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• • • • Command and Staff Procedures Briefing Techniques Unit Administration Training Management
• COMMAND – To control, be in authority over, dominate, restrain, • Command - To deserve and win. To have at one’s disposal. • COMMAND – an order, A drill order, (Stand at ease.) • COMMAND - Troops or ships under one’s authority, • Command = mastery of a language.
• IN COMPUTERS – command is a signal that sets a process in motion. • Command= Be in a position to command.
Useful Definitions • COMMANDER = A leader, someone in command, • COMMANDER = A naval officer below a captain and above a lieutenant commander
•STAFF= A stick, a pole used as support for walking or climbing or as a weapon.
7 .• STAFF = A body of officers subordinate to the commanding officer and responsible to him for the administration and planning of his command.
8 .USEFUL DEFINITIONS • COMMAND = The authority that a commander lawfully exercise over subordinates by virtue of rank and designation.
PNP). 9 . Philippine National Police (C.USEFUL DEFINITIONS • COMMAND GROUP = consist of the Chief. The Deputy Chief For Operations (TDCO) and The Chief Directorial Staff (TDCS). The Deputy Chief for Administration (TDCA).
10 .USEFUL DEFINITIONS DIRECTORIAL STAFF = Consist of major functional divisions of National Headquarters. The heads of which shall have the rank of Police Director and position title of Director. Philippine National Police. (NHQ-PNP).
No. A.USEFUL DEFINITIONS NATIONAL SUPPORT UNITS = include all administrative and operational support units which are created under R. 11 . 6975 and NAPOLCOM issuances.
12 .USEFUL DEFINITIONS AUTHORITY = is the power inherent in a specified position or function that allows an incumbent to perform assigned duties and assume delegated responsibilities.
USEFUL DEFINITIONS Authority AUTHORITY involves the right to command and invoke compliance by subordinates on the basis of formal position and control over rewards and sanctions. 13 .
14 .USEFUL DEFINITIONS CHAIN OF COMMAND = Is the hierarchical relationships of positions through which the primary functions of the organization are performed.
15 . • It is the route taken for all communications which may either start from or go to the top authority in the chain.USEFUL DEFINITIONS Chain of Command • It is a line or chain of the superior from top to the bottom.
TCDS. RDs.USEFUL DEFINITIONS DELEGATION OF AUTHORITY = is the action by which the Chief. D-STAFF. and NSU Directors. TDCO. PNP assigns part of his authority to the TDCA. 16 .
17 .USEFUL DEFINITIONS RESPONSIBILITY = is the obligation to carry out an assigned task to a successful conclusion and goes with it the authority to direct and take the necessary actions to ensure success.
USEFUL DEFINITIONS LINE AUTHORITY = is that relationship in which a superior exercises direct control and supervision over a subordinate in the chain of command. 18 .
19 . practices and other matters of the NSUs as they relate to specific staff responsibilities. PNP to Directorial Staff to control specified processes.Useful Definitions FUNCTIONAL AUTHORITY = is the power delegated by the Chief.
guidance. within the framework of existing policies and command. 20 .USEFUL DEFINITIONS DIRECTING FUNCTIONAL AUTHORITY = the power of the members of the Directorial Staff to draw up and transmit orders and instructions to the Directors of the Police Regional Offices and National Support Units on matters falling under their respective areas of expertise.
21 .Useful definitions SUPERVISORY AUTHORITY = is the delegated authority which is neither line nor staff which enables the delegate to oversee some specified responsibilities.
CONTROL CONTROL = is the power to regulate the actions of a subordinate to ensure that the objectives and policies of the organization are carried out. 22 .
CONTROL It includes the authority to modify. 23 . amend or rescind decisions of subordinates.
24 .the power to direct and oversee the actions of a subordinate towards the accomplishment of the objectives of the organization.Useful Definitions SUPERVISION .
25 . Command and Staff Function 1.Section1.1 Command and Control The commander who continues to exercise effective command and control will enjoy a decisive edge over his opponent.
26 . synchronization.commanders must be able to utilize concepts as initiative. depth. agility.Command and control • To achieve the decisive edge – to win his battles. areas of influence and interest and apply them to their commands.
27 .1.1 Command and Control Command includes the authority and responsibility for effectively using available resources.
28 . the elements to accomplish assigned missions. • organizing.Command and Control It also includes • planning the employment of. • directing. • coordinating and • controlling.
1. • welfare. 29 .1 Command and Control Command also includes the responsibility for • health. • training and • discipline of personnel. • morale.
30 . coordinated.1.1 Command and Control Command and Control • is the process through which the activities of police organizations are directed. and controlled to accomplish the mission. objectives and goals of the organization.
1.2 Command and Control System
• The extent and the variety of tasks confronting a commander require: • 1. The cooperative endeavors of many people • 2. Integration of many complex equipment systems, and • 3. Sensible division of work.
1.2 Command and Control System
The commander is not only responsible for command and control of organic, assigned, or attached forces but he is also responsible for integrating into his operations support provided by other elements of other services.
1.2 Command and Control System • Command and Control organization – The organization of headquarters for operations. • This is how the commander has organized his staff to accomplish the mission.
1.2 Command and Control System
• Command and Control Process- The decision making process and procedures used by headquarters. • It includes procedures and techniques used to: • A. find out what is going on; • B. decide what action to take; • C. issue instructions, and • D. supervise execution.
1.2 Command and Control System
The procedures and techniques include: A. records, B. reporting systems, and C. briefing which support the decision-making process.
1.2 Command and Control Systems • Command and Control facilities- include command post and supporting automation and communications systems.
2 Command and Control Systems The efficiency of command and control system is measured by: A. the ability to cope quickly and effectively with changes in the situation. Command and control system evolves continuously.1. 37 . the extent to which the commander’s intention are carried out and B.
3 The Commander and Staff COMMAND RESPONSIBILITY = The commander alone is responsible for all that his unit does or fails to do. 38 .1.
39 . as well as the final responsibility. The final decision. remains with the commander.COMMAND RESPONSIBILITY He cannot delegate this responsibility.
1. 40 . He will also promote an understanding of procedures and a common basis for action at all levels of his command.3 Commander and Staff The successful commander will delegate authority and foster an organizational climate of mutual trust. and teamwork. cooperation.
1. 41 . 3 The Commander and Staff The commander discharges his responsibilities through an established organization of command delegations—called a chain of command.
the commander holds each subordinate commander responsible for all that the subordinate unit does or fails to do.Chain of Command Through this chain. 42 .
43 . It prescribes relationships and 4. It tells us who reports to whom within an organization. 3. It facilitates communications. It improves understanding within an organization and 2.What is the function of the Chain of Command? 1.
in simple and straightforward manner.Organizational Chart A properly drawn organizational chart can show. the organizational arrangement of different functions by title as well as by reporting relationships. 44 .
The conditions under which they operate. The manner in which they are expected to perform their duties. 45 . The nature of work they perform.Organizational Chart Police departments are organized along military lines because of: A. and C. B.
and Emphasis on accountability commensurate with authority. Specific assignment of duties and responsibilities. 46 .Organizational Chart: Characteristics of Police Organizations They adhere very closely to: A rigid chain of command.
47 .STANDARD OPERATING PROCEDURES • Although individual discretion is inherent in the nature of police function: • Standard Operating Procedures are used to prescribe how routine as well as how extraordinary situations are to be handled.
48 . things. or processes according to some logical or systematic plan or procedure so that work is carried out in the most effective and efficient manner.ORGANIZING • It is the process of grouping together people. activities. function.
49 . the process of organizing helps to ensure that work is carried out in the most effective manner by achieving maximum benefits out of available resources.ORGANIZING • In other words.
ORGANIZATION The best organization in any police department is the one that works best for the particular agency. 50 .
51 . yet detailed enough to provide clear lines of authority and responsibility.SIMPLE ORGANIZATIONAL PLAN An organization plan should be simple enough to be clearly understood by all concerned.
