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ECONOMICS OF BIOGAS PLANTS AND THEIR ROLE IN SAVING THE ENVIRONMENT

• Biogas, its composition and uses • Energy equivalence and Commonly used organic matter for biogas generation • Overall scheme for anaerobic digestion of organic matter • Nutrient Contents of Digested Slurry from biogas plant and FYM

• Types of biogas plants
• Role of Biogas plants in saving of environment

• Status of biogas development in India
• Economics of family size biogas plants

What is Biogas
• A gas obtained due to anaerobic decomposition of organic matter (cattle dung) • It is a mixture of methane, carbon dioxide, hydrogen sulphide, water vapor, oxygen, nitrogen and hydrogen. • Biogas has been known as swamp gas, sewer gas, fuel gas, marsh gas etc. In India, it is more commonly known as ‘gobar’ gas. • The digester in which the decomposition takes place is known as BIOGAS PLANT

Composition of Biogas
• • • • • • • Methane Carbon dioxide Hydrogen Nitrogen Water Hydrogen sulphide Oxygen 50-70% 30-45% 0-1% 0-1% 0.1% 0-1% 0-1%

Common Uses of biogas • • • • Cooking Lighting Power generation Engine running .

70 KW of electricity .43 kg of LPG 1.Energy Equivalence of biogas Use of 1m3 of biogas as fuel can save other sources of energy as: • • • • • • • 0.62 litre of kerosene oil 3.46 kg of coal 4.52 litre of diesel 0.30 kg of cow dung cakes 0.40 kg of wood 12.

Commonly used organic matter used for generation of biogas • • • • • • • • • Cattle dung Kitchen and dining hall waste Vegetable market waste Poultry dropping Crop residue Pig and horse excreta Aquatic weeds such as water hyacinth Agro industrial waste Sewage Sludge .

045 0.18 .25 0.Comparative Biogas Production of Different Feed Stocks S No Type of feed stock Gas Yield per Normal Feed availability per Kg ( m3 ) animal per day (Kg) 0.056 0.08 0.062 10 1 6 2.5 1 2 Cattle dung Human excreta 3 4 5 6 7 Horse dung Sheep dropping Camel droppings Piggery waste Poultry droppings 0.036 0.042 0.07 10 to 15 0.

. i. into soluble organic compounds.amino acids etc. 3rd Phase.fatty acids. simpler alcohols and acetone.mainly acetic acid and certain other oxidised compounds are converted to methane and carbon dioxide by methanogenic bacteria. propionic acid etc. organic acids (acetic acid.e. sugars. i.fats. i. nitrogen compounds.. 2nd Phase.Overall scheme for anaerobic digestion of organic matter 1st Phase.proteins.salts etc.e.soluble organic compounds are reduced to simpler compounds.carbohydrates.) .Organic acids ..e.hydrolysis of complex organic materials. .

( and digested slurry .

5 to 0.6 2.5 to 1.1 to 2.8 1. Nutrient FYM Range % Average % Biogas slurry Range % Average % 1.2 1.7 0.4 to 1.8 0.5 to 0.8 to 1.0 0. FAO .8 2 0. Potash (K 0) 0. 0. Nitrogen (N ) 2 Phosphorus (P O ) 2 5 0.Nutrient Contents of Digested Slurry from biogas plant and FYM S.7 1.8 1.55 3.0 1.No.0 Source: Biogas Technology: A training manual for extension.

TYPES OF BIOGAS PLANTS • FLOATING DRUM TYPE • FIXED DOME TYPE – JANTA BIOGAS PLANT – DEENBANDHU BIOGAS PLANTS .

KVIC MODEL BIOGAS PLANT (Floating drum type) .

JANTA BIOGAS PLANT (Fixed dome type) .

Deenbandhu biogas plant .

• The outlet is accordingly modified as per requirement • The water requirement : 30 % of cattle dung as compared to 100 % of cattle dung in traditional biogas plants • Digested Slurry is more thick hence easy to manage .Modified Deenbandhu and Janta biogas plants • The inlet in the traditional biogas plant is designed and modified by providing 12 inch dia pipe inclined at about 75 degrees with horizontal.

Modified Janta biogas plant • Inlet 30 cm diameter PVC pipe • Angle of inclination of pipe with horizontal=75o .

DEMONSTRATION OF MODIFIED JANTA BIOGAS PLANT AT THE RESIDENCE OF SH. RURKI KHURD . TARSEM SINGH.

