Emerging Wireless Standards

Wireless Summer School June 4, 2008 Session A1 1:30-5:15 PM
James Neel james.neel@crtwireless.com (540) 230-6012 www.crtwireless.com Jeff Reed reedjh@vt.edu (540) 231-2972 www.wireless.vt.edu

Presentation Overview
Theory (32) OFDM and Antenna Array Theory Emerging Standards (24) Cellular and WiMAX (16) WLAN (10) WPAN (11) Cognitive Standards ( 7) Interoperability Standards ( 6) Summary and Trends Break & Poster Session 2:45-3:30

http://www.wisoa.net/members_logos/mobile_in ternet-big.jpg

Principles of Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing and Multiple Input Multiple Output Communications Systems

Intersymbol Interference
• Occurs when symbol period (Ts) is less than channel delay spread,  • ISI introduces an error floor to BER
– Limits maximum throughput
BER Floor for various modulations
1 0 -1
C o h e re n t D e te c tio n + BPSK QPSK O Q P S K M o d u la tio n x MSK

Ir r e d u c ib le B E R

1 0 -2
x x

x x + + + + x

• Solutions:
– Equalization (high complexity) – Longer symbol periods (generally means lower data rate)
QPSK limit

1 0 -3

+

1 0 -4 1 0 -2

1 0 -1 d e la y s p re a d s ym b o l p e rio d

=


T

1 00

J. C.-I. Chuang, "The Effects of Time Delay Spread on Portable Radio Communications Channels with Digital Modulation," IEEE JSAC, June 1987

Multicarrier communications: Longer period, same data rate
•Concept:
–Divide original data stream at rate R into L lower rate (R/L) streams on different carriers to increase symbol time

•Long history
–KINEPLEX –ANDEFT –KATHRYN
J. Andrews, A. Ghosh, R. Muhamed, Fundamentals of WiMAX, Prentice Hall, 2007

Hf
B/L

•Effects
–High receiver complexity
• separate receiver chain per carrier

–Bandwidth due to sidebands –Each subcarrier experiences flat fading
B

Bc

f

OFDM
• Much simpler to create multicarrier transmission using iFFT
– Information carried in magnitude and phase of each bin – Then can be recovered by using FFT at receiver

• Ideal inverse Fourier transform of multicarrier would be infinite duration sine waves
– Cut at Symbol duration Ts – Rectangular windowing causes sinc spectrum in frequency domain with zeros at 1/Ts – Orthogonal subcarriers

M g itu e an d

T 0

F qec re u n y

Guard intervals and intersymbol interference
Guard interval OFDM Symbol Guard interval OFDM Symbol OFDM Symbol

Delay Spread

Delay Spread

• If we space OFDM symbols by gaps at least as long as the delay spread, then there will be no intersymbol interference • However, there will still be interference within the symbol (intrasymbol)

Equalization and the DFT
• While using longer symbol timing means OFDM can avoid irreducible errors, still have interfering energy in band from multipath
– Received signal is the (linear) convolution of channel impulse response with transmitted signal

y  h* x

• DFT Circular Convolution Theorem
– Circular convolution of two discrete vectors in time domain

y  x h
– Is multiplication in the frequency domain

Y  XkH k k
• Implication: If we can make the system behave like a circular convolution, equalization is trivial
– complex multiplication per FFT bin at the receiver

Cyclic Prefix
• Adding a cyclic prefix at transmitter leads to circular convolution • Note that misaligned timing still results in a circular convolution, just time shifted
– Makes for phase shifts in FFT bins – Correct that in a moment
J. Andrews, A. Ghosh, R. Muhamed, Fundamentals of WiMAX, Prentice Hall, 2007

Comments on Cyclic Prefix
J. Andrews, A. Ghosh, R. Muhamed, Fundamentals of WiMAX, Prentice Hall, 2007

• We’re transmitting redundant bits (no information transfer)
– Bandwidth penalty: L / (L + v) – Power penalty: L / (L + v)

•Permits low complexity equalization for same data rates •Single carrier tap# approximately bandwidth delay product
–MAC

• Penalty becomes negligible as L becomes large (but there are tradeoffs! – more later) • Power penalty generally more important in practice where systems are interference limited • Penalty can be avoided with zero prefix
– Nothing transmitted in guard band (zero prefix) – Receiver adds tail back to beginning of symbol – Used in WiMedia

•OFDM, number subcarriers grows with bandwidthdelay product, so

Frequency Errors
• Primary sources of frequency errors
– Doppler shift – Clock mismatches – Phase noise

• Effects
– Reduction in amplitude (missampling sinc) – Intercarrier interference
O. Edfors, M. Sandell, J. van de Beek D. Landström, F. Sjöberg, “An Introduction to Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing,” Sep 98, Available online: http://epubl.luth.se/avslutade/0347-0881/96-16/esb96rc.pdf

Effects of Frequency Errors
• Comments
– Impact greater for higher SNR signals – Note 5% estimation error can lead to 5 dB effective degradation at 64-QAM like SNRs – Big frequency impact is why OFDM was originally for fixed deployments
Fading Channel AWGN

• Techniques
– Data aided – Non data aided – Cyclic prefix

O. Edfors, M. Sandell, J. van de Beek D. Landström, F. Sjöberg, “An Introduction to Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing,” Sep 98, Available online: http://epubl.luth.se/avslutade/0347 -0881/96-16/esb96rc.pdf

Channel Estimation
• Channel assumed static for duration of symbol, though frequency/phase varying over bandwidth • Solution, embed pilot symbols at regular intervals in the symbol
– Used closest pilot – Interpolate

Hf

From IEEE Std 802.16-2004

Peak-to-Average Power Ratio
O tp t P er u u ow (d m B )

• Sum of large number of (somewhat) independent subcarriers leads to signal distribution that is somewhat Gaussian • Implications
10
0 -1

P B,out 1d

1dB

Fu nd am en tal
1 1

N oise Floor P B,in 1d In u P er (d m p t ow B )

M S D

– long tails for amplitude distribution PAPR CDF for Varying # Subcarriers – Possibly large ratios of peak-topower ratios
10

B R D

log(CDF)

• Long tails can drive amplifiers into nonlinear region
– Introduces harmonics and significant out-of-band spectral energy

10

-2

(a)

(a )N=16 (b) N=32 (c) N=64 (d) N=128 (e) N=256 (f) N=1024

10

-3

(b) (c)

10

-4

(d) (e)

10

-5

(f)

10

-6

0

2

4

6

8 PAPR[dB]

10

12

14

16

Solution Techniques
Spectral Effects of Windowing and Clipping

• Clipping
– Eliminate signals above a certain level or ratio

• Peak windowing
– Filter peaks

• Linear block code
– Select only those codewords with small PAPR – Can also provide error correction
Peak Cancellation, Clipping, PAPR = 4dB

• Peak Cancellation
– Subtract signals from high peaks – Need to be similar bandwidth to limit out-of-band interfernce

• Symbol Scrambling

Adaptive Modulation
• Different subcarriers experience different flat fades • Means different SINR • Adapting modulation scheme of each subcarrier to its SINR allows the system to approach Shannon capacity
J. Andrews, A. Ghosh, R. Muhamed, Fundamentals of WiMAX, Prentice Hall, 2007

Hf
B/L

B/L

Bc B

f

OFDMA
• Multiple user access with OFDM • Lots of flexibility possible when splitting up OFDM symbols and frames
– Assign different subcarriers to different users – Assign different time slots to different users – Vary modulation and coding – Vary powers – More options available with antenna arrays
J. Andrews, A. Ghosh, R. Muhamed, Fundamentals of WiMAX, Prentice Hall, 2007

• Allocation algorithms
– Maximum Sum Rate – Proportional fairness – Proportional rates constraints

OFDM Summary
• OFDM overcomes even severe intersymbol interference through the use of the IFFT and a cyclic prefix. • Limiting factor is frequency offset
– Correctable via simple algorithm when preambles used

• Two key details of OFDM implementation are synchronization and management of the peak-toaverage ratio. • OFDMA provides a lot of flexibility to a system’s resource allocation
– Permits exploitation of multi-user diversity

Antenna Array Algorithms and MIMO

Antenna Array Principles
Fading Envelopes [dB]

•The use of multiple antennas provide two forms of diversity: –Diversity gain
• Exploit multiple independent channels created by multipath diversity • Works with uncorrelated antennas

10 5 0 -5

–Array gain
• Coherently combine energy from antennas • Works even with perfectly correlated antennas as received SNR increases linearly with the number of receive antennas

-10 0

200

400 600 Samples

800

1000

• Adding additional transceiver chains is expensive (SWAP and cost), but can provide tremendous (though competing) gains
– – – – Increase the system reliability (decrease the bit or packet error rate) Increase the achievable data rate and hence system capacity Increase the coverage area Decrease the required transmit power

Receive Diversity
• Oldest and simplest diversity technique • Receiver leverages independence of fades on antennas
– Selection Combining (SC)
• Choose antenna with maximum SINR • Lowest complexity Selection Diversity
Antenna

...
Comparator Preset Threshold Short-Term Average

Receiver

Average SNR Improvements
MRC

– Equal Gain Combining (EGC) – Maximum Ratio Combining (MRC)
• Weight signals by SINR • Best performance (system SINR is sum of antenna SINRs) SNR (dB) • Phase align and sum signals across antennas

EGC

SC

Antennas

Open Loop Transmit Diversity (1/2)
• Transmitter sends multiple signals (possibly copies)
– These interfere at the receiver, but if coded properly, the receiver can recover the signal h1

TX Encoder

h2

RX Decoder

• Simplest implementation is orthogonal space time block codes or Alamouti codes1

• Receiver Alamouti Operation

– Assumes flat constant channel over two symbol periods (may not be true for high mobility) – Requires channel knowledge at receiver – No change in rate required

• Output SNR 2x1 Alamouti

1. S. M. Alamouti, “A simple transmit diversity technique for wireless communications,” IEEE Journal on Selected Areas in Communications, vol 16 pp.1451–1458, Oct 1998

Open Loop Transmit Diversity (2/2)
A 4x2 Stacked Alamouti System

• 2x2 STBC (same transmit encoder) SINR

– Note number of h terms maximized when Nt = Nr for a fixed number of antennas – Also full-diversity, orthogonal STBCs exist only for certain combinations of Nt and Nr.