• hamper unity of operation. • confuse organizational relationships.SIMPLE ORGANIZATIONAL PLAN Overly complex structures • thwart the free flow of communication. 52 . and • impede the proper coordination of operations.
53 .ORGANIZATIONAL CHART • One of the simplest and most effective ways to delineate duties and responsibilities is to prepare an organizational chart that clearly depicts organizational relationships and lines of authority.
ORGANIZATIONAL CHART • 1. and • 3. It shows how all subsystems are expected to relate formally within an organization. 54 . • 2. It assigns each subsystem a specific task to perform. An organizational chart is a plan of a system.
It prescribes relationships and thereby facilitates communications. 5. It improves understanding within an organization and who reports to whom within an organization.ORGANIZATIONAL CHART 4. 55 .
ORGANIZATIONAL CHART • A properly drawn organizational chart can show. the organizational arrangement of different functions by title as well as reporting relationships. 56 . in simple and straightforward manner.
57 .Organizational Chart • On a smaller scale. the organizational chart might simply show the arrangement of specific persons within the organization according to shift or job assignments.
Organizational Chart The larger an organization grows. There is no way to avoid this. unfortunately. 58 . the more complex its organizational structure becomes.
Tasks should be grouped according to their similarity of: a. b.Organizational Chart In order to make the organization as uncomplicated as possible. purpose or c. 59 . as well as to promote internal coordination of operations. function. method.
60 .Organizational Chart This helps to provide logic and consistency in the conduct of operations and guards against overlapping or conflicting command responsibilities.
61 .Organizational Chart Grouping of tasks also helps to ensure that persons assigned to specific tasks will be familiar with the manner in which they are to be performed.
• job assignments.Organizing by Function • A basic principle of organization groups • similar tasks. and • functions together and • places them under a single supervisor or command officer. 62 .
Organizing by Function Organizing by function helps to promote efficiency and eliminate duplication of effort. It also promotes logic and clarity in the organizational structure. 63 .
process. or clientele. They may also be organized according to geographic area (police districts or precincts) and by time of day (patrol shifts) 64 . method.Organizing by Function In the police organization. tasks are normally grouped according to their function.
Organization by Area • COP • District 1 District 2 District 3 • Can also be organized by Precincts 65 .
Organization by Time of Day • Assignment • By Shifts • • COP 2nd Shift 3rd Shift 1st Shift 66 .
responsibility for carrying out the basic police functions is normally assigned to a single organizational element usually called the patrol bureau. or similar designations.Organizing by Function • In the police organization. field operations division. 67 .
Organization of Structure by PCP CHIEF OF POLICE • c CCCccopoco ppCCCCOPC C PCP’s • 1 • 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 68 .
Organization by as few as 20 to about 100 personnel • Chief of Police Planning. Training. iNSPECTION UNIFORMED CRIMINAL INVESTIGATION SERVICE DIVISION • • • • Patrol • • • Shift 1 • • Shift 2 • Shift 3 Organization by function 69 .
70 .Organizing by Function • Located within the same organizational element may be other support units or specialized functions such as traffic bureau. parking enforcement unit. tactical operation team and so on.
71 .Organizing by Function • These specialized or support units will normally be under the command of the same person who commands the patrol force simply because this helps to ensure coordination of effort and communication among those units having a like or similar mission.
72 . traffic and criminal investigation. such as patrol. • Line functions – those designed to meet the basic police mission.Line and Staff Functions It is important to observe the basic distinction that exist between line and staff functions.
Staff Functions • Staff functions are those that exist to support the line functions. Crime Research and Statistics. either directly or indirectly. Finance. 73 . Ex: Logistics. etc.
74 .Chain of Command • Information must be transmitted through the organizational structure in a significant manner in order to ensure that all concerned personnel will be properly informed.
75 .Chain of Command • The chain of command permits each person in the hierarchy of authority to take appropriate action at the proper level before passing the matter upward or downward in the line of command.
they create confusion in the minds of subordinate as to whom they are responsible.Chain of Command Violations of the chain of command create a. internal disharmony. b. Frequent violations will also undermine the authority of responsible supervisors. 76 .
All orders and directives from higher authority should be communicated through the supervisor to his or her subordinates.Principle of the Chain of Command The principle of chain of command helps the supervisor to establish and maintain necessary control over the actions of subordinates. 77 .
Principle of the Chain of Command This helps to keep the supervisor in the “information stream” and also helps to reinforce the role of the supervisor as decision-maker. 78 .
Principle of the Chain of Command • To be fully effective. the chain of command must be observed by all members of the department including command and management personnel. 79 .
although they usually do not do so willfully or maliciously.Principle of the Chain of Command Unfortunately. they are the ones most likely to violate the chain of command. Often they simply forget why the chain of command is important and how their actions can affect the welfare of the organization. 80 .
Principle of the Chain of Command • The chain of command is especially important in a police organization because accountability is critical. 81 .
Principle of the Chain of Command • The principle of chain of command holds that each successive person in the chain of command. from the first level supervisor to the chief of police. 82 . must be allowed the opportunity to deal with those incidents for which he or she is responsible.
Principle of the Chain of Command A person can not be held accountable if the chain of command is violated by allowing persons either below or above that person to handle the situation. A good example of how adversely this kind of violation will affect the functioning of the organization is as follows: 83 .
He has been given orders by the patrol commander to use directed patrol strategies to deter a growing incidence of purse and cell phone snatching near and around the bus stop at Mabini and Bonifacio Streets. 84 .Example of violation of the Chain of Command • Inspector Juan Marcelo is the shift commander of the day shift.
when most of the incidents where to have occurred. and three arrests have resulted in over a dozen cases being cleared. 85 . After three days. the number of incidents has been reduced by onethird.Violation of chain of command • Inspector Marcelo directs two officers to conduct high visibility patrol in the area between 12 pm to 2 pm.
Example: violation of the Chain of Command • Inspector Marcelo decides to leave the two person unit in the area for another week. without the Inspector’s knowledge or consent. • However. the patrol commander directs that they be reassigned to traffic enforcement duties in another sector. 86 .
Violation of the chain of command • Inspector Marcelo learns of this decision after returning to work from his two days off. the purse snatching return to the same level as before the directed patrol efforts were initiated. 87 . • A week later.
88 .Example of the violation of the Chain of Command • It was a violation of the chain of command by countermanding the orders of the responsible supervisor who had been given the responsibility to handle a particular situation.
Example of the violation of the Chain of Command • In this situation. the shift commander can no longer be held accountable for the purse snatching problems at Mabini and Bonifacio Street because the patrol commander has decided that traffic enforcement elsewhere is a higher priority. 89 .
Example of the violation of the Chain of Command
• Not only does this kind of actions undermine the individual accountability, it also undermines the authority of the shift commander.
• If this kind of action were to continue, it would be easy for Inspector Marcelo to simply defer all ideas and responsibility to the patrol commander and to remove himself from the decision making process. • It is through unthinking actions such as these that police organizations often self-destruct.
Span of Control
• The ability of one person to supervise the affairs of subordinates is limited by such factors as: • 1. the level of difficulty of the work, • 2. whether supervision is direct and continual 3. or irregular and indirect, and • 4. the degree of judgment and initiative exercised by the employee.
Span of Control
• A span of control that is too wide tends to weaken the control exercised by the supervisor. • Conversely, a narrow span of control does not provide for optimum use of available personnel.
Span of Control • The principle of span of control is based on the assumption that there is a limit to the number of individual that one person can effectively supervise.
Span of Control
The optimum span of control in any organization depends upon a number of things, including: a) the type and complexity of work being performed;
and training. skill.b) the job skills. c) the degree of specialization involved in the work being performed. and experience of those performing the work. and d) the knowledge. 96 . and experiences of the supervisor.
