognise quality achievements of the US companies publicise successful quality strategies
Current award criteria are stated To help improve organizational performance practices, capabilities and results To facilitate communication and sharing of the best practice information among US organizations of all types To serve as a working tool for understanding and managing performance and for guiding planning and opportunities for learning
Malcolm Baldrige National Quality Award
The categories are Leadership Strategic Planning Customer & Market Focus Measurement, Analysis and Knowledge Management Workforce Focus Process Management Results
J M Juran
Developed the idea of trilogy Quality Planning Quality Improvement Quality Control Conformance to specifications is necessary but not
sufficient requirement of a product. Fitness for use by the consumer of the targeted market segment is an essential requirement in addition to conformance
J M Juran’s Trilogy .
Juran’s 10 Points Build awareness of need and opportunities for improvement Set goals for improvement Organise the overall improvement programme Provide the training solve problems through project methodology Report progress Give recognition Communicate results Keep score Institutionalise the improvement process .
not "that's close enough" The measurement of quality is the Price of Non-conformance. Cost of quality is only the measure of operational performance . not appraisal – Quality is Free The performance standard must be Zero Defects. not indices.Philip Crosby Do it right the first time Zero Defects Absolutes of QM Quality is defined as conformance to requirements. not as 'goodness' or 'elegance' The system for causing quality is prevention.
Crosby 14 points Management commitment Quality improvement team Quality measurement Evaluation of cost of quality Quality awareness Corrective action Establish committee for zero defect planning Supervisor training Zero Defect Day Goal Setting Error cause removal Recognition .
Cost of Quality Prevention Cost Cost associated with time spend in planning the quality system Consists of the following Process control costs Information systems costs Training Costs General Management cost .
testing & inspection Process control costs Internal Failure Cost Incurred due to non-conformance Include Scrap and rework costs Cost of corrective action Downgrading costs .Cost of Quality Appraisal Costs Cost incurred on measurement & analysis of data in order to detect & correct problems Consist of Cost of maintaining.
Cost of Quality External Failure Cost Occur when poor products reach customer Include Costs of customer complaints and returns Product recall costs Warranty claims costs Product liability costs .
Genichi Taguchi His methodologies held ensure customer satisfaction Taguchi’s Loss Function Taguchi Method – Design of Experiments .
The relation between this loss and the technical characteristics is expressed by the loss function .Taguchi’s Loss Function A quality product is a product that causes a minimal loss (expressed in money!) to society during it's entire life.
Taguchi’s Loss Function .
quality of management. the company itself and the human life .Kaoru Ishikawa Simplified statistical techniques for QC Cause and Effect diagrams (Ishikawa Diagrams or Fish Bone Diagrams) Company wide quality control quality does not only mean the quality of product. but also of after sales service.
Ishikawa Diagram .
Ishikawa Diagram Diagrams which show the causes of a certain event Three sets of causes 6 M’s Machine Method Material Maintenance / Management Man Mother Nature .
Ishikawa Diagram 8 Ps Price Promotion Process Place(Distribution) Plant Policies Procedures Product (or Service) 4 Ss Surroundings Suppliers Systems Skills .
Masaaki Imai Introduced the concept of Kaizen or continuous improvement .
Shigeo Shingo “Fool-Proofing” or “Poke-Yoke” Source Inspection systems No statistical sampling is necessary Zero defects through good engineering and process investigation rather than slogans and exhortations .
Yoshio Kondo Emphasised inter-relationship between quality and people Creativity – joy of thinking Physical activity – joy of working Sociality – joy of sharing pleasure and pain with colleagues .
Toyota Production System .
Toyota Production System Long – Term Philosophy Base your Management Decisions on a Long-Term Philosophy. even at the Expense of Short-Term Financial Goals .
Thoroughly Tested Technology that Serves your People and Processes . to get Quality Right the First Time Standardised Tasks are the foundation for Continuous Improvement and Employee Empowerment Use Visual Control so no Problems are Hidden Use Only Reliable.14 Principles of TPS The Right Process Will Produce the Right Results Create Continuous Process Flow to Bring Problems to the Surface Use “Pull” Systems to avoid Over Production Level out the Work Load (Heijunka) Build a Culture of Stopping to Fix Problems.
14 Principles of TPS Add Value to the Organisation by Developing Your People and Partners Grow Leaders who thoroughly understand the Work. Live the Philosophy and Teach it to Others Develop Exceptional People and Teams who follow your Company’s Philosophy Respect your Extended Network of Partners and Suppliers by Challenging them and Helping them Improve Continue ……. .
Implement Decisions Rapidly Reflection (Hansei) and Continuous Improvement (Kaizen) Become a Learning Organisation through Relentless . thoroughly Considering all Options.14 Principles of TPS Continuously Solving Root Problems Drives Organisational Learning Go and See for Yourself to thoroughly Understand the Situation Make Decisions Slowly by Consensus.
thoroughly considering all options. even at the expense of short-term financial goals . and help your suppliers Process (Eliminate Waste) •Create process “flow” to surface problems •Use pull systems to avoid overproduction •Level out the workload (Heijunka) •Stop when there is a quality problem (Jidoka) •Standardize tasks for continuous improvement •Use visual control so no problems are hidden •Use only reliable. implement rapidly People and Partners (Respect. Challenge and Grow Them) •Grow leaders who live the philosophy •Respect. challenge.“4 P” Model of the Toyota Way Problem Solving (Continuous Improvement & Learning) •Continual organizational learning through Kaizen •Go see for yourself to thoroughly understand the situation (Genchi Genbutsu) •Make decisions slowly by consensus. develop. and challenge your people and teams •Respect. thoroughly tested technology Philosophy (Long-term Thinking) •Base management decisions on a long-term philosophy.