J. Andrews, A. Ghosh, R. Muhamed, Fundamentals of WiMAX, Prentice Hall, 2007

Comparison of STBC and MRC

• Can also use space-time trellis codes for added 1-2 dB, but those have exponential complexity order

Space-Time Trellis Coding
• Convolutional code applied to space and time domain • Each antenna output is mapped into modulation symbol • Maximum likelihood sequence estimator ( Viterbi algorithm)
Example) Delay Diversity (by Wittneben [4]) Encoder structure for two antennas
Modular-4 addition g11 (u1,u2) g12 Output to ANT1 g21 g31 g41

Generator matrix form

[a1 a2 a3 a4]
a1 a2
g22 g32

a3

a4
g42

QPSK mapping
Output to ANT2

Closed Loop Systems
•Transmit selection diversity
–Antenna(s) chosen which maximizes SINR –Equivalent to receiver selection diversity –Not as good as beamforming –Little bandwidth required –Makes most sense in in deployments with small bandwidths and small delay spreads (low range) –Feedback channel state information to transmit encoder –Transmit encoder then attempts to fine encoding matrix which maximizes SNR at the receiver –Higher SNR than STBC

• Linear diversity precoding

–Typically use some sort of codebook to reduce feedback bandwidth

Beamforming Systems
Narrowband adaptive array or linear combiner
x1(t) x2(t) w1

. . .

w2

120

y(t)
150 180 210 240

90 1.5 60 1 0.5 30 0

interferer

xM(t)

– –

wM

The weight vector is adjusted to improve the reception of some desired signal
Angle of arrival
• • • MUSIC, ESPRIT No physical interpretation, but useful in multipath environment Minimize some cost function

desired 330 signal
270 300

Eigenbeamforming

Useful for interference rejection, multipath fading mitigation, and increased antenna gain

Adaptive Beamforming
• Narrowband beamforming is equivalent to spatial filtering
–By choosing appropriate sensor coefficients, it is possible to steer the beam in the desired direction –By varying the sensor coefficients (spatial filter taps) adaptively, the interference is reduced

• Wideband beamforming requires joint space-time processing
–Phase shift at the antennas is frequency dependent

–Frequency-dependent response is required (filter)

• Common algorithms
–Maximum Signal to Interference and Noise Ratio (MSINR) –Minimum Mean Squared Error –Least Mean Squares –Minimum Variance Distortionless Response (MVDR) –Recursive Least Squares –Similar to linear precoding, but may account for interferers

Performance Comparison
• MRT refers to maximum ratio transmission
– the choice of antenna weights that maximize received SNR
3 dB

• With optimal eigenbeamformer, canceling an interferer is equivalent to dropping an antenna element

Modified from: J. Andrews, A. Ghosh, R. Muhamed, Fundamentals of WiMAX, Prentice Hall, 2007

Spatial Multiplexing
• In rich scattering environments, independent data signals transmitted from different antennas can be uniquely decoded to yield an increase in channel capacity
x1 Source Modulation & Coding h11

. . .

hN1 h1M hNM Channel

. . .

y1 Demodulation & Decoding Sink

xM

xN

Spatial Multiplexing Techniques
•Open loop (Unknown channel)
–Maximum likelihood
• Little gain, except at low SNR

•Closed loop (known channel)
–Singular Value Decomposition
• Computationally complex • Capacity (assuming waterfilling)

–Zero-forcing
• Evaluates pseudo-inverse of H • Can dramatically increase noise power

–MMSE
• Minimizes distortion • Like Zero-forcing at high SNR, but without the instability at low SNR • For large SNR, capacity grows linearly with rank of H, approximately min{Nt, Nr} • information capacity, • error probability • detection MSE • received SNR

–BLAST
• Layers & codes transmissions across antennas • Effectively linear receiver with successive interference cancellation • Receiver iterates through transmission streams using MMSE or ZF • Works better in lab than real-world due to high SNR requirement

–Approximations guided by

–Can tradeoff multiplexing for diversity

Relative Capacity as function of Antenna Array Technique
• 19 BS, 3 sectors, spaced 2.8 km, mix of users • Proportional Fair scheduling

Source: WiMAX Forum

Correlation/Coupling Effects
• Spacing between antennas influence correlation and coupling • Multipath components can act like interference for beamforming which reduces antenna gain
4x4, SNR = 20 dB, 30 AS Beamforming BER

http://www.ngwnet.ac.uk/files/wspres/mimo2.thompson.pdf

[Ref. D. Figueiredo, WPMC’04]

Diversity vs. Beamforming
• • • • • • • Diversity Combining Combine signals from different antenna elements using various algorithms Signal from each element is processed separately Signals have to be uncorrelated for maximum performance Mitigates fading Increases gain Can improve polarization match No interference rejection capabilities

Adaptive beamforming • Focus the antenna’s gain in the direction of the desired signal
– Achieved by manipulating the weights associated with each element

• Antenna elements have to be separated by /2 to attain a certain phase difference in the signals
– Signals are correlated

• All advantages of diversity combining • Has interference rejection capabilities
– Typically > 20 dB

MIMO Summary
• Spatial diversity offers incredible improvements in reliability, comparable to increasing the transmit power by a factor of 10–100. • These diversity gains can be attained with multiple receive antennas, multiple transmit antennas, or a combination of both. • Beamforming techniques are an alternative to directly increase the desired signal energy while suppressing, or nulling, interfering signals. • In contrast to diversity and beamforming, spatial multiplexing allows multiple data streams to be simultaneously transmitted using sophisticated signal processing. • Since multiple-antenna techniques require channel knowledge, the MIMO-OFDM channel can be estimated, and this channel knowledge can be relayed to the transmitter for even larger gains. • It is possible to switch between diversity and multiplexing modes to find a desirable reliability-throughput operating point; multiuser MIMO strategies can be harnessed to transmit to multiple users simultaneously over parallel spatial channels.

J. Andrews, A. Ghosh, R. Muhamed, Fundamentals of WiMAX, Prentice Hall, 2007

Presentation Overview
Theory (32) OFDM and Antenna Array Theory Emerging Standards (24) Cellular and WiMAX (16) WLAN (10) WPAN (11) Cognitive Standards ( 7) Interoperability Standards ( 6) Summary and Trends Break & Poster Session 2:45-3:30

http://www.wisoa.net/members_logos/mobile_in ternet-big.jpg

Cellular and WiMAX
LTE, UMB, TD-SCDMA, WiMAX

Cellular Overview
• Two primary competing approaches to 3G
– 3GPP Family
• GSM, GPRS, EDGE, WCDMA, TD-SCDMA (WCDMA-TDD), HSCSD, HSPDA, LTE, LTE Advanced

3GPP Declared IP

• Promotional www.gsmworld.com • Standards www.3gpp.org – 3GPP2 Family • CDMAOne (IS-95a,b), 1xRTT, 1xEVDO, 1xEVDV, UMB • Promotional http://www.cdg.org • Standards www.3gpp2.org – One vision
• Voice + high speed data + mobility

3GPP2 Declared IP

– One dominant IP holder (Qualcomm)

• New Entrant
– Mobile WiMAX and WiMAX II (802.16m) – Standard http://wirelessman.org/ – Promotional http://www.wimaxforum.org – Lower cost IP
• 350 companies own essential IP • http://www.eetimes.eu/design/197007324
Source: “3G Cellular Standards and Patents”, David J. Goodman and Robert A. Meyers

GSM Dominates the Landscape

http://www.coveragemaps.com/gsmposter_world.htm

• 3GPP (GSM/WCDMA) has most of the market (77% in 2005, 83% in 2006, 86.6% in 2008)
– Most of that lead is in GSM

• 3GPP2 (cdma2000) got a massive jump on 3GPP
– 418/431 million of CDMA is 3G (www.cdg.org) – 3GPP2 = 11.4%, 3GPP = 5.6%