2. effectively direct.Span of Control The span of control in any organization should never be too broad nor too narrow. monitor. A broad span of control is undesirable because it inhibits the ability of the supervisor to 1. and 97 .
does not provide for the most efficient use of available resources. on the other hand.Span of Control • A span of control that is too narrow. 98 .
Span of Control Generally speaking. as well as the other duties being performed by the supervisor.duties performed by patrol officers. 2. Given the: 1. the volume and nature of calls for service. it is highly unlikely that a single supervisor could effectively supervise more than eight patrol officers. 3. a span of control greater than eight (8) would probably be considered excessive in a patrol force. 99 .
SPAN OF CONTROL • First Level of Supervision 100 .
First and Second Level of Supervision • Second level of Supervision • First Level of supervision 101 .
102 . there must be only one person in command. In putting it quite simply. there can be but one captain if the ship is to remain on its course. • Each person should be responsible to only one person in the organization.Principle of Unity of Command • In any situation.
103 .Principle of Unity of Command Each person in the organization should know clearly to whom he or she is responsible. Department policies should specify who is in command in any given situation.
” 104 .Principle of Unity of Command • It is based on the belief that “an individual should be responsible to one and only one person at any given time and in any given situation.
105 .Principle of Unity of Command • It recognizes that a person cannot function effectively if he or she is expected to receive and follow orders from more than one person at a time.
• confusion.Principle of unity of Command To do otherwise opens up the opportunity for: • internal conflict. 106 . • lack of cohesion and • lack of coordination of effort.
107 .Principle of unity of Command • It is important in the police organization that lines of authority and responsibility be clearly delineated so that everyone knows to whom they are responsible at all times.
the principle of unit of command would once more apply. 108 . • Once the situation has been resolved and individual operating units return to their normal duties. Patrol and Traffic) operate together in a tactical situation under the command of a single supervisor. • Under such circumstances.Instances when principle of unity of command may be modified • When members of two or more operating units (Ex. patrol officers may be placed under the command of a supervisor of another organizational unit for the purpose of the situation at hand.
2. This also helps to eliminate any doubt in the mind of the patrol officer as to who is in charge in any situation and whose orders are to be followed. A secondary purpose is to ensure that supervisors and command officers do not overstep their authority by attempting to issue orders to persons who do not report to them. Eliminate the possibility of conflicting and contradictory orders that would interfere with the smooth and effective functioning of the unit.Purposes of Principle of Unity of Command 1. 109 . 3.
Functional and Administrative Supervision Functional Supervision – is exercised by the person who is formally assigned to supervise or command a unit according to the organizational chart or established directive. 110 .
Administrative Supervision • Administrative Supervision -. 111 . In a small police station.is exercised by the person who is in charge of a particular function at a particular time and place. the senior dispatcher may be responsible for supervising the dispatching function and all subordinate dispatchers are responsible to the senior dispatcher. • Ex.
who is not in the dispatcher chain of command. 112 .Administrative Supervision • However. the duty dispatcher reports to and is under the supervision of the shift supervisor. at any time of the day that the senior dispatcher is not on duty.
The chart does not. responsibility and communication flow.The Informal Organization The formal structure of the organization is that which is presented in the organizational chart. show how things work informally within the organization. 113 . however. The chart represents how the organization functions in a formal sense by delineating lines of authority.
In a sense the informal organization represents the human side of the organization.The Informal Organization The informal organization is just as important as the formal organization. there may be a big difference between how the organization is supposed to function according to the organization chart and how it actually operates according to the informal organization. At times. since it reflects the department as it actually exists. 114 .
115 . and its existence should not be seen as an adverse consequence or as a failure of management. Informal organization operates in any formal organization and can.The Informal Organization The informal organization plays a very vital role in the functioning of the organization. if treated properly. contribute to effective management.
The Informal Organization • Communication is expected to be coursed through the formal lines of authority and formal system of communication. • But the informal organization can pass the information efficiently than they are through the formal system of communication. 116 .
Delegation of Authority The effective manager is one who recognizes his or her own limitations and who can rely upon subordinates to get the job done. Failure to delegate is harmful to the organization and to the members of the organization. 117 .
no one else has much anything to do. When only the manager can make decisions. 118 .DELEGATION OF AUTHORITY Failure to delegate creates a bottleneck at the top of the organization because decisions cannot be made in a timely manner in the absence of the manager.
Delegation of Authority Managers who fail to delegate usually lack confidence in their own abilities and are therefore afraid to allow subordinates to have any more power or authority than is absolutely necessary for them to do their job. 119 .
120 .Delegation of Authority • Managers who lack self confidence in themselves are reluctant to allow any one person or group of persons to know more than they know or be able to do anything that they cannot do themselves.
Delegation of Authority They fear that given the right opportunity. someone may try to take their jobs away from them. 121 . Confident and competent managers. on the other hand. seize the opportunity to delegate as a means of preparing their subordinates to rise in the organization and to accept increasingly responsible positions.
• The successful manager is usually the one who makes the best decisions. • That is. 122 . the outcomes turn out to be favorable to the organization.Decision Making • Police administrators make decisions of all kinds and of varying degrees of importance every day.
123 . will tend to make the management appear ineffective.Decision Making A poor decision. particularly one that has significant consequences.
The manager makes the decision based upon what he or she thinks or hopes will happen. In many cases.• A good decision makes the manager look good. 124 . however. the decision is little more than a calculated gamble.
• Often. when. the final outcome may be beyond the control of the manager and the decision. • When the desired outcome is produced by the decision. was probably a reasonably good one. viewed from the context within which it was made.Decision Making • Whether a decision is good or bad depends upon what happens as a result of the decision. the decision. • When negative consequences result. 125 . then the decision is viewed as a good one. however. is seen as a poor one.
• Too often.Decision Making • The key to good decision making is the ability to objectively and rationally evaluate alternative courses of action and to anticipate the outcome that will be produced by a particular action. managers make decisions on the basis of emotion and personal bias rather than on an objective evaluation of the facts. • They act hastily and react to pressures of the moment rather than think the situation on through logically. 126 .
127 .Internal Controls • Internal control mechanisms are necessary to ensure that the police organization operates in accordance with established operating policies and procedures. • Proper training and effective supervision are two of the fundamental ways to ensure that proper operating procedures are being observed.
128 . • These often do not create a problem and are easily corrected when they are observed.Internal Controls • However. violations and lapses will still occur from time to time.
officers are allowed to leave the area only to back up a car in an adjacent area. Or to handle an assigned car or for another authorized purpose. 129 . In most cases.Internal Controls Many police agencies make it possible to assign patrol officers to specific geographical areas of responsibility. They are not allowed to routinely wander from their assigned area whenever the mood strikes them.
130 . laxity on the part of a supervisor to reinforce the beat-assignment policy can result in a total breakdown of that policy. such as when an officer is found to be some distance from the assigned beat and unable to handle an emergency call.Internal Controls Although beat discipline may not be enforced rigidly in all cases. Internal controls are in place to make sure that this kind of deviation from established policy does not go unchecked. Over time this can have serious effects.
131 . unsystematic manner. • Too much depends upon police performance to allow police activities to be conducted in a haphazard.Planning • The effective police manager must be a good planner and must be able to instill proper planning techniques in the police organization.
This definition assumes that the organization itself has identified goals. Without goals. the planning process lacks meaning and substance.Planning Planning can be viewed as the process of looking ahead to determine what actions need to be taken for the organization to accomplish its specified goals. 132 .
Each time a decision is made.Planning Plans consist of a series of decisions. 133 . For patrol purposes. others are presented. which in turn may lead to decisions about resources. planning may consist of determining how to attack a specific crime problem.
even though they may not be recognized as being part of the planning process.PLANNING How many? What kind? How should they be deployed? These are the kinds of decisions that are made by the patrol manager on a regular basis. 134 .