and help your suppliers Process (Eliminate Waste) •Create process “flow” to surface problems •Use pull systems to avoid overproduction •Level out the workload (Heijunka) •Stop when there is a quality problem (Jidoka) •Standardize tasks for continuous improvement •Use visual control so no problems are hidden •Use only reliable. implement rapidly Where Most “Lean” Companies are People and Partners (Respect.“4 P” Model of the Toyota Way Problem Solving (Continuous Improvement & Learning) •Continual organizational learning through Kaizen •Go see for yourself to thoroughly understand the situation (Genchi Genbutsu) •Make decisions slowly by consensus. Challenge and Grow Them) •Grow leaders who live the philosophy •Respect. thoroughly tested technology Philosophy (Long-term Thinking) •Base management decisions on a long-term philosophy. develop. challenge. and challenge your people and teams •Respect. thoroughly considering all options. even at the expense of short-term financial goals .
Challenge and Grow Them) •Grow leaders who live the philosophy •Respect. and challenge your people and teams •Respect. even at the expense of short-term financial goals . thoroughly considering all options. thoroughly tested technology Philosophy (Long-term Thinking) •Base management decisions on a long-term philosophy. and help your suppliers Process (Eliminate Waste) •Create process “flow” to surface problems •Use pull systems to avoid overproduction •Level out the workload (Heijunka) •Stop when there is a quality problem (Jidoka) •Standardize tasks for continuous improvement •Use visual control so no problems are hidden •Use only reliable.“4 P” Model of the Toyota Way Toyota’s Terms Problem Solving (Continuous Improvement & Learning) •Continual organizational learning through Kaizen •Go see for yourself to thoroughly understand the situation (Genchi Genbutsu) •Make decisions slowly by consensus. develop. implement rapidly People and Partners (Respect. challenge.
Toyota Production System House Best Quality – Lowest Cost – Shortest Lead Time – Best Safety – High Morale Through shortening the production flow by eliminating waste Just-in-Time Right Part. Right Time • Take Time Planning • Continuous Flow • Pull System • Quick Changeover • Integrated Logistics People & Teamwork • Selection • Common Goals • Ringi Decision Making • Cross – Trained Jidoka (In-station Quality) Make Problems Visible • Automatic Stops • Andon • Person – Machine Separation • Error Proofing • In-station Quality Control • Solve Root Cause of Problems (5 Why’s) Continuous Improvement Waste Reduction • Genchi Genbutsu • 5 Why’s • Eyes for Waste • Problem Solving Leveled Production (Heijunka) Stable and Standardized Processes Visual Management Toyota Way Philosophy . Right Amount.
Deming’s PDCA Cycle Plan Across Companies Plan Company Plan Group Plan Act Act Act Act Project Do Do Do Do Check Check Check Check .
Creating Flow Create Flow (Act) Evaluate Results (Check) Eliminate Waste Surface Problems (Plan) Counter Measures (Do) .
Three Ms Muda Waste Mura Unevenness Muri Overburden .
Toyota’s Leader View Technical • Stability • • • • JIT Jidoke Kaizen Heijunka Management PEOPLE Long – term Asset –> Learned Skills Machinery Depreciates -> Loses Value People Appreciates -> Continue to Grow • True North • Tools to Focus Management Attention • Go and See • Problem – Solving • Presentation Skills • Project Management • Supportive Culture PHILOSOPHICAL Philosophy / Basic Thinking • • • • Customer First People are most Important Asset Kaizen Go and See -> Focus on Floor • Give feedback to Team Members and Earn Respect • Efficiency Thinking • True (vs. apparent) Condition • Total (vs. Individual) Team Involvement .
Reliable Processes Fair and Honorable Business Relations .Supply Chain Need Hierarchy Learning Enterprise Next Level of Improvement Enabling Systems Clear Expectations Stability Stable.
Myth vs Reality Myth What TPS is Not A Tangible recipe for Success A Management Project or Reality What TPS Is A Consistent way of Thinking A Total Management Philosophy Focus on Total Customer Satisfaction An Environment of Teamwork and Improvement A Never-ending Search for a Better Way Quality Built in Process Program A set of Tools for Implementation only A system for Production Floor Implementable in a Short or Mid-term Period Organised. Disciplined Workplace Evolutionary .
Motivational Theories & TPS .
5S Seiri – Sorting Seiton – Straighten or Set in order Seiso – Sweeping. shining or cleaniness Seikestu – Standardising Shitsuke – Sustaining the discpline .
5 S’s Sort Clear out rarely used Items by Red Tagging Sustain Use Regular Management Audits to Stay Disciplined Eliminate Waste Straighten Organise and Label a Place for Everything Standardise Create Rules to Sustain the first 3 5’S Shine Clean It .
Waste in a Value System Casting Staging Machining Setup Inspection Assembly Staging Time Transportation Raw Material Value – Added Time Non-Value-Added Time (Waste) Time Finished Parts • Value-added Time is only a Small Percentage of the Total Time • Traditional Cost Savings focuses only on Value-adding Items • Lean Thinking Focuses on the Value Stream to Eliminate Non-Value-Adding Items .
Waste in a Truck Assembly Line .
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