• WiMAX just cranking up but will be deploying years ahead of LTE

3GPP Technologies
• Generic Access Network (UMA)
– Supports handoffs between GSM networks and 802.11 or Bluetooth networks Enables easier handoffs between different 3GPP networks

• High Speed Downlink Packet Access • W-CDMA downlink
• • 8-10 Mbps (and 20 Mbps for MIMO systems) over a 5MHz bandwidth

• •

Packet Switched Handoffs

Multimedia Broadcast/Multicast Services
– Simultaneous broadcast of data streams to multiple recipients

– – – –

Adaptive Modulation and Coding (AMC), MIMO (Release 6) Hybrid ARQ All IP core network
• • (Release 4) Originally ATM

• High Speed Uplink Packet Access (Enhanced UpLink)
– Similar technologies to HSDPA on uplink – AT&T in 350 markets
• • http://www.mobileburn.com/news.jsp?Id=466 0 Loosely coincides with launch of 3G iPhone

Table from: http://www.umtsworld.com/technology/images/hsdpa.png

3GPP Long Term Evolution (LTE)
E-UTRA Air Interface
• Evolved Universal Terrestrial Radio Access • Downlink: Adaptive multilink OFDM (AMLOFDM), which means different bandwidths based on demand
– Variable prefix size
• 4.7 ms to 16.7 ms • Intent to support up to 120 km cells

Approximate Deployment Schedule

– Called High Speed OFDM Packet Access or HSOPA

http://www.motorola.com/staticfiles/Business/Solutions/Industry Solutions/Service Providers/Wireless Operators/LTE/_Document/6993_MotDoc.pdf

• • • • • • • •

Uplink: SC-FDMA (more later) DL 100 Mbps in 20 MHz (5 bps/Hz) UL 50 Mbps in 20 MHZ (2.5 bps/Hz) Reduced transition time between states (such as between idle and active states) Variable bandwidth allocations: 1.25 MHz, 1.6 MHz, 2.5 MHz, 5 MHz, 10 MHz, 15 MHz and 20 MHz in both the uplink and downlink At least 200 users/cell Load sharing/policy across radio access technologies Support for antenna arrays
– Beamforming, MIMO

All IP Core Network

– Space Division Multiple Access
http://hgmyung.googlepages.com/3gppLTE.pdf

More LTE Details
Frame Structure

http://www.motorola.com/staticfiles/Business/Solutions/Industr y Solutions/Service Providers/Wireless Operators/LTE/_Document/6993_MotDoc.pdf

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/SC-FDMA

• SC-FDMA (UL)
– Applies frequency domain equalization to single-carrier system – Like spread-OFDM – Transmits serially (single-carrier) – Better PAPR (single carrier) – Less sensitivity to carrier offset – Similar complexity for just equalization
• But extra steps to effect SC-FDMA

– Subframes 0,5 must be DL – Otherwise arbitrary TDD structure

• Other Features
– Interference Mitigation – Extensions

– Better battery life – Possibly worse performance in fading channels
http://www.motorola.com/staticfiles/Business/Solutions/Industry Solutions/Service Providers/Wireless Operators/LTE/_Document/6993_MotDoc.pdf

TD-SCDMA
• Time Division – Synchronous CDMA
– Synchronized uplink channels aided by joint detection – China’s 3G technology
•3 P GP
L RT D C D (4 R) L RT D C D (5 R) L RT D C D ( 6 R) L RT D C D ( 7 R) M- D A CC M TD D L ET D T D OD A FM TD D
S- D A CF M /O D AT D FM D

• Core network is almost the same as WCDMA
– Requires mature 2G (GSM) network for implementation

•C S CA

T - CM DS D A S g III ta e (6 7 R /R ) T - CM DS D A S g I ta e ( 42 0 /0 ) R 03 3 T - CM DS D A S g II ta e (5 R)

NFe u n y r qec B n sC ll ad e

T - OD A DS F M

• Part of the 3GPP (3rd Generation Planning Partnership Project) • Multiple chip rates
– LCR: 1.28 Mcps, 1.6 MHz BW – HCR: 3.84 Mcps, 5 MHz BW

Mlti- ar r u c r ie

C r e t s tu ur n ta s

S ot T r E o tio h r em v lu n
20 05 20 07

L n T r E o tio o g em v lu n

ZTE Corporation, “3GPP Specification Evolution”

• TDD link
– Does not use paired frequency bands
• Optimum for symmetric and asymmetric data services

TD-SCDMA Multiple Access Options

– 1.6 MHz bandwidth allows flexibly spectrum allocation

• Partially motivated by avoiding paying Qualcomm royalties B. Li, D. Xie, S.Cheng, J. Chen, P. Zhang,
W.Zhu, B. Li; “Recent advances on TDSCDMA in China,” IEEE Comm. Mag, vol 43, pp 30-37, Jan 2005

Significant Issues Deploying
• Standardized in 1999 • Was going to roll out in 2004
– http://www.commsdesign.com/news/marke t_news/OEG20030102S0009

• However, China has made it a point of national pride to have the network running for the 2008 Olympics
– http://www.highbeam.com/doc/1G1150687033.html – Is already being tested in 10 cities (includes the Olympic cities) but nationwide licenses may not even be issued by the Olympics
• http://www.thestandard.com.hk/news_detail.a sp?pp_cat=1&art_id=54099&sid=15557306&c on_type=1

• Then 2005
– http://www.chinadaily.com.cn/english/doc/2 004-06/23/content_341749.htm

• Then 2006
– http://www.accessmylibrary.com/premium/ 0286/0286-9623636.html

• Then 2007
– http://www.theage.com.au/news/Technolog y/China-Mobile-to-launch-3G-mobileservicesend2007/2007/02/12/1171128898337.html

– First commercial trials supposed to begin April 1, 2008
• http://www.tdscdmaalliance.org/english/news/list.asp?id=4426

– First public demos in May went badly
• http://www.pcworld.com/businesscenter/articl e/146128/china_shows_off_olympic_techsort _of.html

• Now will reportedly issues licenses in 2008
– http://news.zdnet.com/2110-1035_226207356.html

• Delays make Chinese state-owned service providers unhappy
– Grumblings about forgoing TD-SCDMA from ChinaMobile (primary deployer) – http://www.forbes.com/markets/feeds/afx/2 006/01/31/afx2489964.html

• China won’t allow 3G or WiMAX until TD-SCDMA takes off • Developed a bad reputation
– http://homepage.mac.com/dwbmbeijing/ibl og/SiHu/C520534961/E20060302210839/i ndex.html – Unnamed China Mobile engineer – “you GIVE me a TD-SCDMA network, and I wouldn't take it."

Older 3GPP2 Technologies
• cdma2000 1xRTT
– Packet-switched (always on) – Maximum of 144kbps
• Typical 40-60 kbps

• EVDO Rev A
– Wide deployment
• Verizon, Sprint, Kindle best known

– Features
• • • • Higher modulation uplink Multi-user packets (time-slots) Lower Latency Couple new data rates downlink (changed code rate)

– 2G / 3G

• 1x EVDO
– CDMA EVolution Data Only
• Designed to support only data applications
– VOIP

• Also known as:
– CDMA 1x EV-DO – CDMA EV-DO

• Promotional
– http://www.evdoinfo.com

– Can offer data rates of 384kbps - 2.4Mbps
• Does not mix voice traffic with data traffic • Changes modulation, # timeslots

Verizon EVDO-Rev A Coverage Map

• EVDV (Voice + Data)
– Dead on arrival
• http://telephonyonline.com/mag/telecom_evdv _dead/index.html • Qualcomm halted work on the standard in 2005 – http://news.com.com/Cell+phone+makers +to+adopt+Internet+calling/2100-7352_35618191.html – Slow to field
http://www.verizonwireless.com

EVDO Rev B (TIA-856 RevB)
• Adds Multiple carriers – 2xEVDO, 3xEVDO,… – Up to 15 1.25 MHz carriers within 20 MHz • Adds support for 64-QAM modulation • DL 73.5 Mbps • UL 27 Mbps • Dynamic non-contiguous carrier allocation • Support for single carrier and multiple carrier subscribers • Standardized 2006 • Trials mid-2007 • Software upgrade (at BTS) to Rev A • Commercial deployments?
– No major announcements

EVDO Rev C (UMB)
• Spec published Sep 24, 2007
– http://www.cdg.org/news/press/2007/Sep24_07.asp

– 3GPP2 (UMB) beats 3GPP to market again – Chipsets available nowish
• http://www.qualcomm.com/press/releases/2007/070327_complete_solution_ultra.html

Data rates, mobile with 20 MHz bandwidth
– – DL: 288 Mbps UL: 75 Mbps

Key technologies
– OFDMA, MIMO, beamforming – Flexible spectrum allocation
– – Enhanced QoS Support for multiple access technologies

– Reduced latency

Likely killed when Verizon went with LTE
– http://www.phoneplusmag.com/hotnews/79h20122346.html
• • http://www.abiresearch.com/products/research_brief/Wireless_Infrastructure_Research_Briefs/112 http://www.fiercebroadbandwireless.com/story/qualcomm-ceo-umb-not-dead-yet/2008-01-14 http://www.betanews.com/article/Report_Alltels_choice_of_LTE_a_big_loss_for_WiMAX_UMB/121095 6891