Planning Planning should be the cornerstone of the decision making process. for every new programs to be implemented. for every policy or procedure to be developed. 2. For every problem encountered. 1. 3. 135 . Planning is the means by which the best course of action can be chosen. the police administrator may be faced with several alternative course of action.
Planning Planning should not be the sole responsibility of a single person or unit within a police agency. 136 . but should be viewed as a basic responsibility of all management and supervisory personnel.
such as the need to provide expanded police protection during a large demonstration or similar gathering. The exact nature and scope of the problem must be clearly understood. Problem Identification.Elements in Planning Planning usually consist of several distinct elements as follows: 1. Planning usually begins with the identification of a specific problem to be solved. 137 .
In the example cited previously. Determining Objectives – The agency must have the objectives of the planning process in mind when analyzing the problem. the objectives would probably include: 138 .Elements in Planning 2.
(b) providing for the speedy and safe passage of vehicular and pedestrian traffic through or around the demonstration area. (c) guarding against outbreaks of violence or lawlessness. 139 .Elements in Planning (a) ensuring maximum public protection and safety.
Determine objectives • Once the objectives of the planning process have been identified. 140 . planning may proceed in an orderly fashion.
and how must be obtained. Establish the Facts. where.” Information concerning: who. Establish the Facts 3. when.3. 141 .The third step in the planning process entails “the gathering of all relevant information concerning the problem under consideration. what.
142 . b) the nature of the groups involved and their purpose for demonstrating. c) intelligence information about previous demonstrations involving the same groups.Establishing the Facts • Using the same example previously cited. information may be needed concerning a) the number of persons expected to attend the demonstration.
4. 143 . Determine Alternative Courses of Actions Most good plans involve more than one course of action. Although a primary course may be chosen. it is important to provide suitable alternatives in the event that the primary course proves unworkable.
Implementing the Plan
5. Implementation of the plan should
involve representatives of all groups or units likely to be affected by the plan. Coordination of activities is essential.
Implementing the Plan
Involved units or groups must be provided with advance information concerning what is to be done, scheduling of activities, and expected results. Ample opportunity should be provided for reaction to the plan by affected participants, and amendments to the plan, if necessary.
6. Evaluating Results
Very few things go exactly as planned. Minor and sometimes major changes in the plan may be necessary as the plan unfolds. For this reason, it is important that the plan and its results be carefully evaluated on an ongoing basis.
6. Evaluating Results
Specific provisions should be made “to obtain feedback” from plan participants during and after the planned action in order to improve operations in the future. Evaluation may be a highly formalized process, or a rather simple one, but it is important that “feedback concerning the suitability of the planning process and its outcome be obtained.”
1.3 Commander and Staff • All orders from a higher commander to a subordinate unit are issued by the commander of the highest unit to the commander of the next subordinate unit.
1.3 Commander and Staff
When a superior in the chain of command assigns a subordinate a mission, he also delegates the necessary authority for the subordinate to accomplish the mission.
he also has a responsibility to his subordinates. 150 .1.3 Commander and Staff • Command responsibility works in 2 directions: While the commander is responsible to his superiors for mission accomplishment.
• resources. 151 .Command Responsibility Having delegated authority to his subordinates. the commander must provide them with: • the necessary guidance. (including time). and • support needed to accomplish their mission.
152 . the superior retains overall responsibility for the accomplishment of the mission.Command Responsibility • However.
1.4 Command Relationships • Command responsibility and authority are established through the following standard relationships: • Organic. 153 . A unit that forms an essential part of the command and is listed in its table of organization and equipment or table of distribution and allowances.
A unit that is placed in an organization on a permanent basis and is controlled and administered by the organization to which it is assigned for its primary functions or the greater portion of its functions.4. Command Relationships • Assigned. 154 .1.
155 . Although subject to limitations specified in the attachment order. 4 Command Relationships Attached. as well as responsibility for the attached unit as he does over units organic to his command. A unit that is placed in an organization on a temporary basis. the commander to which the units is attached exercises the same degree of command and control.1.
5 Support Relationships Support relationships are established to define specific relationships and responsibilities between supporting and supported units. and the authority to reorganize or reassign component elements of a supporting force remains with the higher headquarters or parent unit unless otherwise specified.1. 156 . Command responsibility for logistics support.
• The commander informs them of his plans. and the chief of staff provides them information on the status of staff actions. intentions. their duties. • He prescribe their roles.1. and their relationships with the chief of staff.6 – Deputy Commanders • Each commander establishes definite procedures for using deputy commanders. goals and problems. 157 . the staff and commanders of subordinate units.
Deputy Commanders • Deputy commanders are members of the command group. • They assume command functions as directed by the commander or in his absence. 158 . • They normally function within specific area of interest and responsibility as directed by the commander.
POLICIES RELATIVE TO DEPUTY COMMANDERS • In the PNP. the Deputy Chief for Administration (TDCA)shall have supervisory authority over the following members of the Directorial Staff: • The Director for Personnel and Records Management (TDPRM) 159 .
POLICIES RE-DEPUTY COMMANDERS • The Director for Human Resource and Doctrine Development (TDHRDD) • The Director for Logistics (TDL) 160 .
PNP Deputy Chief for Administration exercises supervisory authority over • The Director Research and Development (TDRD) • The Director for Comptrollership(TDC) • The Director for Information and Technology Management (TDITM) 161 .
TDCO • The Deputy Chief for Operations (TDCO). 162 . through the Chief Directorial Staff (TDCS) shall have supervisory authority over the following members of the Directorial Staff: • The Director for Intelligence (TDI) • The Director for Operations (TDO).POLICIES RE.
POLICIES RE .TDCO • The Director for Plans (TDPL) • The Director for PoliceCommunity Relations (TDPCR). • The Director for Investigation and Detective Management (TDIDM) 163 .
164 . the commander may detail officers from the headquarters available to him. • Deputy commanders may give orders to the chief of staff or the staff only when and within the limits authorized by the commander.Deputy Commanders • When they have specific responsibilities. they receive assistance from the staff as prescribed by the commander. • When they need a staff.
it will also a have a profound impact on staff functions at all levels.7 . 165 .1.The Staff • Just as the modern times present significant challenges to commanders.
The STAFF • It will demand a significantly higher level of staff efficiency and will require greater initiative and coordination on the part of all staff officers. 166 .
2. analyzing. 3.THE STAFF The Staff assists the commander in decision making by: 1. coordinating information 167 . acquiring.
What the staff does with the assembled information is of crucial importance to the function of staff operations. presenting essential information to the commander 5. with a recommendation so he will be able to make the best decision. most importantly. 168 .The Staff 4.
STAFF is defined as •is a single. 169 . cohesive unit organized to assist the commander in accomplishing the mission.
170 .How The Staff Operates • The Staff is organized to serve the commander within specific functional areas of interest and operates to– 1. 2. Provide timely and accurate information to the commander and subordinate units. Facilitate and monitor the accomplishment of command decisions.
The Staff 3. 5. 6. 4. Recommend courses of action which will best accomplish the mission. Determine courses of action. Anticipate requirements and provide estimates of the situation. Prepare plans and orders 171 .
but also the functions of the other staff members. 172 . • The staff establishes and maintains a high degree of coordination and cooperation internally.The Staff • The commander must have a staff that is a professional team. • All staff members must know not only their own functions and roles.
The Staff • The staff‘s effort must be focused always on supporting the commander in the exercise of command and on helping him to support his subordinate unit in the execution of their missions. 173 .
• He directs and supervises the staff to ensure that it properly supports the needs of the commander . 174 .The Staff • The chief of staff is responsible to the commander for the proper functioning of the staff.
STAFF • Guidance. 175 . direction and information normally flow from the commander through the chief of staff who makes decisions only in the absence of the commander and facilitates coordination of unit activities.
The Staff • When new direction is needed. 176 . the chief of staff provides it based on the guidance from the commander and knowledge of his intent.
