AGRICULTURE

. I sincerely thank my parents for extending their full cooperation. ARUN KUMAR SINGH for a valuable guidance and cooperation confident encouragement which has enabled me to successfully complete this study. I thank all those who have helped me directly or indirectly to finish my project work.ACKNOWLEDGEMENT I wish to express my sincere thanks to my social studies teacher Mr.

Cut flowers.INTRODUCTION  Agriculture is the production. vegetables. wool.e. In the 21st century. Agriculture was the key development that led to the rise of human civilization. Raw materials include lumber and bamboo. bioplastics. Specific foods include cereals. The study of agriculture is known as agricultural science. . and meat. crops) creating food surpluses that enabled the development of more densely populated and stratified societies. biopharmaceuticals.  The major agricultural products can be broadly grouped into foods. tropical fish and birds for the pet trade are some of the ornamental products. silk and flax. fibers and byproducts from plant crops and animals. nursery plants. Other useful materials are produced by plants. hemp. fruits. processing. and biodiesel. marketing. Fibers include cotton. and raw materials. and use of foods. fuels. Biofuels include methane from biomass. such as resins. and pharmaceuticals. with the husbandry of domesticated animals and plants (i. plants have been used to grow biofuels. fibers. ethanol.

When farmers became capable of producing food beyond the needs of their own families. as well as codified legal systems. as agricultural progress has been a crucial factor in worldwide socioeconomic change. and pesticides were developed long ago. So. The history of agriculture has played a major role in human history. .HISTORY Agricultural practices such as irrigation. are arts such as epic literature and monumental architecture. fertilizers. Division of labor in agricultural societies made commonplace specializations rarely seen in hunter-gatherer cultures. too. Historians and anthropologists have long argued that the development of agriculture made civilization possible. but have made great strides in the past century. others in their society were freed to devote themselves to projects other than food acquisition. crop rotation.

government policy. and intercropping. Shifting cultivation (or slash and burn) is a system in which forests are burnt.  Then the plot is left fallow to regrow forest. economic. Multiple cropping. when several crops are grown at the same time are other kinds of annual cropping systems known as polycultures. and the farmer moves to a new plot.Crop Production Systems Cropping systems vary among farms depending on the available resources and constraints. . nutrient use is uniform and pests tend to build up. Annual cultivation is the next phase of intensity in which there is no fallow period. and the philosophy and culture of the farmer. social and political pressures. returning after many more years (10-20).  Further industrialization lead to the use of monocultures. This fallow period is shortened if population density grows. Because of the low biodiversity. This requires even greater nutrient and pest control inputs. when one cultivar is planted on a large acreage. in which several crops are grown sequentially in one year. releasing nutrients to support cultivation of annual and then perennial crops for a period of several years. necessitating the greater use of pesticides and fertilizers. geography and climate of the farm. requiring the input of nutrients (fertilizer or manure) and some manual pest control.

Fig: Farmers in rice fields in Andhra Pradesh .

Crop Production in India .

and dogs. harvest crops. Mixed production systems use grassland. representing 30-40 million pastoralists. Outside nutrient inputs may be used. wrangle other animals. Livestock production systems can be defined based on feed source. Approximately 68% of all agricultural land is permanent pastures used in the production of livestock. and pastures for feeding ruminant animals. alpacas. however manure is returned directly to the grassland as a major nutrient source. are often used to help cultivate fields. rangeland. and transport farm products to buyers. Animal husbandry not only refers to the breeding and raising of animals for meat or to harvest animal products (like milk. and landless. but also to the breeding and care of species for work and companionship. mainly chickens and pigs) livestock. llamas. mixed. or wool) on a continual basis.  Grassland based livestock production relies upon plant material such as shrubland. Manure is typically recycled in mixed systems as a fertilizer for crops.Livestock Production Systems  Animals. mules. including horses. This system is particularly important in areas where crop production is not feasible because of climate or soil. as grassland .based. . fodder crops and grain feed crops as feed for ruminant and monogastic (one stomach. camels. oxen. eggs.