– Dead on Arrival

– Qualcomm differs (ineffectually)
– Alltel didn’t even say they had considered it (WiMAX vs LTE – chose LTE)

802.16 Family (WiMAX)
802.16 802.16a 802.16c 802.16d 802.16e 802.16f LOS 10-66 GHz 2-11 GHz 2-11 GHz Combined 802.16,a,c Mobile WiMAX Net Management Database (MIB) 802.16g Spring 2007 Network management plane 802.16h 2009 License-exempt Coexistence 802.16i Fall 2008 Mobile Management Information Base 802.16j 2009 Mobile Multihop Relay 802.16k Aug 2007 Network Management 802.16m 2010 4G Apr 2002 Apr 2003 Jan 2003 Oct 2004 Dec 2005 Dec 2005

Commercialization Roadmap

WiMAX Forum (2006): Mobile WiMAX – Part I: A Technical Overview and Performance Evaluation. Available at www.wimaxforum.org

Projections based on data at http://grouper.ieee.org/groups/802/16/published.html

802.16e (Mobile WiMAX, 802.162005)
• Ideally, 802.16 + mobility
– Really intended for nomadic or low mobility – Not backwards compatible with 802.162004 • http://www.unstrung.com/document.a sp?doc_id=76862

PHY Spec Overview

• Direct competitor to 3G, 4G, 802.20 though WiMAX Forum once said otherwise • Numerous ongoing deployments and working systems, particularly for WiBRO • PHY
– Scalable OFDM + Optional MIMO – Convolutional turbo codes – Optional block turbo codes, LDPC
WiMAX Forum (2006): Mobile WiMAX – Part I: A Technical Overview and Performance Evaluation. Available at www.wimaxforum.org

Other Mobile WiMAX Features
• • • • • Frame-by-frame resource allocation Hybrid Automatic Repeat Request (HARQ) UL and DL Scheduling Variable QoS Three handoff methods
– A traditional Hard Handoff (HHO) – Fast Base Station Switching (FBSS) • A list of reachable base stations is maintained by mobile and base stations, but base stations discard packets if not the active BS – Macro Diversity (MDHO) • Same list is maintained, but all base stations in the list can participate in the reception and transmission of packets.

• Security
– AES for traffic and control data – EAP – Privacy and Key Management Protocol Version 2 (PKMv2) – 3-way handshake on handoffs

• IP Core Network (supports Voice Over IP) • Multicast Broadcast Services
– Like cellular multicast services

• WiBRO
– Defines a set of options for Mobile WiMAX for Korean deployment

WiMAX Spectrum
• WiMAX Spectrum Alliances • Regulatory Database
– AT4 Wireless – Launched November 2006 – http://www.wimaxforum.org/join/spectrum_d emo/

• WiMAX Global Roaming Alliance
– Brought together unlicensed providers to promote global roaming – Now defunct – Will probably come back in some form – http://www.theregister.co.uk/2006/09/29/oz_ wimax_roaming_alliance/

http://www.wimaxforum.org/news/downloads/supercomm_2005/ WF_Day_in_a_Life_with_WiMAX_Final.pdf

• WiMAX Spectrum Owners' Alliance
– http://www.wisoa.com/ – Promotes roaming agreements – Participants: – Unwired Australia, Network Plus Mauritius, UK Broadband, Irish Broadband, Austar Australia/Liberty Group, Telecom New Zealand, WiMAX Telecom Group, Enertel and Woosh Telecom

• Recent reports of interference with with C-Band VSAT
– http://www.suirg.org/pdf/SUIRG_WiMaxFie ldTestReport.pdf

• Officially declared 3G so 3G spectrum
– http://www.wirelessweek.com/WiMAX-is3G.aspx

• 700 MHz band
– http://www.xchangemag.com/articles/501/79 h13917183935.html?cntwelcome=1

Mobile WiMAX Deployments
• First Mobile WiMAX products certified April 2008
– 2.3 GHz, 4 base, 4 subscriber – POSDATA, Runcom Technologies Ltd, Samsung Electronics Co., LTD and Sequans Communications – http://www.wimaxforum .org/news/pr/view?item _key=59390fb727bfa1 5b5b8d11bf9341b2b11 76099f8
802.16d + 802.16e + WiBRO

http://www.wimaxforum.org/technology/documents/wimax_networks_worldwide_11x17.pdf

• Success appears tied to Sprint-Nextel / Clearwire effort

Clearwire/Sprint
Clearwire Coverage • Fixed WiMAX based wireline replacement service to home + portability within coverage area • 2 Mbps data + voice
http://www.clearwire.com/

Merged Company • http://www.clearwireconnections .com/pr/pressreleases/050708.p df • Clearwire + Sprint WiMAX unit
– Called Clearwire

• Investors
– $3.2 Billion from Google (500 M), Comcast (1.05B), Time-Warner (550M), Bright House (100M), Trilogy Equity (10M) – Sprint owns 51% – Clearwire owns 27% – Investors own 22%

Sprint
• Mobile WiMAX • Rapid deployment to major cities
– 10,000 sites in preparation – 1750 base stations delivered in 2007, 20,000 antennas

• Nationwide focus
– 120-140 million coverage by 2010

• Commercial agreements
– Intel will put WiMAX in chipsets
• Had been planning on that

• Incorporated into numerous devices (cameras and televisions) • Open Network (support Android)
• Federal government connectivity via WiMAX
– http://www.wimaxday.net/site/2007/06/05/sprint-planswimax-for-gov%e2%80%99t-services/

– Google services to be carried (and search provider) – Support Android – Sprint, Comcast, TimeWarner, and Bright House will be wholesale – Sprint contributes its 2.5 GHz holdings

WiBro
• • Korean version of 802.16e
– –

Phase 1 standardized by TTA of Korea (2004) Phase 2 standardized in 2005
2.3 GHz (100 MHz) Samsung joined WiMAX Forum Dec 2004 May indicate Samsung’s guess on 4G direction KT & SK Telecom launched June 30, 2006 in Seoul http://kt.co.kr/kthome/kt_info/pr/news_center/news_view.jsp?pa ge=1&no=397&gubun=1 KT well ahead of SK
•http://www.wimax.com/commentary/blog/blog-2007/wibrosubscriber-numbers-korea-telecom-kt-far-ahead-of-sk-telecom

Korean spectrum allocated 2002


Harmonization 802.16e/WiBro agreed Nov 2004
– – – –

Plans for Nationwide Korean deployment

How does WiBRO relate to 802.16e?
• WiMAX Forum: (http://www.wimaxforum.org/news/press_releases/WiBro_and_Mobile_WiMAX_Bac kgrounder.pdf)
– “WiBro is the service name for Mobile WiMAX in Korea. WiBro uses the Mobile WiMAX System Profile. The system profile contains a comprehensive list of features that the equipment is required or allowed to support, and, as a result, WiBro offers the same capabilities and features of Mobile WiMAX.” – It’s Mobile WiMAX, just with a different profile (frequency, bandwidth…)

Vendors: WiBRO is compatible with 802.16e, but there’s more to Mobile WiMAX than just 802.16e compatibility and many choices in WiBRO are different from what is mandatory in 802.16e
– From (http://www.nortel.com/solutions/wimax/collateral/wimax_wibro_white_paper.pdf)

Some more important differences from Nortel white paper
– Mandatory Handoff
• 802.16e = HHO • WiBRO = FBSS

– HARQ
• 80.16e = Chase combine HARQ • WiBRO = Incremental redundancy HARQ

– Likely (though unclear) network layer differences

802.16j Mobile Multi-hop Relay
• Expand coverage, capacity by adding relay stations • Intended for licensed operation • Not intended as a mesh network
– Actually a tree

• • •

Relays controlled from base stations Fixed Relay
– Permanent installation – Useful for coverage holes

• Support mobile units

Nomadic Relay
– Temporary fixed installation – Extra capacity for special events (military SDR conferences)

Mobile Relay
– Placed on mobile platform to support users on the platform – Useful for public transport (buses, trains)

Modified from Fig 1 in IEEE 802.16mmr-05/032

IEEE 802.20
• Fill performance gap between “high data-rate, low mobility 802 standards” and “high mobility cellular networks” • From QTDD/QFDD Proposal • OFDMA data channel • CDMA control channel • Bandwidths
– 5 MHz – 20 MHz

• 802.20 Shenanigans • Allegations of process abuse brought to a screeching halt when standard suspended in September • Project Launched 2004 • Looked to be dead in the water
– Flarion leading proposal – Qualcomm leading vote holder

• MIMO
– Single, multiple code word – Pseudo- Eigen beamforming

• Space Division Multiple Access
– Separate mode from MIMO

• Turned around when Qualcomm bought Flarion (Aug 05)
– http://www.dailywireless.org/modules.php?na me=News&file=article&sid=4532

• Data Rate 260 Mbps
– MIMO, 20 MHz

• Went to proposal downselection process
– Qualcomm (Flarion) TDD, FDD – ETRI – BEST-WINE (Kyocera)