DEMONSTRATION OF MODIFIED JANTA BIOGAS PLANT AT THE RESIDENCE OF MANJEET KAUR. BHARBHURGARH .

DEMONSTRATION OF MODIFIED DEENBANDHU BIOGAS PLANT AT THE RESIDENCE OF LABH SINGH. BEEPUR .

– Clean kitchen and utensils and hence saving in the time of women – Clean House and hence less expenditure for maintenance of house . – The use of biogas prevents chances of eye diseases and respiratory diseases. Other fuels being commonly used creates pollution by generating smoke.Role of Biogas plants in saving of environment • Direct and immediate impact : – Save other fuels and hence less stress on other fuels – Using biogas as a kitchen fuel can prevent deforestation and hence soil erosion – Change of environment in the house as biogas is a clean fuel. Hence healthy life of rural woman.

Role of Biogas plants in saving of environment (contd) • Reduction in green house gases: – How? .

Green house gases • The gases which trap heat in the earth's atmosphere and cause rise in temperature are known as green house gases. – Greenhouse gases are the major cause of global warming. • Green house gases due to human activities . Different green house gases • Naturally present green house gases in the atmosphere – – – – – – – – carbon dioxide. methane nitrous oxide water vapor and ozone hydroflurocarbons (HFCs) perfluorocarbons and sulphur hexafluride.

. • Methane generated during Anaerobic decomposition of organic material • Emission of nitrous oxides due to nitric acid production. use of cars with catalytic converters.Some activities responsible for green house gases • Agriculture and industrialization • Fossil fuel burning like that of coal in power plant leads to high emissions of carbon dioxide gas. the use of fertilizers in agriculture and the burning of organic matter .

.Kyoto Protocol for Control of green house Gas emission • An international agreement signed (December 1997) by about 180 countries with the aim to reduce green house gases emissions in order to save the environment • Countries have been assigned maximum carbon emission levels and can participate in carbon credit trading.

Its goal is to stop the increase of green house gas emissions. it could purchase this carbon credit from the environmental group. – The carbon credit system looks to reduce emissions by having countries honor their emission quotas and offer incentives for being below them . the group will be awarded a credit.Carbon Credit system and carbon trade • The carbon credit and carbon trade system was ratified in conjunction with the Kyoto Protocol. For example. – If a steel producer has an emissions quota of 10 tons. – if an environmentalist group plants enough trees to reduce emissions by one ton. but is expecting to produce 11 tons.

Potential of methane wrt carbon dioxide as green house gas • Green house gas methane is more than 20 times as powerful as carbon dioxide at entrapping heat in the atmosphere. • Reaction during burning of methane (biogas). CH 4  2O2  CO2  2 H 2 O  Heat • Hence one molecule of methane is converted into one molecule of carbon dioxide and as such the effect of methane will be reduced to 1/20th of its effect as compared to when it is released as such in the atmosphere. .

6*3 m3 of CH4 = 1.483 =9.8 m3 of methane =1.8 m3 of methane • 1.52 kg of carbon/day • In one year = 365*16.8*9.18 kg of carbon For a 3 m3 biogas plant • Estimated biogas generated per day= 3 m3 • Assuming 60 % methane in biogas • As such 3 m3 of biogas = 0. .483 kg of carbon at about 30o C • 1 m3 of CH4 = (20-1)0.Theoretical computation of carbon credit for 3 m3 biogas plant • 1 m3 CO2 = 0.52 =6030 kg of carbon=6 tonne of carbon • 1 tonne of carbon credit = 17 Euro • Equivalent credit earned in one year by 3 m3 biogas plant= 102 Euro • 1 Euro= Rs 59 • 102 Euro = 6018 Rs • Thus a 3 m3 biogas plant can theoretically earn carbon credit equivalent to Rs 6018 in one year.18=16.

Status of biogas development in India • Total potential of biogas plants based on cattle dung in India: 1.39.5 years : 2.8 • Change for India in last 2.442 • % of total potential exploited : 33.300 • Biogas plants installed as on 31-12 2009 :41.7 • % of total potential exploited for Punjab : 17.5 years : 5% .23.9 For Punjab • % of total potential exploited for Punjab : 24.8 % • Change for Punjab in last 2.85.

9 S No 1 Sikkim 2 Maharashtra 6926 773410 124202 3770 404973 411241 3743 3878 305760 452499 3 Kerala 4 Mizoram 5 Gujarat 6 Karnataka 7 Nagaland 8 Goa 9 West Bengal 10 Andhra Pradesh 11 Orissa 605000 235393 . of Biogas Plants) 7300 897000 150000 5000 554000 680000 6700 8000 695000 1065000 Cumulative achievements* as on 31/12/2009 Percentage of Biogas Plants installed against total potential 94.2 82.State/ Union Territories Estimated Potential (Nos.5 38.9 86.4 73.9 48.5 55.8 75.0 42.1 60.5 44.