177 . in cases of direct access of staff officers to the commander.The Staff • Care must be taken. to keep the chief of staff informed.
• Staff officers are assigned functional areas of interest and responsibility for accomplishing staff actions within these areas.8 . 178 .Staff Responsibility and Authority.STAFF PRINCIPLES • 1.
Giving staff a representative with whom they can coordinate and consult within an area.Staff Principles Assignment of staff responsibility for a particular activity improves efficiency by— 1. 179 . Giving the commander a single staff agency which is responsible for advice and assistance within an area. 2.
Improving Efficiency 3. 4. 180 . Ensuring that all command interest receive staff attention. Enabling all staff officers to give their complete attention to a definable portion of command interests.
Delegated Authority • The commander specifically delegates authority to a particular staff officer. • The commander normally delegates authority to the staff to take final action on matters within command policy. 181 .
182 . B. The level and mission of the command. The relationship of the staff officer’s area of interest to the primary mission of the command.Delegated Authority • The authority delegated to individual staff officers varies with: A. The immediacy of operations. and C.
Delegated Authority The assignment of staff responsibility carries no connotation of authority over other staff officers or over other elements of the command. 183 .
the staff officer is responsible for the manner in which delegated authority is exercised and for the results obtained.Delegated Authority • Although the commander retains overall responsibility. 184 .
Authority temporarily assumed • While the staff officer is acting in the commander’s name. 185 . the staff officer also is responsible for an authority temporarily assumed in response to an emergency.
Staff Relationship with lower commands • Staff officers may make recommendations and may offer advice to subordinate commanders. • The subordinate commander may accept or may reject the recommendations or advice just as they do with their own staff.9 . 186 .1.
. Staff officers supervise the implementation/execution of orders or instructions issued or approved by the commander . . 187 .Staff Relationship with lower commands.
Staff Relationships with Lower Commands A staff officer from a higher headquarters does not have the inherent authority to direct/order a subordinate command to implement/execute directives or orders from the higher command. 188 .
the staff officer will advice the subordinate commander/staff of the noncompliance and will report his observations and recommendations to the senior commander.Staff Relationship with lower commands • In the event that a staff officer determines that a subordinate command is not complying with a directive from the commander. 189 .
Staff Relationships with lower commands The staff. Their operating techniques. Their situations. Their capabilities. like the commander. and Their character 190 . must • • • • • understand: The units of the command.
191 .Staff Relationships with lower commands • The staff must be concerned continually with support for the subordinate units and must establish an effective professional relationship with subordinate commanders and staffs.
192 .Staff Relationship with lower commands • Staff members may not deny or may not refuse a subordinate commander‘s request and must avoid usurping responsibilities or prerogatives of subordinate commander with whom they work.
193 . to exchange information.Staff Relationship with lower commands • A staff officer contacts a subordinate commander only in the name of the higher commander to: • 1. to offer assistance. or • 4. • 3. transmit orders or instructions. • 2. to provide advice or recommendations.
all orders from a higher headquarters requiring or prescribing actions by a subordinate unit command are issued by authority of the higher commander.Staff Relationships with lower commands Normally. 194 .
Staff Relationships with lower commands Exception to this basic rule occur• When the higher commander specifically authorizes staff members to issue orders and instructions. 195 . • The commander formally announces this delegation of authority during conferences.
Three types of channels are: • Command Channel.1. • Technical Channel. 196 . • Staff Channel.10 Command and Staff communications • Communications between commands is accomplished through a specified channel or link of communication.
Command and Staff Communications • Channel are used to identify clearly the official relationships of command. and information from one headquarters to another. recommendations. and technical flow of information. staff. • The communication channels are commander to commander. staff to staff. • These channels are used to pass orders . advice. instructions. and technical activity to technical activity. 197 .
• Broad Fields of interest.1 Organization and principles of staff• Staffs are organized according to the following interrelated considerations – • Mission.Staff Organization • 2. • Laws and regulations 198 .
199 . • These activities in turn determine how the staff must be organized to accomplish the mission.Staff Organization • Mission – The mission determines activities that must be accomplished.
all police departments are not alike. • However. as has been pointed out. 200 . nor do they all have the same goals and objectives. and it might seem equally obvious that the mission of the police is clear. nor are their priorities or operational strategies the same.Mission Statement • It seems rather obvious to say that all organizations need a mission or purpose to guide them.
2. 201 . It outlines the major task of the organization and defines organizational values. It gives the public. 3. as well as the members of the organization.Mission Statement 1. It is a statement of purpose. a sense of what the organization stands for.
202 . comptroller and community relations. communications electronics.Staff Organization Broad Fields of Interest – Regardless of the command mission. logistics. intelligence. staff operations can be divided into the following broad fields of interest: personnel. operations and training.
etc 203 . NAPOLCOM Issuances.Staff Organization •Laws and Regulations = RA 6975. RA 8551. DILG Directives.
204 .Staff Organization The relative importance of these fields and the functional areas included in them vary with the mission. the level of command and the environment.
special. the directorial staff – • National support units.Section 2. and personal staff and liaison officers.Staff Structure • Directorial Staff Structure. It includes a chief of directorial staff. 205 .
• Staff sections chiefs in each headquarters determine the internal organizations of their staff sections. special and personal staff officers varies at different levels of command. 206 .Staff Structure • The number of coordinating.
Availability of personnel. 207 . • 3. Mission. • 2. The amount of work required of the section.Staff Structure • Factors that determine the organization of a staff section include• 1.
Requirements imposed by the organization. Requirements for 24 –hour operation. 208 . 5. 6. Preference of the commander and chief of staff.Factors that determine organization of staff sections 4.
209 .Staff Structure • A staff section chief may delegate authority for supervision of functional activities to officers and noncommissioned officers in the section.
• This responsibility includes assignment of tasks. and training required to accomplish assigned tasks within the staff sections. 210 .Staff Structure • The staff section chief is responsible for members of his staff section. compliance with regulations.
211 . • the coordinated effort of staff members. and • the efficient and prompt response of the staff.BASIC STAFF STRUCTURE Chief of Staff.The chief of staff is responsible for: • directing the execution of staff tasks.
Basic Staff Structure • The chief of staff directs the effort of both the coordinating and special staffs . • The commander normally delegates authority to the chief of staff that amounts to command of the staff. 212 .
Realities in Actual Practice PNP wide •ACTUAL PRACTICE IN THE PHILIPPINE NATIONAL POLICE 213 .
The Chief Directorial Staff (TCDS)
• The Chief of Directorial Staff (TCDS) has supervisory authority over the Directorial Staff. • He shall directs, supervises, and ensure coordination of work of the Directorial Staff and other staff officers, except in those areas reserved by the Chief, PNP.
• Functional authority over the National Support Units as indicated: • The Director for Personnel and
Records Management shall have
functional authority over the Health Service (HS); Legal Service (LS); Chaplain Service (CHS); and Headquarters Support Service (HSS)
• The Director for Logistics shall have functional authority over Engineering Service (ES); Logistics Support Service (LSS);
• The Director for Comptrollership shall have functional authority over the Finance Service (FS)
• The Director for Intelligence shall have functional authority over Intelligence Group (IG) and Police Security and Protection Office (PSPO).
• The Director for Operations shall have functional authority over the Maritime Group (MG); Aviation Security Group (ASG); Special Action Force (SAF), Traffic Management Group (TMG) and Civil Security Group (CSG).
• The Director for Police Community Relations shall have functional authority over the Police Community Relations Group (PCRG).
220 .DIRECTORATES • The Director for Investigation and Detective Management shall have functional authority over the Crime Laboratory Group (CLG) and Criminal Investigation and Detection Group (CIDG).
DIPO Western Mindanao.Functional Authority Directorate for Integrated Police Operations has supervisory authority over the DIPO Northern Luzon. 221 . DIPO Eastern Mindanao. DIPO Southern Luzon.