• Turbo coding • Time-frequency hopping • Supposed to support inter Radio Access Technology handoffs • Similar to UMB
– UMB is effectively an upgrade to MBFDD version – IEEE C802.20-07/14 – Likely same fate (contributions way down)

• Reapproved in Dec 06 • First meeting Jan 2007

4G (IMT-Advanced)

Wireless community already looking towards 4G Requirements being formalized
– – – – 1 Gbps fixed 100 Mbps mobile (end-to-end) Support for heterogeneous nets Global roaming

Several candidates already emerging
– LTE-Advanced – 802.16m – NTT DoCoMo’s 5 Gbps prototype
• http://www.nttdocomo.com/pr/files/2 0070209_attachment02.pdf
3G Americas, “Defining 4G: Understanding the ITU Process for the Next Generation of Wireless Technology,” July 2007 Available online: http://3gamericas.com/PDFs/3G_Americas_Defining_4G_WP_July2007.pdf

– China’s home grown standard
• http://www.forbes.com/markets/fee ds/afx/2007/09/25/afx4151478.html

Common techniques
– OFDMA, MIMO, small cell sizes optimized for low speed, but support for high speed, IP backbone
http://www.nttdocomo.com/pr/files/20070209_attachment01.pdf

802.16m
Requirements • TGm System Requirements Document
– http://wirelessman.org/tgm/docs/8021 6m-07_002r4.pdf – http://wirelessman.org/tgm/docs/8021 6m-07_003.pdf • Minimum Peak Rate
– Downlink 6.5 bps/Hz – Uplink 2.8 bps/Hz

• Latency less than 802.16e • Radio Resource Management
– Reporting, interference management – Multicast broadcast service – “High-resolution” location determination

• Key functionalities to be added (not defined yet)
– Routing – Self Organization – Multi-Carrier – Multi-Radio Coexistence

• Internetworking with:
– 802.11 3GPP, 3GPP2

• Coverage optimized for 5 km, functional to 30-100 km • Optimized for low mobility (<15kph), maintain connection up to 350 kph • Optimized for contiguous spectrum but support discontiguous • Reuse/share bandwidth with legacy systems • Direct migration from 802.16e

IEEE C802.16m-07/002r1

Cellular Summary
• Lots of decisions appear motivated by politics and IP costs • UMB, 802.20 likely dead for different though related reasons • Likely competing standards are LTE and WiMAX
– Very similar technologies though – General trend of adopting successful technologies

• Success of Mobile WiMAX highly contingent on success of new ClearWire entity
– Well funded – If successful, will change cellular business models
• Applications finally driving networks (iPhone, Kindle)

• LTE is very slow out of the gate
– 3GPP still has not caught up with 3GPP2 – Will LTE be the same?

• 4G a ways out, but preparation is underway

Presentation Overview
Theory (32) OFDM and Antenna Array Theory Emerging Standards (24) Cellular and WiMAX (16) WLAN (10) WPAN (11) Cognitive Standards ( 7) Interoperability Standards ( 6) Summary and Trends Break & Poster Session 2:45-3:30

http://www.wisoa.net/members_logos/mobile_in ternet-big.jpg

Wireless LANs
802.11

802.11 Alphabet Soup
Jun Sep Sep Oct Jun Jun Oct Jun Oct Sep May May Jun Sep Sep Dec Sep Dec Dec Mar May May 1997 1999 1999 2001 2003 2003 2003 2004 2004 2005 2008 2008 2008 2008 2009 2009 2009 2009 2009 2010 2010 2011 802.11 802.11a 802.11b 802.11d 802.11f 802.11g 802.11h 802.11i 802.11j 802.11e 802.11k 802.11r 802.11y 802.11n 802.11w 802.11p 802.11z 802.11v 802.11t 802.11u 802.11s 802.11aa 2 Mbps ISM 54 Mbps UNII 11 Mbps ISM global roaming interoperability 54 Mbps ISM spectrum management security Japanese spectrum real time QoS RRM measurements fast roaming US 3.65 GHz 100 Mbps packet security vehicular (5.9) Direct Link Setup network management Testing external networks mesh networks Video Transport Streams

Past dates are standards approval dates. Future dates from 802.11 working group timelines Letters are working group (WG) designations. Letters assigned alphabetically as groups created. No WG/ WG document 802.11c MAC Bridging work incorporated into 802.1d 802.11l “typologically unsound” 802.11m doc maintenance 802.11o “typologically unsound” 802.11q too close to 802.1q 802.11x generic 802.11 standard 802.11t (test) will produce 802.11.2
http://grouper.ieee.org/groups/802/11/Reports/802.11_Timelines.htm

WiFi Alliance
• • • • • Industrial consortium that promotes 802.11
– www.wi-fi.org

Millions of WiFi Chipset Shipped


Certifies interoperability between vendors’ products Certifies consistency with standards Fills in the gap when 802.11 standards process is too slow (draft n) WiFi success owes significant debt to WiFi Alliance Line between 802.11 standards community and WiFi Alliance has gotten very blurry Certifications
– 802.11a/b/g/n WiFi – 802.11e Wireless Multimedia – Draft 2.0 n
Wi-Fi Alliance, Introducing Wi-Fi Protected Setup™, January 3, 2007

Distributed Coordination Function (DCF)
• Intended to combat “hidden nodes” in an uncoordinated network and generate fair access to channel • Basic components:
–After waiting DIFS after last detected transmission, source sends Request to Send (RTS) –Destination replies with Clear to Send (if OK) –Data is then transferred and ACKed –If an error occurs (e.g., collision), then station has to wait for DIFS + random backoff.
• Random backoff grows with # of collisions

• Network allocation vector
– Acts as virtual carrier sense – Duration given in RTS/CTS fields

• DIFS = DCF Interframe Space • SIFS = Short Interframe Space

802.11 overhead
• Significant overhead involved in 802.11
– RTS/CTS/ACK SIFS – TCP, IP, MAC framing – Real throughput is rarely come close to PHY raw rate

http://www.cs.tut.fi/kurssit/TLT-6556/Slides/Lecture4.pdf wireless.ictp.trieste.it/school_2002/lectures/ermanno/System_Performance.ppt

802.11n overview
• Adds MIMO to WLAN OFDM • Operate in either UNII or ISM bands • Status:
–In Ballot –But held up by IP battles
• http://arstechnica.com/news.ars/post/2007 0924-dark-australian-patent-cloud-loomsover-802-11n-spec.html • CSIRO (http://www.csiro.au/) holds some key IP, hadn’t signed letter of assurance, has history of WiFi lawsuits and sought injunctions
– Got bought off

Streaming Home Multimedia (HDTV)

• Last freely available draft
–Enhanced Wireless Consortium (merger of TGnSync and WWiSE) –http://www.enhancedwirelessconsortiu m.org/home/EWC_PHY_spec_V127.pd f (PHY) –http://www.enhancedwirelessconsortiu m.org/home/EWC_MAC_spec_V124.pd f (MAC)
Source: http://www.tgnsync.org/products

802.11n PHY (in 1 slide)
• MIMO evolution of 802.11 OFDM PHY
–Up to 4 antennas per device

• 20 and 40MHz channels
–Fully interoperable with legacy 802.11a/b/g –288 Mbps in 20MHz and 600 Mbps in 40MHz (64 QAM, 4 spatial streams, 1/2 guard interval) –Claim of 100 Mbps in real throughput

• Optional enhancements
–Transmit beamforming with negligible overhead at the client –Advanced channel coding techniques (RS) –Space Time Block Coding (Alamouti and others) –1/2 guard interval (i.e., 400ns instead of 800 ns) –7/8 rate coding
http://www.enhancedwirelessconsortium.org/home/EWC_PHY_spec_V127.pdf

802.11n MAC Features
• Supports 802.11e (QoS) • Frame aggregation
–Single and multiple destinations

• Bi-directional data flow • Link adaptation with explicit feedback and control of channel sounding packets • Protection mechanisms
–For seamless interoperability and coexistence with legacy devices

• Channel management
–Including management of 20/40MHz operating modes –Channel estimation and feedback
Broadcom, “802.11n: Next-Generation Wireless LAN Technology,” White Paper, April 06

• Power management for MIMO receivers • Data aggregation

802.11n Certification
• Wi-Fi Alliance
– Certifying to Draft 2.0 while draft is approved – Certify to Ratified Standard when available – 22 August 2007 Almost 70 products certified for compliance with Draft 2.0 of the 802.11n
• http://www.wifiplanet.com/news/article .php/3578886
Wi-Fi CERTIFIED™ 802.11n draft 2.0: Longer-Range, Faster-Throughput, Multimedia-Grade Wi-Fi® Networks

Key Certification Features

802.11p Operation
• “Dedicated Short Range Communications” (DSRC)
– Started in IEEE 1609, spun into 802.11p – Aka (WAVE) Wireless Access for Vehicular Environment

• IEEE 802.11a adjusted for low overhead operations
– 54 Mbps, <50 ms latency – 5.850 to 5.925GHz band