6 36.4 35.6 14 Tamilnadu 15 Meghalaya 24000 411000 307000 1938000 16 Punjab 17 Assam Uttar Pradesh 18 19 Madhya Pradesh 20 Haryana 21 Bihar 22 23 Pondicherry Uttarakhand 300000 733000 4300 83000 53345 125688 573 9590 .2 24.0 25.2 21.8 17.3 17.6 37.Arunachal Pradesh 12 13 Himachal Pradesh 7500 2818 125000 45488 615000 215033 6058 101705 74187 419516 1491000 287549 19.7 24.1 13.3 11.

6 7.3 4.9 .6 5.8 30 Manipur 31 Delhi 32 Jharkhand 33 Jammu & Kashmir 38000 2128 679 4408 2352 12900 100000 128000 Total 1.300 41.23.Tripura 28000 24 Dadra & Nagar Haveli 25 26 Chattisgarh 27 Rajasthan 2000 2771 9.9 6.4 1.5 7.39.9 169 8.2 5.3 400000 915000 1400 2200 30576 67172 28 Chandigarh 29 A&N Islands 97 137 6.442 33.85.

Economics of Family size Deenbandhu Biogas Plants .

Estimated cost (Rs.25 1. 2. Monthly saving from 771 Biogas in terms of LPG (Assumed cost of LPG cylinder =Rs. 1.No.10 1.14 3.) Equivalent Biogas produced per month in terms of LPG (Cylinders) 14000 2.57 Capacity of Biogas Plants (m3) 4 15500 3.Estimated cost and Payback period for Deenbandhu biogas plants on the basis of saving of LPG S.00 . Item 3 1.42 5 16500 4.50 period of Biogas Plant (years) 1026 1284 1542 4.28 6 18000 5.330/-) Approximate pay back 1.

or 50% of cost which ever is less for the installation of biogas plants. . • Government of India provides an incentive of Rs. • The user will be getting the biogas from the plants for more than 25 years. 8000/. • User is saved from the increase in cost of alternate fuels during the life of plant • All the farmers rearing animals should adopt this technology as it requires one time investment and its benefits are derived for rest of the life of plant.Economics of Family size Biogas Plants • The initial cost of the plant can be recovered in a very short time due to savings in the use of alternate fuels.

.Economics of Family size Biogas Plants (contd) • An additional incentive of Rs 1000/. • Keeping all the incentive into consideration the initial cost will be recovered in a very short time.is provided for connecting the toilet to the biogas digester • Attachment of toilet to the biogas plant will decrease the cost of toilet significantly as no separate septic tank will be required for the toilet. • Value of the good manure and carbon credit earned has not been considered in computing the payback period. • There is no major maintenance cost for the plant and the operation of the plant is very simple.

Requirement of dung and number of animals for different size of biogas plants Capacity of Approximate Quantity of biogas plant No. of fresh dung (m3 ) animals required required (kg) Cooking for number of persons 1 2 3 4 6 2-3 4-5 6-7 8-10 13-15 25 50 75 100 150 2-3 4-5 7-8 10-11 14-16 .

• The direct incentive to the farmers may be reduced in such cases . • The loss in to the bank is compensated from the incentives to be provided to the farmers.Alternate model of promoting Biogas programme • Some farmers may feel difficulty in arranging the initial capital for installation of biogas plant • For such farmers a programme may be framed in which the bank provides interest free loan to the farmers.

5 571.Installment for 20000/.loan at different rates of interest Rate of Interest Monthly Installment for 20000 loan(Rs) Period of Return (Months) 36 48 60 Total Interest paid (Rs) Period of Return (Months) 36 48 60 8 7 0 643 497 488 425.5 411 402 339 2491 3363 2925 0 4260 3700 0 633.5 2170 0 .

• The biogas plants are easily affordable and economically viable and must be installed at a rapid rate to achieve 100 % potential of biogas plants .Hence • The use of biogas plants reduces the green house effect due to anaerobic decomposition of organic matter to a large extent and helps to save our environment. • Attaching the toilet to the biogas plant will improve the sanitary condition in villages and help in reducing the cost of the toilet. . The investment is one time and the benefits are derived for rest of the life of plant.