222 .DIRECTORATES • The Directorate for Information Technology Management has supervisory authority over the Computer Service (CS) and Communications and Electronic Service (CES).
• Members of the Directorial Staffs shall have the authority to sign communications for the Chief. PNP on matters delegated to them or in his own behalf on matters already covered by existing policies.Additional Policies of members Directorial Staff • They shall also exercise directing functional authority over the Directors of Police Regional Offices and the National Support Units. 223 .
224 .Additional Policies of Directorial Staff Members • Members of the Directorial Staff shall endeavor to implement the foregoing policies to ensure the effective and efficient exercise of their directing functional authority over subordinate offices and performance of policy formulation. program development and advisory functions.
and the D-Staff. PNP has the sole authority to decide or act on the following: 1. 225 . B. TDCO. the Chief. all routine decisions are delegated to the TDCA. Unless specifically delegated.Delegated Authority: A. TCDS. As a matter of general principle. Approval of command policies.
Delegated Authority • 2. Implementing plans. and other issuances from the NAPOLCOM and higher authorities shall be immediately implemented by all levels of command in the PNP except such issuance which by reason of their nature and/or scope would require further detailed implementing instructions or orders. 226 . that all Resolutions. Memorandum Circulars. programs. and activities. Provided.
and • 4. Designation of key officers down to the Directors of Police Provincial Offices/City Police Stations. 227 . and proposals for the amendments of existing NAPOLCOM issuances.Delegated Authority • 3. Legislative proposals which seek to amend/modify RA 6975 as amended by RA 8551 and related laws.
Delegated Authority C. and thereafter to submit the records of the case together with the recommendations to the Chief. The PNP officers authorized by law to exercise disciplinary powers within their respective commands without distinction as to ranks are allowed to conduct the required formal investigations. 228 . PNP for his final adjudication.
D-Staff. • E. Members of the Directorial Staff concerned shall identify additional areas which could still be delegated and included in the circular. The specific authority delegated to the Command Group. and NSU Directors is hereby amended by the matrix of delegated authority.Delegated Authority • D. 229 . RDs.
230 .DIRECTORIAL STAFF GROUP • Coordinating Staff officers are the commander’s principal staff assistants. • Each officer is concerned with one or a combination of broad fields of interest.
• Collectively. 231 . activities. and operations of the command.Coordinating Staff Officers • They assist the commander by coordinating the plans. they have responsibility for the commander’s entire field of interest.
and other functional areas. 232 . technical or functional area of interest in the command.SPECIAL STAFF GROUP • SPECIAL STAFF Officers assist the commander in professional. technical. • They are organized into sections according to their professional.
• Typical personal staff members include the command executive senior police officer (CESPO). Inspector General/Internal Affairs Chaplain.PERSONAL STAFF GROUP • Personal staff members work under the immediate control of the commander and assist him directly instead of working through the chief of staff. Legal Affairs Service 233 .
• They work under the direction of the chief of staff. 234 .LIAISON OFFICERS • Liaison Officers are representatives of the commander.
Headquarters organization and SOPs will prescribe staff responsibilities and duties within a particular command.1 Responsibilities and duties: Within staff functional areas. 235 . corresponding staff officers at each level will have similar areas of interest and responsibilities. Larger commands may have more than one staff officer responsible for a particular staff function.CHAPTER 3 – STAFF OFFICERS • 3.
and ensures coordination of the work of the staff. thereby freeing the commander from routine details. except in those specific areas reserved for the commander. supervises.Section II – CHIEF OF STAFF • Duties and Responsibilities – The chief of • • • • staff directs. 236 .
Ensuring that the commander and the staff are informed of matters affecting the command. Formulating and announcing staff operating policies. 237 . 2.Chief of staff is responsible for1.
5. 4. Ensuring that required liaison is established.Chief of Staff 3. Maintaining the master policy file and monitoring the SOP. Representing the commander when authorized. 238 .
Requiring that all coordinating and special staff officers.Chief of Staff • 6.) 239 . • (Personal staff officers maybe exempt. inform him of any recommendation or information that they give directly to the commander or any instruction they receive directly from the commander.
240 .Chief of Staff • 7. Exercise direct supervision of the command and its operations in the following.
241 . reports and other staff actions.Chief of Staff directly supervise the following: • He ensures that the commander’s decisions and concepts are implemented by directing the staff and by assigning specific responsibilities when necessary to prepare and issue plans and orders.
coordinated.The Chief of Staff • He reviews staff actions to ensure that they are adequate. and designed to produce the commander’s intended result. 242 .
otherwise. he obtains the commander’s approval. if authorized. 243 . • He ensures that subordinate unit commanders are kept informed of actions that will affect their unit.The Chief of Staff • He approves of those actions.
Powers and Functions: The coordinating staff officers are assisted in the accomplishment of their responsibilities by the formation and staffing of sections in their respective areas of interest. 244 .Section III – Coordinating Staff Officers • 3. Duties.3 Responsibilities.
Personnel Officer • The personnel officer is the principal staff officer for the commander on all matters concerning human resources. 245 .
he monitors and assesses those elements of personnel administration and management which provides policies.Personnel Officer • The personnel officer is concerned with personnel readiness. and therefore. services. 246 . and facilities affecting the personnel’s human potential and commitment.
Leaves 247 . Promotion • D. Assignment/Designation • C. Retention. Appointment • B. Separation. Retirement & Demotion • E.Personnel(Directorate Level) • The Personnel Officer has primary coordinating responsibility for the following areas: Personnel Management: • A.
Responsibility • • • • F.Personnel Officer. Disposition of Cases I. Collateral Allowances H. NUP Additional Matters • K . Appeals for Disposition of Administrative Cases • J. Mandatory Allowances G. Miscellaneous 248 .
249 .Intelligence Officer • The Intelligence officer is the principal staff officer for the commander on all intelligence matters.
analysis and evaluates the information and data. and present the assessment to the commander. 250 .Intel Officer • The Intelligence officer acquires intelligence information and data.
3. Production of intelligence 2.Intelligence Officer The Intelligence Officer has primary coordinating responsibility for the following areas: 1. Intelligence Operations 4. Intelligence Training and Education 251 . Counterintelligence and Security.
Reports and Correspondence 9. Liaison Activities Re Intelligence Ops 252 . Foreign Intelligence 6. Directives to Lower Units 8. Intelligence Management 7.Intelligence 5.
• The nature of the operations’ officer’s responsibilities requires a high degree of coordination with other staff members. organization and training. plans.Operations Officer • The Operations officer is the principal staff officer for the commander in matters concerning operations. 253 .
Operations Officer • The Operations Officer has primary responsibility for the following areas: • Operating Program and Budget • Program of Action • Operations Plans and Budget 254 .
Operations • Preliminary Operating Program and Budget Estimate • Approval of Plans for Major Operations • Reports and Other Correspondence on result of Operations 255 .
Operations Officer • Accomplishment Report • Law Enforcement • Internal Security Operations • Special Operations 256 .
Operations • Operations Management • Deployment of Troops • Deployment of Troops during strikes/crowd dispersal control at NHQ PNP Level 257 .
Operations Officer • Troop Movement or Deployment of any size during raids/seizure operations involving prominent figures or with national /international implications which involve national interest. • Security/Escort Matters 258 .
Operations • Disposition of Recovered vehicles • Firearms and Explosive Matters • SAGSD Matters • Dispatch of Air Assets 259 .
mobility. and services. • As the logistics planner. maintenance. he must maintain close and continuous coordination with the operations officer for tactical operations and the support commander. 260 .Logistics Officer • The Logistics Officer is the principal staff officer for the commander for matters of supply. who is responsible for logistics support operations.
Logistics Officer • The logistics officer has primary coordinating staff responsibility for the following areas: • Mobility • Firepower • Real Property Management 261 .
Logistics • General Support • Logistics Plans and Programs • Other Services • Additional Functions 262 .