• Spectrum divided into 7 bands
– 178 is control (safety) – 2 edge channels are reserved for future – The rest are service channels (not application specific)

• Mix of roadside-to-vehicle and vehicleto-vehicle communications • Questions on business model
– http://www.rita.dot.gov/press_room/pres s_releases/index.html

D. Jiang, V. Taliwal, A. Meier, W. Holfelder, R. Herrtwich, “Design of 5.9 ghz dsrc-based vehicular safety communication,“ IEEE Wireless Comm, Oct 06, pp. 36-43

802.11p Applications
• Emergency warning system for vehicles • Cooperative Adaptive Cruise Control • Cooperative Forward Collision Warning • Intersection collision avoidance • Approaching emergency vehicle warning (Blue Waves) • Vehicle safety inspection • Transit or emergency vehicle signal priority • Electronic parking payments • Commercial vehicle clearance and safety inspections • In-vehicle signing • Rollover warning • Probe data collection • Highway-rail intersection warning
C L IS N O L IO IM IN N M ET F OT RN
I - e ic nVh le Dp y ad is la s n An n ia n n u c tio s

C L IS N O L IO IM IN N M ET LF ET

N te1 T eO U th v h ler c g iz gth the t o : h B in e e ic e o n in e r a tr n m aW R IN a dC L IS N R P R T N a s its A N G n O L IO P E A A IO M S A Ew th lo a na de so th the t v h le E S G ith e c tio d r s f e r a e ic .

N te2 Olyth O U th the te in v h lepo e s s o : n e B in e r a n g e ic r c s e th ms a eb c u eo lyit mtc e th the t a de s e es g ea s n a hs e r a dr s.

~ ~

~ ~

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N te3 C L IS N R P R T N c d ss a b lt o : O L IO P E A A IO in lu e e t e t he in , s ea b gd p y e t s eb me ig t n g id ir a e lo mn, id u p r e p n io , ec xas n t . Rd rT r a I e tif a n a a he t d n ic tio

u to1 0 p 0 m 3 8f ( 2 t)

CrN TSo p g a O t p in Taf S n l r f ic ig a Taf S n l r f ic ig a O U o Cn o C B s n o tr l h

From: IEEE 802.11- 04/ 0121r0 Available: http://www.npstc.org/meetings/Cash%20WAVE%2 0Information%20for%205.9%20GHz%20061404.p df

802.11r overview
• • Fast BSS Roaming/Transition within IEEE WLAN networks
– Preserve security with handovers <50ms

Fast BSS Roaming is possible only within a certain area called the mobility domain (MD), inter-MD cases are not covered
– Mobility Domain (MD): Set of BSS grouped together with the same 48bit MD Identifier – FT functionality seeks to provide handover performance for RT services

• •

Key Issues
– Resource Reservations – Security

Collapsed 5 step process down to 3
– – – Scanning – active or passive for other APs in the area Authentication with a (one or more) target AP Re-association to establish connection at target AP

Released 2008

http://www.cs.tut. fi/kurssit/TLT6556/Slides/Lect ure4.pdf

Reduction in Roaming Time
S. Bangolae, C. Bell, E.Qi, “Performance study of fast BSS transition using IEEE 802.11r,” International Conference On Communications And Mobile Computing, 2006

http://www.networkcomputing.com/gallery/2007/0416/0416t tb.jhtml;jsessionid=0CK4ZKR20HC5QQSNDLPCKHSCJU NN2JVN

802.11s
• Modify 802.11 MAC to create dynamic self-configuring network of access points (AP) called and Extended Service Set (ESS) Mesh • Automatic topology learning, dynamic path selection • Single administrator for 802.11i (authentication) • Support up to 32 AP • Support higher layer connections • Allow alternate path selection metrics • Extend network merely by introducing access point and configuring SSID
1. http://standards.ieee.org/board/nes/projects/802-11s.pdf

IP or Ethernet

802.11s
• Key Technologies
–Topology Formation –Internetworking –Routing –Security

• Open 802.11s (Linux)
– http://www.open80211s.org/

• Numerous WiFi mesh products
– http://www.cs.wustl.edu/~jain/cse 574-06/ftp/j_jmesh/sld019.htm
Deployment Scenarios

http://ieee802.org/802_tutorials/nov06/802.11s_Tutorial_r5.pdf
J. Hauser, D. Shyy, M. Green, MCTSSA 802.11s Military Usage Case

WLAN Summary
• Significant overhead in baseline • 802.11n slow to finalize standard
– WiFi Alliance certifying to Draft 2.0

• Most activities directed towards expanding markets
– Better support for voice – Vehicular networks – Other spectrum opportunities
• 802.11j, 802.11h (later)

– Mesh networks (802.11s) – Interoperability with cellular (later)

Presentation Overview
Theory (32) OFDM and Antenna Array Theory Emerging Standards (24) Cellular and WiMAX (16) WLAN (10) WPAN (11) Cognitive Standards ( 7) Interoperability Standards ( 6) Summary and Trends Break & Poster Session 2:45-3:30

http://www.wisoa.net/members_logos/mobile_in ternet-big.jpg

Wireless Personal Area Networks

Industry and Open Standards
802.15 Standards
802.15.1 802.15.2 802.15.3 802.15.3a 802.15.3b 802.15.3c 802.15.4 802.15.4a 802.15.4b 802.15.4c 802.15.4d 802.15.4e 802.15.5 802.15.6 IGThz SGRFID SGVLC April 2002 Oct 2003 Jun 2003 Bluetooth Coexistence High data rate UWB (high rate) Doc Maintenance mm-wave PHY zigbee (PHY/MAC) UWB (low rate) Updates 802.15.4 document Chinese WPAN PHY 950 MHz in Japan MAC for 802.15.4c WPAN Mesh Body Area Networks Terahertz interest group (300 GHz+) RFID Study Group Visible Light

• Proprietary / Industry
– Zigbee (on 802.15.4)
• Zigbee Pro

May 2008 May 2003 March 2007 Sep 2006 Jan 2009 Mar 2009 Jan 2009?

802.15.3a disbanded Jan 2006 MBOA technologies became WiMedia High speed DS-UWB basically dead after Freescale pulled out

– – – – – – – –

Bluetooth (originally) WiBree WiMedia Z-Wave En-Ocean Insteon Keer TransferJet

Emerging 802.15 Standards
• 802.15.4c (China)
–779-787 MHz band –Two PHY Modulations: MPSK PHY and OQPSK –Considering OFDM, beamforming

• 802.15.4d (Japan) • 802.15.5e
–Enhanced MAC for Industrial applications –Modified MAC for 802.15.4c changes
MN P C

MC P N MC P N MC P N

P3 N
MC P N

M e s h

P2 N

• 802.15.5
–Mesh networking

P1 N

IEEE P802.15.5™/D0.01, July 2006

• Terahertz study group
–300 GHz -> 3 THz –http://www.ieee802.org/15/pub/IGthz.html

• TG6 – Body Area Networks
–http://www.ieee802.org/15/pub/TG6.html –Just starting

• Visible Light Interest Group
–http://www.ieee802.org/15/pub/IGvlc.html

ZigBee
Standard http://www.zigbee.org/en/spec_download/download_request.asp

A pplication A PI Security
32- / 64- / 128-bit encryption

Custom er

– – –

the software Network, Security & Application layers Brand management “the hardware” Physical & Media Access Control layers 868MHz/915MHz, 2.4 GHz Band specific modulations 20-250 kbps CSMA-CA channel access Support for ad-hoc networks Network Scalability Fragmentation Frequency Agility Automated Device Address Management Group Addressing Centralized Data Collection Wireless Commissioning


ZigBee A lliance

IEEE 802.15.4
– –

N etw ork
Star / M esh / Cluster-Tree

PHY
– – –

MAC PH Y
868M H z / 915M H z / 2.4G H z Silicon Stack A pp

IEEE 802.15.4

• •

MAC
– – – – – – – – –

Zigbee Pro (Industrial grade)

Source: http://www.zigbee.org/en/resources/

• Open source implementations
• • Open-ZB
– – http://www.open-zb.net/ http://www.meshnetics.com/opensource/mac/

Meshnetics Open-MAC

WiMedia
• Industry alliance from MBOA 802.15.3a • Standardized for US in Dec 2005 in ECMA-368 and 369
– http://www.ecma-international.org/publications/standards/Ecma-368.htm – ECMA used specifically to avoid 802 standardization problems

• PHY
– – – – – Multiband OFDM QPSK 53.3, 80, 106.7, 160, 200, 320, 400, 480 Mbps nominal data rates Range of 10 m indoor Data can be interleaved across 3 bands, 7 defined patterns (channels) Mandatory support for band group 1

• MAC
– – – – – Peer to Peer, Ad-hoc From Fig 28: AES 128 Support for Dynamic Channel Selection Ranging via propagation delay measurements Bluetooth-like information discovery

