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ALL ABOUT HYDRAULICS

: OASIN, Christian B. ME155P-B1

What is Hydraulics?
It is a topic in applied science and engineering dealing with the mechanical properties of liquids. Fluid mechanics provides the theoretical foundation for hydraulics, which focuses on the engineering uses of fluid properties. In fluid power, hydraulics is used for the generation, control, and transmission of power by the use of pressurized liquids. Hydraulic topics range through most science and engineering disciplines, and cover concepts such as pipe flow, dam design, fluidics and fluid control circuitry, pumps, turbines, hydropower, computational fluid dynamics, flow measurement, river channel behaviour and erosion. The word "hydraulics" originates from the Greek word ὑδραυλικός (hydraulikos) which in turn originates from ὕδωρ (hydor, Greek for water) and αὐλός (aulos, meaning pipe).

A little history
The science started over thousands of years ago with Aristotle (384-322 B.C.) and Archimedes (287-212 B.C.). Many European scientists also contributed to hydraulics, including da Vinci, Mariotte and Boyle. The scientist who discovered the main principle is Blaise Pascal. A French scientist who studied math and physics. His work included studying atmospheric pressure, conic sections and the principles of hydrostatics. After Pascal there is Bernoilli, Franklin and Froud, who all also

Pascal’s Law Blaise Pascal formulated the basic law of hydraulics in the mid 17th century. . His law states that pressure in a confined fluid is transmitted undiminished in every direction and acts with equal force on equal areas and at right angles to a container's walls. He discovered that pressure exerted on a fluid acts equally in all directions.

act as fluid storehouses. . strainers.Hydraulic system A hydraulic system contains and confines a liquid in such a way that it uses the laws governing liquids to transmit power and do work. and magnetic plugs condition the fluid by removing harmful impurities that could clog passages and damage parts. Filters. Heat exchanges or coolers often are used to keep the oil temperature within safe limits and prevent deterioration of the oil. Accumulators. though technically sources of stored energy. The oil reservoir (sump or tank) usually serves as a storehouse and a fluid conditioner.

•Flexibility. Pipes and hoses instead of mechanical elements virtually eliminate location problems. Automatic valves guard the system . Control of a wide range of speed and forces is easily possible. other Power transmission •Simpler design. Vibration is kept to a minimum. High efficiency with minimum friction loss keeps the cost of a power transmission at a minimum. •Overload protection. Hydraulic components can be located with considerable flexibility.Advantages vs. a few pre-engineered components will replace complicated mechanical linkages. In most cases. •Smoothness. •Control. Hydraulic systems are smooth and quiet in operation. •Cost.

corrosion. .Disadvantage The main disadvantage of a hydraulic system is maintaining the precision parts when they are exposed to bad climates and dirty atmospheres. The following paragraphs discuss several basic hydraulic systems. Protection against rust. dirt. oil deterioration. and other adverse environmental conditions is very important.

Components .

An actuator can be linear or rotary. or linear motor.Hydraulic Actuator A hydraulic actuator receives pressure energy and converts it to mechanical force and motion. It is more commonly called a hydraulic motor or motor. . It is more commonly called a cylinder but is also referred to as a ram. A rotary actuator produces torque and rotating motion. reciprocating motor. A linear actuator gives force and motion outputs in a straight line.

The physical linear displacement is only along the axis of the piston/cylinder. Typically though. the term "hydraulic actuator" refers to a device controlled by a hydraulic pump. A familiar example of a manually operated hydraulic actuator is a hydraulic car jack. The two sides of the piston are alternately pressurized/de-pressurized to achieve controlled precise linear displacement of the piston and in turn the entity connected to the piston. This design is based on the principles of hydraulics. .Hydraulic cylinder Hydraulic actuators or hydraulic cylinders typically involve a hollow cylinder having a piston inserted in it.

In a ram-type cylinder. . a piston rod is connected to a piston to actuate a load. The opposite end is a head end. The hydraulic connections are a head-end port and a rod-end port (fluid supply). A cylinder housing is a tube in which a plunger (piston) operates. a ram actuates a load directly. An end of a cylinder from which a rod or plunger protrudes is a rod end. In a piston cylinder.Figure 4-1 shows the basic parts of a cylinder.

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Other applications .