263 . • He has staff responsibility for those activities embracing the relationship among police. economic and social effects of police operations on civilian personnel.Police Community Relations Officer • The principal staff officer for the commander in all matters concerning the civilian impact of police operations and the political. and the people in the area of operations. civil authorities.
PCR OFFICER He has staff responsibility for: • PCR Annex to PNP Prelim Programs and Budget Guidance • PCR Annex to Program of Action • Special RR Project • Job Placement of Police Dependents • Additional Procurement of medicines for outreach services • Donations/Material Support to civic organizations/charitable institutions 264 .
Comptrollership/Finance • The comptroller has primary coordinating has primary coordinating responsibility for• PNP Budget Proposal and Expenditures • Working Papers for PBAC • Release of Allotment Advice • Release of Other Personal Services 265 .
• Preparing or assisting in the preparation of and analysis and estimates for use in planning. programming and budgeting. presentation. 266 .Comptroller • Provide assistance to the staff on budget methods and formats. techniques of preparation. and analysis. and statistics for programming and budgeting purposes. expense factors. and the development of workload information.
Directives.Human Resource and Doctrine Development • The HRDD has primary coordinating responsibility on the following: • Five Year Training Program • New Training Concepts and Doctrines • Publication of PNP Training Programs. Doctrines and Manuals 267 . Memoranda • Dissemination of Training Program of Instructions.
Schooling and OJT • Attendance in Local in-Service Training Activities. Ammos and Equipment • Detail of Observers/Participants to Local Seminars/Short Courses outside the PNP 268 . • Allocation for Training.Human Resource and Doctrine Development • Attendance in Civilian Educational Institutions • Program of MATP/META and Foreign Invitational Courses for PNP • Attendance in Foreign Training.
Research and Development • Approval of Major Research and Development Projects • Review and Improvement of R&D and T&E Procedures & Capabilities • Preparation of Project Proposal on SelfReliance Development • Development of PNP Specification Standards • Preparation of T&E Reports 269 .
Manufacturers and Dealers 270 .Research and Development • Coordination with other GOs/NGOs to facilitate required T&E on specific items • Accreditation of Suppliers.
INVESTIGATION • • • • • • Has primary responsibility on: Investigative Project Proposals Witness Protection Programs Legal Offensive Approval of SOPs on all matters pertaining to investigation and legal matters. Resolution of cases of PNP personnel Filing of Criminal Cases 271 .
Investigation • • • • • List of Wanted Persons General Investigation Training Program Issuance of Clearances Upon Request Scientific Investigation Training Program Investigation of Sensationalized and Major Crimes and Cases • Investigation and monitoring of International crimes • Crime info and Statistics 272 .
273 .Special Staff Officers • Engineer • Surgeon • Dentist These officers assist the commander in their professional. technical. and other functional areas.
4. Maintenance or professional standards level and of dental care and equipment. Establishment of priorities for dental care and treatment. Professional training of dental personnel. Maintenance of oral health of the command. 274 . 5. 2. Preventive dentistry program.Dental Officer The following activities are the responsibility of the Dental Officer: 1. 3.
Planning dental care for indigenous population. Preparing reports on command dental activities. Determining requirements for dental supplies and equipments and supervising their use. rehabilitation and use of dental facilities.Dental Officer’s Responsibilities 6. 9. 275 . 7. Providing technical assistance in the construction. 8.
3. ethical and humanitarian standards. Assisting the commander by ensuring that policies and leadership practices are of highest moral. Provide pastoral counseling to members of the command. Ministering to casualties. wounded. morals and morals affected by religion. hospitalized personnel.Chaplain 1. 276 . 2. 4. Advise the commander and staff on matters about religion.
religious education programs and religious training conferences for assigned personnel. 277 .Chaplain 5. Organizing and providing religious support activities.
Preparing engineers portions of plans and orders 3. Planning and conducting engineering training programs. General engineering. 4.Engineer Officer . construction and maintenance tasks. Engineering Design 278 . Master planning 5. Real estate management 6. 2.Responsibilities 1.
279 . Refuse collection and disposal. Environment protection program. 11. Operation of Utility and plan systems. 10. Forestry and wildlife protection programs. Management of command housing programs. 9. Fire protection and prevention. Maintenance and repair of real property. 12.Engineer Officer 7. 13. 8. Operations of material production and equipment. 14.
STAFF ACTIVITIES 280 .
Staff Writing • Staff Writing – Staff officers are required to prepare a variety of written communications. orders and studies. reports. • The effectiveness or oral orders depends largely on the clarity and completeness of the written orders and SOPs that provide their background. where the complexity of operations relies primarily on written directives. 281 .
endorsements. messages and staff studies are examples of frequently used written communications. letters.Staff Writing • Plans and orders. 282 . disposition forms. information papers. memorandums.
283 . lower unit commanders and other staff officers.Staff Writing • Staff Writing is a means of communicating ideas to the commander.
284 .Staff Writing • Effective writing should convey the writer’s exact meaning and not be subject to misinterpretation.
Accuracy – check facts. • Objectivity – Keep an impersonal and unprejudiced viewpoint 285 .Basic Principles of Effective Staff Writing • • • • • Unity – adhere to a single main idea. Coherence – develop. Clarity – Write simply and clearly. eliminate errors. short sentences. arrange subject matter logically. Brevity – use simple words.
286 .is the collection and evaluation of facts necessary to solve problems or to provide information. • Some facts will be available in office records. • Others can be found only by examining many sources.Staff Research • Staff Research .
287 .Staff Research • The problem determines the research needed. • Only after analyzing the problem and listing the main issues to be considered can the staff officer determine how much and what kind of information he must collect.
the staff prepares a list of all likely sources of information on the subject under consideration.Staff Research • Data is collected from various sources of information. 288 . • Through research.
Staff Research • Data collected requires evaluation. • A Staff officer ask himself two questions: Is the information relevant? Is the information accurate? 289 . Formal research procedures are necessary for complicated studies and papers having numerous references.
Staff Research • The extent of the research is the staff officer’s decision. • The staff officer must decide when he has the information he needs to draw valid conclusions. 290 .
• must be supported by the data. 291 . and • must be arrived at through a logical thought process.STAFF RESEARCH To be valid. • must be objective. conclusions: • must be relevant to the topic.
• After familiarizing himself with the problem the commander limits the area to be studied. 292 .Problem Identification and Analysis • An essential element in the problem identification and analysis is the commander’s planning guidance.
293 .Problem Identification and Analysis • The commander provides information from his experience or knowledge. and assigns responsibility for the study.
294 .• Problem Identification and Analysis Adequate command guidance facilitates arriving at an appropriate solution to the problem and precludes wasted effort.
295 . An essential element of an analysis is the identification of problems that may affect the staff or the command as a whole.Problem Identification and Analysis • Staff officers routinely analyze matters that affect their operations.
also he should develop a systematic approach that weighs each new item of information in relation to other information. 296 .Problem Identification and Analysis • Judgment and experience are major factors bearing on the staff officer’s ability to recognize problems.
Staff Coordination • Staff coordination is making certain that “pieces” fit together in an integrated whole. • Most staff actions require coordination that extends beyond headquarters and include higher. lower and supporting headquarters. 297 .
• To ensure all factors are considered.Staff Coordination Coordination is essential for three reasons: • To ensure complete and coherent actions. 298 . • To avoid conflict and duplication by making necessary adjustments in plans or policies before their implementation.
299 . Close contact and exchange of information by each staff member within headquarters and with staff officers of higher.Specific Coordination Procedures includes 1. use of available communication means and written communications. lower and supporting headquarters. Such exchanges include personal visits.
Prompt distribution of essential information.Specific Coordination Procedures includes 2. and orders within and among headquarter staff section. 300 . decisions.
6. . 4. 5. Formal routing of staff papers to appropriate sections for comment and concurrence. Formal and informal procedures.Specific Coordination. 3. Liaison 301 . Briefings. 7. Message Control procedures.