WiMedia Implementations
• Primarily marketed as cable replacement • Wireless USB out in Dec 2006
–Hub-spoke model –Mandatory support for band group 1 –Mandatory rates of 53.3, 106.7, 200 Mbps –Initial Belkin device didn’t live up to the hype
• Data rate of 6.35 Mbits/s • Reportedly not to WiMedia spec • http://www.eetimes.com/news/latest/ showArticle.jhtml?articleID=1966021 48 • Now certified
– http://www.wimedia.org/imwp/idms/pop ups/pop_download.asp?contentID=119 61
From: http://www.wimedia.org/en/events/documents/02WiMedia_Overview_CES200 6.ppt

• Bluetooth 3.0 devices in 2008
– http://gizmodo.com/gadge ts/wireless/nextgenbluetooth-30-on-the-way179684.php

• Wireless Firewire and IP also supported over WiMedia standard

Status
– Nokia sponsored initiative announced Oct 2006 – Specification work is currently being evaluated, targeted for availability second quarter 2007 – Trial chips probably available late 2007

Public data: (from wibree.com (no more) and http://www.theregister.co.uk/2006/10/06/wibree_analysis/ )
– – – – – 2.4 GHz ISM band Range 10 meters 1 Mbps data rate Targets low power/low cost market From http://www.computerworld.com.au/index.php/id;992123146;fp;4;fpid;18
• • • • Up to 8 devices Master/Slave Turns off frequency hopping Expects different technology to serve as backbone between masters Expects to share resources with full Bluetooth

Many reports mentioned WiBree as a competitor to Bluetooth
– Brought into Bluetooth fold as low power alternative – “Bluetooth Low Energy” – https://www.bluetooth.org/About/bluetooth_sig.htm#Bluetooth%20Wireless%20 Technology – Now a competitor to Zigbee

Z-Wave
• Originally Zensys proprietary
– http://www.zen-sys.com/
Z-Wave Alliance

• Industry standard “Z-wave”
– http://www.z-wave.com

• Low power alternative to Zigbee • PHY
– 9.6 kbps or 40 kbps – GFSK – 100 ft range

• 900 MHz ISM • http://www.z-wavealliance.com/ • http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Z-Wave

http://www.z-wave.com/modules/AboutZWave/?id=21&chk=4ed024468cb3d7f9095aa54227ea1 97a

Other Proprietary Standards
• TransferJet (Sony)
–Features
• http://www.sony.net/SonyInfo/News/Pre ss/200801/08-002E/index.html • Electric induction field coupling • 3 cm range • 4.48 GHz center frequency • 560 Mbps (Max) 375 Mbps (effective)
– Adaptive modulation

Kleer
– http://www.kleer.com – Proprietary low power RF for audio / video

En-Ocean
– http://www.enocean.com/en/ – Best known as energy scavengers – Runs a proprietary wireless mesh protocol

• “Touch & Get: transfer by touching devices together • Some registration security

Insteon
– Mixes power line comm with RF comm – Industry Alliance (15 manufacturers)
• http://www.insteon.net/allianceabout.html • Wireless Valley is a member

–Demonstrated shortly after announced
• http://www.engadget.com/2008/01/06/vi deo-sonys-transferjet-getsdemonstrated/

– Open source http://www.efundies.com/

WPAN Summary
• Greater reliance on industry standards than other classes of waveforms
– Seems to work more smoothly – Bluetooth, WiMedia, Z-wave

• Bifurcation into low power devices (e.g., Zigbee, Wibree) and high-throughput devices • Impulse UWB as a WPAN appears dead • Heavy emphasis on mesh networks • Possible trend to mix protocols at different mesh levels • Possible later push by WiMAX (ClearWire / XOhm) into market

Presentation Overview
Theory (32) OFDM and Antenna Array Theory Emerging Standards (24) Cellular and WiMAX (16) WLAN (10) WPAN (11) Cognitive Standards ( 7) Interoperability Standards Break & Poster Session 2:45-3:30

http://www.wisoa.net/members_logos/mobile_in ternet-big.jpg

Emerging Cognitive Standards

Cognitive Radio
• An approach to wireless engineering wherein the radio, radio network, or wireless system is endowed with the capacities to:
– acquire, classify, and organize information (aware) – retain information (aware) – apply logic and analysis to information (reason) – make and implement choices (agency) about operational aspects of the radio, network, or wireless system in a manner consistent with a purposeful goal (intelligent).
– “Cognitive Radio Definitions and Nomenclature,” Working Document SDRF-06-R-0009-V0.08

802.22
• Wireless Regional Area Networks (WRAN)
– First explicit cognitive radio standard – Aimed at bringing broadband access in rural and remote areas – Takes advantage of better propagation characteristics at VHF and low-UHF – Takes advantage of unused TV channels that exist in these sparsely populated areas – Still defining inter-cell coexistence • Status (IEEE 802.22-06/0251r0) – Resolving lots of comments – Still developing

• 802.22.1
– Enhanced interference protection

• 802.22.2
– Best practices for deployment

Features of 802.22
• • • • Data Rates 5 Mbps – 70 Mbps Point-to-multipoint TDD/FDD DFS, TPC Adaptive Modulation
– QPSK, 16, 64-QAM, Spread QPSK • 802.16 MAC plus the following
–Multiple channel support –Coexistence
• Incumbents • BS synchronization • Dynamic resource sharing

• OFDMA on uplink and downlink • Use multiple contiguous TV channels when available • Fractional channels (adapting around microphones) • Space Time Block Codes • Beam Forming
– No feedback for TDD (assumes channel reciprocity)

–Clustering support –Signal detection/classification routines

• Security based on 802.16e security • Collaborative sensing • Techniques in 802.22 will be extended to other standards and to other bands around the world

• 802.16-like ranging

• Concept:

Unlicensed White Space Devices
• Detect and avoid • Geolocate and avoid (perhaps helped by beacon)
– Google’s beacon white paper: http://services.google.com/blog_resources/google_geolocation_white_paper.pdf

–Allow unlicensed secondary users into unoccupied TV bands via DSA –“WiFi on Steroids” http://news.cnet.com/8301-10784_3-9901747-7.html –Only thing really defined is proposed methods for avoidance

• Wireless Innovation Alliance (basically the White Space Coalition)
–http://www.wirelessinnovationalliance.com/index.cfm –Key players
• Microsoft, Google, Dell, Motorola, Phillips • 1.5 hr discussion with Larry Page
– http://www.newamerica.net/events/2008/google_unwired

• Lots of objections from TV broadcasters and wireless microphone manufacturers / users • Initial problems
–Microsoft device broken – DTV recovered signals Microsoft prototype didn’t detect
• http://crtwireless.com/blog/2007/08/02/fcc-report-on-tv-band-prototype-measurementsreleased/

–Motorola device false negatives with strong adjacent channels
• http://www.broadcastingcable.com/article/CA6560691.html

• FCC continuing to review submitted devices
–http://crtwireless.com/blog/2007/11/29/motorola-submits-new-white-space-device-for-

802.11h – Unintentionally Cognitive
• Dynamic Frequency Selection (DFS)
– Avoid radars
• Listens and discontinues use of a channel if a radar is present

Uniform channel utilization

Transmit Power Control (TPC)
– – – – Interference reduction Range control Power consumption Savings Bounded by local regulatory conditions

802.11y
• Ports 802.11a to 3.65 GHz – 3.7 GHz (US Only)
– – FCC opened up band in July 2005 Ready 2008

• •

Intended to provide rural broadband access Incumbents
– Band previously reserved for fixed satellite service (FSS) and radar installations – including offshore – Must protect 3650 MHz (radar) – Not permitted within 80km of inband government radar – Specialized requirements near Mexico/Canada and other incumbent users

Leverages other amendments
– Adds 5,10 MHz channelization (802.11j) – DFS for signaling for radar avoidance (802.11h)

• •

Working to improve channel announcement signaling Database of existing devices
– Access nodes register at http://wireless.fcc.gov/uls – Must check for existing devices at same site
Source: IEEE 802.11-06/0YYYr0

802.16h

• • • •

Draft1 to ballot Oct 06, 67% approve, resolving comments)
Draft 6 to ballot May 2008 Improved Coexistence Mechanisms for LicenseExempt Operation Explicitly, a cognitive radio standard Incorporates many of the hot topics in cognitive radio
– – – – Token based negotiation Interference avoidance Network collaboration RRM databases

Coexistence with non 802.16h systems
– Regular quiet times for other systems to transmit
From: M. Goldhamer, “Main concepts of IEEE P802.16h / D1,” Document Number: IEEE C802.16h-06/121r1, November 13-16, 2006.

