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JC Harambearachchi

Recommended Text
1 Computer Organization and Architecture by William Stallings

Structured Computer Organisation Andrew S. Tanenbaum

A Computer is
A programmable machine. It can execute or run a prerecorded list of instructions which follow certain rules (a program).
Modern computers are electronic and digital. The actual machinery -- wires, transistors , and circuits -- is called hardware; the instructions and data are called software.

fig computer
Input process output

Computer System
Hardware Software OS Application SW Live ware

What are basic operations of a Computer ?

1 2 3 4 5

input operation processing operation-cpu storage operation-primary / secondry output operation Communication operations

Components of a Computer System

Computer hardware provides the physical mechanisms to process, store, and input /output data. Includes CPU, memory, I/O devices Software provides instructions to tell the hardware what tasks to perform. It includes system (eg Windows XP) and application (eg Excel) software Data in the computer may be representing numbers, characters, graphics etc but is always kept in a form that the hardware and software can manipulate.

What are the major Hardware components of the computer ?

central processing unit primary memory secondary storage input devices output devices communications devices I/O cards System Bus

Input Hardware

Keyboard pic mouse

Process and memory Hardware

cpu pic Memory chips pic Motherboard pic

Storage Hardware

Hard drive Floppy Cd/dvd

output Hardware

Monitor Speaker Printer

Video card Sound card

Communication Hardware

Modems pic


System Software
Windows pic Linux pic
Device drivers

Application softwaere
Word Exel ppt

Application Software types

Entertainment PERSONAL Education Productivty Specality

Word processing pic Spread sheets Database Ppt Quicken microsoft money

Application Software types

Drawing Web page desin cad

Block Diagram of a Computer


Main Memory

IO Modules




Computer Hardware

Hardware- the CPU

CPU performs actual processing of data, according to instructions from programs. Data and programs are stored in primary and secondary memory, and moved to and from CPU as required. Signals representing data and instructions travel between system components along electronic pathways, called buses. Capacity of bus is critical to system performance.

Central Processing Unit ( CPU)

1. Acting as the brain of the computer 2. Currently the Intel-Pentium microprocessor is the most common CPU though there are many types

Hardware - The Processor

The CPU is a general purpose processor that performs data manipulation and/or transformation functions including computations, comparisons and data movement. The CPU consists of 3 main parts:
ALU - where arithmetic and logical operations performed Control Unit - controls data movement and execution of instructions Registers - small high speed storage areas

Components of a computer system

Computer Hardware

Hardware - memory

Memory - Purpose of memory is data storage. Two major types of memory : Primary memory - to hold data and instructions during processing
eg RAM. Relatively limited capacity and volatile

Secondary memory - to provide permanent long term storage

eg hard disk. High capacity and non-volatile

Main Memory (RAM)

1. Different from disk storage 2. used to temporarily store Data 3. in modern computers memory is 512 MB.

Hardware- memory
Digital computers deal with data in binary form - all data is represented using just two digits - 1 or 0. Letters and other symbols are assigned unique binary codes.

Primary memory consists of a set of locations defined by sequentially numbered addresses. Each location contains a binary number that can be interpreted as data or an instruction.

Memory locations are called words. Words are 8 bits (one byte) in size, or a multiple of 8. Common word sizes are 16, 32 and 64 bits. 0 1 0 0 1 0 0 0 1


1 1 0 1 0 0 1 1
0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0


1 0 1 0 0 1 1 1
1 1 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 1 0 0 1 0 1 0

Memory locations, using an 8 bit word

Hardware - memory
Memory is commonly measured in multiples of bits and bytes. 1 bit = 1 binary digit (0 or 1).
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 1 byte = 8 bits 1KB = 1024 bytes = 210 1MB = 1024 KB= 220 1GB = 1024 MB = 230 1TB = 1024 GB = 240

Hardware - memory
Secondary storage consists of non-volatile high-capacity devices to store programs and data not currently required by CPU. Hard and floppy disks, and tapes store data as magnetized spots. CDs and DVDs store data as pits or surface marks detectable by laser light.

Hardware I/O

Input Devices collect & translate raw data into form useable by computer. e.g keyboard accepts letters and numbers and converts them to a binary code such as Unicode. Output devices produce results in useable form for user (or another device). e.g. monitor converts binary codes to characters and images, whilst modem converts digital data to analog form for transmission over telephone lines.

Hardware I/O Peripherals

1 Input Devices Mouse Keyboard 2 Output Devices Monitor (VDU) Printer 3 Secondary Storage Devices Hard Disk CD / DVD / Floppy

I/O Hardware

Hardware - I/O Modules

Interface between System Bus and other Peripherals

example Sound cards

Video cards
Network cards PCI cards

Hardware - System Bus

series of electronic path ways and connecting other components of the computer.

Structure - Top Level


Central Processing Unit Main Memory


Systems Interconnection

Input Output

Communication lines

Structure - The CPU

I/O System Bus Memory CPU


Arithmetic and Login Unit

Internal CPU Interconnection

Control Unit

Types of computers
Personal Computer Microprocessor Mini computer Main frame Super computer

Types of computers
supercomputer : An extremely fast computer that can perform hundreds of millions of instructions per second.

mainframe : A powerful multi-user computer capable of supporting many hundreds or thousands of users simultaneously.
Banks air lines vp2400 pic

Work stations minicomputer : A multi-user computer capable of supporting from 10 to hundreds of users simultaneously.
Designing , movies , Sun ws pic

Microcomputers personal computer : A small, single-user computer based on a microprocessor.

Desktop PC pic Notebook pc (laptop) PDAs palmtops

Microcontrollers embeded computers

Server and client

What are Computer Ports ?

Connection point
examples 1. Serial port (Com) 2. Parallel Port 3. USB port 4. Ethernet Port

Basic concepts - communication

Most modern computers no longer operate in isolation they connect to other computers via modem or a network. To enable this communication, specialized hardware and software must be added to computers. In combination with other devices such as telephones, cabling, satellites, microwaves etc. , a communications network is created

What are Major functions of a Computer ?

1 2 3 4

Data processing Data storage Data movement Control

Functional view

Data Storage Facility Data Movement Apparatus

Control Mechanism

Data Processing Facility

Operations (1)
Data movement
e.g. keyboard to screen
Data Movement Apparatus Data Storage Facility

Control Mechanism

Data Processing Facility

Operations (2)
e.g. Internet download to disk
Data Movement Apparatus Data Storage Facility

Control Mechanism

Data Processing Facility

Operation (3)
Processing from/to storage
e.g. updating bank statement
Data Movement Apparatus Data Storage Facility

Control Mechanism

Data Processing Facility

Operation (4)
Processing from storage to I/O
e.g. printing a bank statement
Data Movement Apparatus Data Storage Facility

Control Mechanism

Data Processing Facility