302 .Completed Staff Work/ActionsA completed staff action is a staff officer’s proposed solution to a problem in final form that is ready for a commander (or other approving authority) to approve or disapprove.
Completed Staff Work/Action It includes: • clear and concise statement of essential facts. 303 . • the views of all feasible courses of action. • including advantages and relevant ethical considerations. • an analysis of the problem.
2. message for the commander to sign. letter or 4. 304 .Completed Staff Work/Action A completed staff action presents a single. memorandum. directive. 3. proposed action – necessarily agreed to by all –and includes any implementing 1. coordinated.
• It is a staff officer’s duty to work out the perplexing details.Completed Staff Actions• Staff officers should avoid presenting to the commander piecemeal solutions. 305 .
the staff officer should consult the commander or chief of staff for additional guidance. • A completed staff action provides the commander with the best recommendations possible. 306 . or for assurance that he is proceeding in the proper direction.Completed Staff Actions • When in doubt.
• Observe the execution of orders or instructions.Staff Visits and Inspections Staff officers visit subordinate units to: • Get information for the commander. and • Provide advice and assistance in their areas of responsibility. 307 .
Staff Visit and Inspections • Certain designated representatives make these visits in the commander’s name. • Before leaving he should report his findings to the subordinate commander. • The staff officer should call on the subordinate unit commander to explain the purpose of his visit and to request assistance. 308 .
as directed by the commander. • Inspections normally are conducted to determine certain conditions within a subordinate unit.Staff Inspections • Staff Inspections are made by the individual officer or teams. such as compliance or conformity with policies and regulations. 309 .
• Before the inspection.Staff Visits and Inspections • Both positive and negative observations are noted. 310 . the unit commander is informed of the nature of and purpose of the inspection.
Staff Inspection • Afterward. 311 . a formal written report to the commander is normally prepared and a copy of the report is be furnished to the inspected unit. • Later. an informal report of the results of inspection is provided to the subordinate unit commander before the inspecting officer or team leaves.
• Cooperation and understanding between commanders and staff of headquarters working together. and • Tactical unity and mutual support by adjacent units. 312 .Liaison Liaison is the contact maintained among organizations to promote: • Mutual understanding and unity of purpose and action.
313 . • Through agreement on mutual support between adjacent units or • Through a combination of these means. • Through the exchange of liaison personnel.Liaison Practically liaison can be achieved through: • Personal contact between commander and staffs.
lower and adjacent commands.Information Dissemination • Briefing may be used to keep the commander and staff informed of current and anticipated situations and problems facing the command. • Reports and summaries are used extensively to provide information to higher. 314 .
Information Dissemination • Nearly every staff section prepares and distributes them. • Only the minimum number of reports and summaries consistent with the commander’s need for information should be required of subordinate command. 315 .
316 . • One time reports and summaries are prepared only as directed.Information Dissemination • Submission of reports and summaries is either a one-time or on a recurring basis.
Information Dissemination • Recurring reports and summaries include those that repeatedly convey essentially the same information at prescribed intervals (daily. 317 . monthly. or annually) and as required reports and summaries for which standing requirements have been established in certain prescribed situations. weekly.
318 • • • • • .ADMINISTRATIVE PROCEDURES are used to provide continuity for completed staff actions: Policy file Records Organization and functions manual Staff guide Standard operating procedure workbooks.
319 .Policy File • Policy file – is a collection of the current policies of the commander and higher headquarters and the basic operating principles for staff section maintaining the file.
320 .Policy File • It is based on existing orders. experience. • A policy file facilitates staff operations and orientation of new staff members. and past command decisions. • The chief of staff maintains the command policy file.
Staff Guide • A staff guide has no standard name. • Regardless of its name. 321 . • The chief of staff will provide a great deal of guidance in this area. what formats will be used. how concurrences and non-concurrences are treated. the guide will contain instruction on how staff papers will be assembled. It may be part of an administrative SOP. and what coordination is required.
the command SOP contains instructions concerning routine or recurring activities.Standard Operating Procedures • A standard operating procedure (SOP) is a standing order. 322 . • Individual staff section SOP and as appropriate.
• A particular command may have an administrative SOP. or all three. a tactical or field SOP. efficiency.Standard Operating Procedure • An SOP promotes teamwork. 323 . and reduces the need for repetitive instructions. an external SOP.
is an indexed collection of information obtained from written or oral orders. messages. journal entries. and concurrences. • A staff section workbook.Workbooks • Workbooks – are ready references for conducting current operations and for preparing reports. 324 .
325 . opinions. and the results of inspections. ideas.Workbooks • It constitutes a guide for the collection of information. • The workbook may also include staff officer’s conclusions.
The principal purposes of staff messages control are to• Receive. dispatch. and record messages and correspondence entering and leaving the headquarters. • Reproduce and route copies to proper staff members for action and information.Staff Message Control • The system of processing messages and correspondence within a headquarters. 326 .
327 .Staff Message Control • Maintain controls to ensure prompt action by action agencies. • Control the use of security classifications and precedence designation on ongoing communications. • Establish priority of action.
and assigns staff responsibilities. resolves conflicts.COMMON FUNCTIONS • The chief of staff supervises and ensures timely and efficient inter-staff coordination with specific objective of providing the commander with a coordinated recommendation. • He reviews staff actions. 328 .
and • 5. Providing Information • 2. 329 . Supervising the execution of decisions. • 4. Preparing plans and orders.Staff Activities • Staff activities center on five (5) common functions: • 1. • 3. Making recommendations. Making estimates.
and disseminates information that flows continuously into the headquarters. collates. • The staff rapidly process and provides significant elements of this information to the commander by: 330 .PROVIDING INFORMATION • The staff collects. analyzes.
Providing Information • Collecting information from all available sources. 331 . • Disseminating the latest information. • Collating and analyzing information in their respective areas of responsibilities.
332 .MAKING ESTIMATES • The staff prepares estimates to assist the commander in decision making.
333 .Making Estimates • A staff estimate consist of significant facts. events and conclusions (based on current or anticipated situations) and recommendations on how available resources can best be used.
Making Estimates • The commander uses recommendations to select feasible courses of action for further analysis. 334 . • Adequate plans hinge on early and continuing estimates by staff officers.
• Staff officers also offers recommendations to one another and to subordinate unit commanders. 335 .MAKING RECOMMENDATIONS • Staff officers make recommendations to assist the commander in reaching decisions and establishing policies.
Making Recommendations • Recommendations may be presented as written estimates or studies. 336 . • Whether the procedure is formal or informal. or they may be presented orally. the staff must carefully analyze and compare all feasible alternatives using the best information available.
Making Recommendations • The staff officer candidly and objectively presents the alternatives to the commander clearly showing the advantages and disadvantages. • The staff officer must be prepared thoroughly to recommend a best alternative to the commander. 337 .
338 .Making Recommendations • The recommendation should be stated in a form that requires only the commander’s approval.
PREPARING PLANS AND ORDERS• The staff prepares plans and orders to carry out the commander’s decisions ensuring coordination of all necessary details. 339 .
340 .Preparing Plans and Orders • The commander may delegate authority to the staff officers to issue plans and orders without his personal approval.
341 . Other staff officers prepare other elements of the plan or order in their areas of interests.Preparing Plans and Orders A single staff officer is assigned the responsibility for preparing and publishing a plan or order.
STAFF SUPERVISION Relieves the commander of much details. • Keeps the staff informed of the situation. • 342 .
and • Provide progress reports to the commander as plans and orders are implemented. 343 .STAFF SUPERVISION • Provides the staff with the information needed to revise estimates.
and • That decisions are executed as intended by the commander.Supervision It is the duty of the staff to ensure: • That decisions reach the intended recipients. 344 . • That decisions are understood.
and staff visits. messages.SUPERVISION • Supervision is accomplished through analysis of reports. 345 .