Pressure provides the force and flow rate of the speed. Pressure in a hydraulic system is like the voltage in an electrical system and fluid flow rate is the equivalent of current. most hydraulic pumps cannot be used as hydraulic motors because they cannot be backdriven. not just the pressure. Another difference is that a motor can be reversed by a reversing valve. Another factor affecting the operation of hydraulic motors is fluid flow rate. However. . Conceptually.Hydraulic motor The hydraulic motor is the rotary counterpart of the hydraulic cylinder. a hydraulic motor should be interchangeable with the hydraulic pump. The size of the pump decides the flow rate. due to the fact it performs the opposite function. a hydraulic motor is usually designed for the working pressure at both sides of the motor. Also.

is actuated by this flow so that motion or torque. are conveyed to the work. A motor.In industrial hydraulic circuits. Figure 4-9 shows the basic operations of a hydraulic motor. or both. . A pump. which is mechanically linked to a prime mover. which is mechanically linked to the workload. draws fluid from a reservoir and forces it to a motor. pumps and motors are normally combined with a proper valving and piping to form a hydraulicpowered transmission.

Hydraulic motor .

An electrical circuit also requires a power source (battery. and regulate the hydraulic fluid flow. A hydraulic circuit requires a power source (usually a pump).  Type and capacity of the actuators used to accomplish the work. and regulates the flow of electrical current. depending on the application. bell. and proper connections. An assortment of devices also controls.Hydraulics and Electricity Hydraulics and electricity are often compared because the systems have similarities. a load device (actuator). directs. motor). . generator). which varies. direct. The circuits differ mainly in the:  Types of devices used to control. and conductors. a load device (light.

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Applications .

it draws oil out of the reservoir through a suction check valve into the pump chamber. The suction valve ball is within the chamber and opens with each draw of the plunger. and to ensure stability when the jack is . which is incompressible. It uses a fluid. When the plunger pulls back. Hydraulic jacks are typically used for shop work. rather than as an emergency jack to be carried with the vehicle. the jacking point on the vehicle. Oil is used since it is self lubricating and stable.Hydraulic jack A hydraulic jack is a mechanical device used to lift heavy loads or apply great forces. that is forced into a cylinder by a pump plunger. Use of jacks not designed for a specific vehicle requires more than the usual care in selecting ground conditions. The discharge valve ball is outside the chamber and opens when the oil is pushed into the cylinder. At this point the suction ball within the chamber is forced shut and oil pressure builds in the cylinder. it pushes the oil through a discharge check valve into the cylinder. When the plunger moves forward.

Hydraulic jack assembly .

Diagram B shows the pump stroking downward.How it works? In this system (Figure 2-1). a third valve (needle valve) opens. Diagram A shows an intake stroke. The load then pushes the piston down and forces the liquid into the reservoir . An inlet check valve closes by pressure and an outlet valve opens. which opens an area under a large piston to the reservoir. and an inlet check valve opens so that liquid from the reservoir fills the pumping chamber. More liquid is pumped under a large piston to raise it. An outlet check valve closes by pressure under a load. To lower a load. a reservoir and a system of valves has been added to Pascal's hydraulic lever to stroke a small cylinder or pump continuously and raise a large piston or an actuator a notch with each stroke.

Hydraulic machinery Hydraulic machinery are machines and tools which use fluid power to do simple work. Hydraulic machinery is operated by the use of hydraulics. Heavy equipment is a common example. The popularity of hydraulic machinery is due to the very large amount of power that can be transferred through small tubes and flexible hoses. . and the high power density and wide array of actuators that can make use of this power. where a liquid is the powering medium. high-pressure liquid called hydraulic fluid is transmitted throughout the machine to various hydraulic motors and hydraulic cylinders. The fluid is controlled directly or automatically by control valves and distributed through hoses and tubes. In this type of machine.

if the control valve is actuated it routes fluid to and from an actuator and tank. Otherwise. constant displacement pumps. . If the pressure rises too high. Open center circuits use pumps which supply a continuous flow. This type of circuit can use inexpensive. it provides an open return path to tank and the fluid is not pumped to a high pressure. that is. when the control valve is centered. it must flow to the actuator and or motors. then return to a reservoir. fluid returns to tank through a pressure relief valve. Multiple control valves may be stacked in series. The fluid is then filtered and re-pumped. The fluid's pressure will rise to meet any resistance. The flow is returned to tank through the control valve's open center. since the pump has a constant output.For the hydraulic fluid to do work. The path taken by hydraulic fluid is called a hydraulic circuit of which there are several types.

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Terex O&K RH400 Excavator .

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Cranes .

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