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Hepatitis

Definition

The word hepatitis comes from the Ancient Greek word hepar (root word hepat) meaning 'liver', and the suffix- itis, meaning inflammation. Hepatitis means injury to the liver with inflammation of the liver cells.

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It is also the largest internal organ (the largest organ is the skin). It is below the diaphragm on the right in the thoracic region of the abdomen surja 3 .What is liver?  The liver is the largest gland in the human body. It is reddish brown in color and is divided into four lobes of different sizes and lengths. It weighs approximately 3 lb (1.36 kg).

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K and B12 (also stores minerals) Protein synthesis (makes certain amino acids . D.the building blocks of proteins) The production of biochemicals needed for digestion.Functions of liver            Detoxification (filters harmful substances form the blood. such as bile Maintains proper levels of glucose in the blood Produces 80% of your body's cholesterol (cholesterol is vital) The storage glycogen (also converts glucose to glycogen) Decomposing red blood cells Synthesizing plasma protein The production of hormones Produces urea (the main substance of urine) surja 5 . such as alcohol) Stores vitamins A.

while chronic hepatitis lasts longer. Hepatitis can heal on its own with no significant consequence. or it can progress to scarring of the liver. surja 6 . Acute hepatitis lasts under six months.

as well as from our own autoimmune process (the body attacks itself).Types of hepatitis   There are five main types of hepatitis that are caused by a virus. About 250 million people globally are thought to be affected by hepatitis C. while 300 million people are thought to be carriers of hepatitis B. B and C. surja 7 .plus types X and G. called hepatitis A. Most liver damage is caused by 3 hepatitis viruses. A. D. B. hepatitis can also be caused by alcohol and some other toxins and infections. and E . However. C.

Hepatitis A  Hepatitis A is a highly contagious liver infection caused by the hepatitis A virus. surja 8 . The hepatitis A virus is one of several types of hepatitis viruses that cause inflammation that affects your liver's ability to function.

Mild cases of hepatitis A don't require treatment.  You're most likely to contract hepatitis A from contaminated food or water or from close contact with someone who's already infected. surja 9 . and most people who are infected recover completely with no permanent liver damage.

Signs and symptoms of hepatitis A include: surja 10 . Signs and symptoms of hepatitis A usually last less than two months. but may last as long as six months.Symptoms    Hepatitis A signs and symptoms typically don't appear until you've had the virus for a few weeks. Not everyone with hepatitis A develops signs or symptoms.

        Fatigue Nausea and vomiting Abdominal pain or discomfort. especially in the area of your liver on your right side beneath your lower ribs Loss of appetite Low-grade fever Dark urine Muscle pain Yellowing of the skin and eyes (jaundice) surja 11 .

The hepatitis A virus infects the liver cells and causes inflammation. The inflammation can impair liver function and cause other signs and symptoms of hepatitis A. surja 12  .Causes Hepatitis A is caused by infection with the hepatitis A virus. The hepatitis virus is usually spread when a person ingests tiny amounts of contaminated fecal matter.

such as:      When someone with the virus handles the food you eat without first carefully washing his or her hands after using the toilet Drinking contaminated water Eating raw shellfish from water polluted with sewage Being in close contact with a person who's infected — even if that person has no signs or symptoms Having sex with someone who has the virus surja 13 .Hepatitis A virus can be transmitted several ways.

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this form of hepatitis A infection is not more serious than a hepatitis A infection that causes the usual signs and symptoms. hepatitis A signs and symptoms may go away and then reappear over several weeks. Though the signs and symptoms occur over a longer period of time. surja 15 . For these people.Complications  A small number of people with hepatitis A will continue to experience signs and symptoms of infection for several weeks longer than usual.

surja 16 . hepatitis A can cause acute liver failure. which is a loss of liver function that occurs suddenly. Acute liver failure In rare cases.

A sample of blood is taken.Tests and diagnosis Blood tests are used to detect the presence of hepatitis A in your body.   surja 17 . Your signs and symptoms as part of making a diagnosis. and sent to a laboratory for testing. usually from a vein in your arm.

Treatments and drugs No specific treatment exists for hepatitis A. For instance:   surja 18 . the liver heals completely in a month or two with no lasting damage. Hepatitis A treatment usually focuses on coping with signs and symptoms of hepatitis A infection. In most cases of hepatitis A. Your body will clear the hepatitis A virus on its own.

Rest when you need to. surja 19 . You may feel tired and sick for a few months. Expect to have less energy. Many people with hepatitis A infection feel tired and have less energy for their daily tasks.

drink fruit juice or milk. Nausea can make it difficult to eat. rather than three large meals. Eat small snacks throughout the day. If you're having trouble eating enough calories.  Find ways to cope with nausea. rather than water. For instance. Find ways to make food more appealing. surja 20 . avoid low-calorie foods and choose highcalorie foods.

Your doctor may recommend stopping or changing some of your medications. including overthe-counter drugs. Give your liver a rest. Stop drinking alcohol while you have signs or symptoms of hepatitis A infection. surja 21 . Your liver may have difficulty processing medications and alcohol if you have hepatitis A. with your doctor. Review your medications.

Prevention  Consider the hepatitis A vaccine The hepatitis A vaccine can prevent infection with the virus. The hepatitis A vaccine is typically given in two doses — initial vaccination followed by a booster shot six months later. surja 22 .

surja 23 . ask your doctor about whether the vaccine is right for you.      Laboratory workers who may come in contact with hepatitis A People planning travel to areas of the world with high rates of hepatitis A People who use drugs. including both injected and non injected drugs People who receive clotting-factor concentrates as part of their medical treatment People with chronic liver disease If you're concerned about your risk of hepatitis A.