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biological (biocontrol).Production Practices  Tillage is the practice of plowing soil to prepare for planting or for nutrient incorporation or for pest control. Agriculture represents 70% of freshwater use worldwide. manure. avoidance. and recommends pesticides as a last resort. Crop nutrient use may also be managed using cultural techniques such as crop rotation or a fallow period. and diseases. but also renders soil more prone to erosion. such as in managed intensive rotational grazing. and the method of utilization of manure produced by livestock. which occurs to some degree in most regions of the world. and cultural practices are used. composting. Manure is used either by holding livestock where the feed crop is growing. cover crops. culling. It may improve productivity by warming the soil. Integrated pest management attempts to use all of these methods to keep pest populations below the number which would cause economic loss. Tillage varies in intensity from conventional to no-till. and resistance. intercropping. Cultural practices include crop rotation. and reduces the abundance and diversity of soil organisms. Nutrient management includes both the source of nutrient inputs for crop and livestock production. Pest control includes the management of weeds. compost and mined minerals. insects/mites.    . or by spreading either dry or liquid formulations of manure on cropland or pastures. farmers use a fallow year to conserve soil moisture to use for growing a crop in the following year. mechanical (tillage). green manure. Water management is where rainfall is insufficient or variable. Some farmers use irrigation to supplement rainfall. Nutrient inputs can be chemical inorganic fertilizers. Chemical (pesticides). triggers the decomposition of organic matter releasing CO2. In other areas. incorporating fertilizer and controlling weeds.

and marketing .Processing. distribution.

larger fruits or seeds. self-pollination and cross-pollination. Altering crops through breeding practices changes the genetic makeup of a plant to develop crops with more beneficial characteristics for humans.  The green revolution popularized the use of conventional hybridization to increase yield many folds by creating "highyielding varieties". genetics. for example. Careful selection and breeding have had enormous effects on the characteristics of crop plants. over the centuries increased yield. or resistance to pests.  Domestication of plants has. improved disease resistance and drought tolerance. eased harvest and improved the taste and nutritional value of crop plants.Crop alteration and biotechnology  Crop alteration has been practiced by humankind for thousands of years. chemical pest control. . and molecular techniques that genetically modify the organism. since the beginning of civilization. drought-tolerance. growth control to avoid lodging). and the level of intensive farming techniques (use of fertilizers. Crop breeding includes techniques such as plant selection with desirable traits. Variations in yields were due mainly to variation in climate.

Affordability :The goal of modern agriculture practices is to help farmers provide an affordable supply of food to meet the demands of a growing population. more crops can be grown on less land allowing farmers to provide an increased supply of food at an affordable price. Safety: The agriculture industry works with government agencies and other organizations to ensure that farmers have access to the technologies required to support modern agriculture practices. The World Bank.Modern agriculture Modern agriculture is a term used to describe the wide majority of production practices employed by America’s farmers. The term depicts the push for innovation. water pollution and enhances carbon sequestration. a farming process which helps prevent land loss to erosion. the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation and others have noted that integrated crop management is based on agroecological principles and can increase yields while reducing environmental damage. New technologies have given rise to innovations like conservation tillage. With modern agriculture.    . Sustainability Technological: Advancements help provide farmers with tools and resources to help reduce their environmental footprint and to make farming more sustainable. stewardship and advancements continually made by growers to sustainably produce higher-quality products with a reduced environmental impact. Farmers are supported by education and certification programs that ensure they apply agricultural with care and only when required.

List of countries by agricultural output .

turmeric and black pepper. is still the largest economic sector and plays a significant role in the overall socio-economic development of India. India accounts for 10% of the world fruit production with first rank in the production of banana and sapota.6% of the GDP in 2007. It also has the world's largest cattle population (281 million).  Today. groundnut and inland fish. sugar. . ginger. Agriculture and allied sectors like forestry and logging accounted for 16. India ranks second worldwide in farm output. rice. tea. cashew nuts.  India's population is growing faster than its ability to produce rice and wheat. Coffee. employed 52% of the total workforce and despite a steady decline of its share in the GDP.Agriculture in India  Agriculture in India has a long history dating back to ten thousand years. coconuts. It is the third largest producer of tobacco. It is the second largest producer of wheat.  India is the largest producer in the world of milk.

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Presented By: Name:AKHILA.V Class: X B .K.

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