IEEE 1900
• IEEE 1900 (aka Standards Coordinating Committee 41 – Dynamic Spectrum Access Networks)
– http://www.scc41.org/ – 1900.1 – Terminology and Concepts – 1900.2 - Recommended Practice for Interference and Coexistence Analysis
• Approved • http://crtwireless.com/blog/2008/04/02/19002-approved/

– 1900.3 – Conformance Evaluation for SDR modules – 1900.4 – Architectural Building Blocks
• network resource managers • device resource managers • the information to be exchanged between the building blocks

– 1900.5 – Policy Languages

DARPA’s WNAN Program
• Objectives
– Reduced cost via intelligent adaptation – Greater node density – Gains in throughput/scalability

WNaN Protocol Stack
Optimizing Topology

CBMANET
WNaN WNaN MIMO (MNM) COTS MEMS (MTO) CBMANET CBMANET xG

• Leveraged programs
– Control Based MANET – low Network overhead protocols – Microsystems Technology Office – RFMEMS, Hermit, ASP MAC – xG – opportunistic use of spectrum – Mobile Network MIMO - MIMO Physical Wideband Network Waveform – Connectionless Networks – rapid link acquisition – Disruption Tolerant Networks (DTN) – network layer protocols Legend

Other programs

WNaN program

Cognitive Radio Summary
• Numerous new applications enabled
– Opportunistic spectrum utilization, collaborative radio, link reliability, advanced network structures • Commercial implementations starting to appear
– 802.22, 802.11h,y, 802.16h – And may have been around for a while (cordless phones with DFS)

• Standards tend to be highly focused
– Work in specific bands

• No real standard for white space coalition
– Still trying to get blessing to operate in-band

• DoD may emerge into commercial market in the near future • Rolling out incrementally

• Significant resistance from incumbents

Presentation Overview
Theory (32) OFDM and Antenna Array Theory Emerging Standards (24) Cellular and WiMAX (16) WLAN (10) WPAN (11) Cognitive Standards ( 7) Interoperability Standards ( 6) Summary and Trends Break & Poster Session 2:45-3:30

http://www.wisoa.net/members_logos/mobile_in ternet-big.jpg

Interoperability Standards
802.21, UMA/GAN 802.11u Industry Standards

802.21 (Media Independent Handoffs)
• Key Services
– Triggers (state change, predictive, network initiated) – Network Information (services, maps, list of avaialble networks) – Handover commands (client or network initiated, vertical handoffs)

• July 2008: Targeted publication

http://www.ieee802.org/802_tutorials/july06/802 21-IEEE-Tutorial.ppt

V. Gupta, “IEEE 802.21 MEDIA INDEPENDENT HANDOVER,” IEEE 802.21 session #15 July 17, 2006

• UMA allows to access the mobile voice and data services of the cellular network over a Wireless LAN • Subscribers are enabled to roam and handover between cellular networks and wireless networks • Mobile devices access the Core Network through Unlicensed Mobile Access Network (UMAN). • UMAN has 3 major entities
–Unlicensed wireless network –IP access network –UMA Network controller (UNC)
• UNC authorizes and authenticates the Mobile devices for accessing the Core Network

http://www.umatoday.com

• Part of 3GPP now
–Generic Access Network (GAN)

• Products
– http://www.umatoday.com/mobileHandsets.php http://www.umatoday.com

• •

Addresses shortcomings in UMA’s Voice Call Continuity (VCC) Status
– – – Initiated within 3GPP in June 2005 2006 through requirements, has only fully completed the requirements stage 2008 being extended to IMS Service Continuity Joint control impossible http://www.kineto.com/products/downloads/kineto_wp_UMA_VCC_2007.pdf http://www-hk.huawei.com/publications/view.do?id=1480&cid=2622&pid=127

VCC

Different technologies agree to virtual channel


Some argue inferior to UMA
– –

Some argue better than UMA

http://www.kineto.com/products/downloads/kineto_wp_UMA_VCC_2007.pdf

802.11u (Interworking with External Networks)
• Standard out in 2010 • Specifically addresses handoffs where user not preauthorized (generally because from another network) • Major Topics
– – – – Network Selection Emergency Call support Authorization from Subscriber Network, Media Independent Handover Support
• Supporting information and control messages of 802.21

Other Cellular + WiFi
• Seamless Converged Communication Across Network (SCCAN)
– – Motorola, Proxim, Avaya – Enterprise solutions http://www.sccan.org/

Mobile Integrated Go-to-Market Network IP Telephony Experience (Mobile IGNITE)
– – Vendor driven solution http://www.bridgeportnetworks.com/partners/mobileignite.html Alcatel, Cisco (International Packet Communications Consortium) http://www.packetcomm.org/index.shtml Even for standard convergence type activities there’s many different emerging standards. Need for special radios to navigate standards?

Mobile IGNITE

Wireless Wireline Convergence Working Group
– –

Bottom line
– –
http://www.spectralink.com/products/image s/NL-01.gif

Interoperability Summary
• • Proliferation of standards + lack of silver bullet standard means that optimal access technology will vary Supporting growth in use of VoIP will make networks less dependent on particular access technologies Biggest issues are:
– Getting industries to agree (Herding cats) – Managing security across heterogeneous networks – Harmonizing handoff routines

Rapid growth ?

Mobile voice traffic Fixed voice traffic VoIP traffic

-92 -93 -94 -95 -96 -97 -98 -99 -00 -01 -02 -03 -04 -05 -06 -07 -08 e e e e
Source: Nokia 13.6.2005 Technology used to terminate the call

802.21 is the standard that ties together the vertical handoff standards Heavy focus on WiFi + Cellular

Presentation Overview
Theory (32) OFDM and Antenna Array Theory Emerging Standards (24) Cellular and WiMAX (16) WLAN (10) WPAN (11) Cognitive Standards ( 7) Interoperability Standards ( 6) Summary and Trends Break & Poster Session 2:45-3:30

http://www.wisoa.net/members_logos/mobile_in ternet-big.jpg

Summary and Future Trends

Convergence of Approaches
• WiMAX becoming more like cellular, cellular becoming more like WiMAX • Cellular like waveforms converging to mix of OFDMA + MIMO optimized for low speeds with small cell sizes

Source: http://www.wimaxforum.org/technology/downloads/ WiMAX_and_ IMT_2000.pdf

• Recognition of this convergence is leading to WiMAX being treated like a cellular technology
– Sprint’s XOhm network (now ClearWire!) – WiMAX classified as 3G

• WiMAX out of the gate first
– Nokia, Motorola, Samsung – http://www.reuters.com/article/technology-media-telco-SPA/idUSSP31345620070904

• Because 3G took so long to deploy, WiMAX will steal a march

Breeding Successful Technologies
• Mobile WiMAX will be a MIMO standard, but so will LTE
– Transition of technologies can significantly extend useful lifetime of deployments
• Enhanced EDGE • WCDMA + MIMO may steal LTE’s market

– 802.11n predates mobile WiMAX

• 802.22 techniques opening up legacy spectrum for other standards
– White Space Coalition – 802.16m

• Standards can expect to continue to evolve even post-deployment
– Need for SDR

• May make for smoother transition to 4G
Erik Dahlman, Hannes Ekström, Anders Furuskär, Ylva Jading, Jonas Karlsson, Magnus Lundevall, Stefan Parkvall, “The 3G Long-Term Evolution – Radio Interface Concepts and Performance Evaluation,” VTC 06

Take Aways (1/2)
• High data rate systems migrating to OFDM + Antenna Array Processing PHY
– OFDM – WiMedia, 802.11a,g, 802.16, 802.20, 802.22, UMB, LTE – OFDM + MIMO – 802.11n, 802.16e, 802.20, UMB, LTE

• More responsive/adaptive resource management (early cognitive radio)
– Multiple QoS levels – 802.11e; 802.16e; 802.20; UMB, LTE, EVDO, – Dynamic channel selection – WiMedia; 802.11h,y; 802.16h; 802.22 – Distributed sensing – 802.22

• Coexistence given increasing interest
– Vertical handoffs – 802.21, 802.11u – Legacy systems – 802.22, 802.11h,y, 802.16h

• New bands opening up for old techs
– 802.15.4d, 802.11j,p,y

Take-Always (2/2)
• Some spectral harmonization
– 5 GHz for WiMAX

• China pushing own standards
– 802.15.4c, TD-SCDMA, TD-SOFDMA

• Emergence of Advanced Networking
– 802.11s, 802.15.5, 802.16j

• Increasing # of technologies
– Legacy systems not quickly fading and large # of new ones

• Convergence on AES for security
– 802.11i, WiMedia, Mobile WiMAX

• Convergence on all IP Backbone
– Mobile WiMAX, UMB, LTE

Useful Websites (News, Promotional, Forums, Standards)
WLAN
www.wi-fi.org www.wi-fiplanet.com/ http://grouper.ieee.org/groups/802/11/
3GPP Family
www.gsmworld.com www.umtsworld.com www.gsacom.com www.3gpp.org http://www.tdscdma-forum.org/

802.15
www.bluetooth.com https://www.bluetooth.org/ www.wimedia.org http://www.zigbee.org/en/ http://www.uwbforum.org/ www.wibree.org http://www.multibandofdm.org/ http://grouper.ieee.org/groups/802/15/

3GPP2 Family
www.cdg.org www.3gpp2.org

802.20
http://grouper.ieee.org/groups/802/20/

802.21
http://www.ieee802.org/21/ www.umatechnology.org

802.16
www.wimaxforum.org http://wimaxxed.com http://wimax.com http://grouper.ieee.org/groups/802/16/

802.22
http://grouper.ieee.org/groups/802/22/

E2R

“Requirements and scenario definition,” Available online: http://e2r.motlabs.com/Deliverables/E 2R_WP4_D4.1_040725.pdf

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