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Product design and analysis

Topics to be covered
New Product Development Process Planning & Design Value Analysis/Value Engineering Standardisation Concurrent Engineering

Importance of product design

When products are designed: 1. 2. Detailed characteristics of each product are established. Characteristics of a product directly affect how a product can be produced. 3. How the product is produced determines the design of production system.

New product Development

Idea generation Idea screening (new product opportunity recognized) Technical and economic feasibility Study To determine the advisability of establishing a project for developing product. If feasibility studies turn out to be favourable then next step

engineers prepare the Initial Prototype design

A prototype design exhibits the basic form, fit and function of the final product but it is not necessarily like final product. Performance testing & redesign of prototype continues until design-test redesign process produces a satisfactory prototype.

Market sensing & Evaluation

Accomplished by demonstration to potential customers, market tests or

market surveys. If response favourable then next step Economic evaluation of prototype To estimate production volume, costs and profits for the products. If satisfactory, project will enter into production design phase. Production Design will evolve through performance testing, production trials and testing, market testing and economic studies. It will exhibit low cost, reliable quality, superior performance and ability to

be produced in desired quantities.

Continual modification of production model (To incorporate changing market conditions, technological changes and manufacturing improvements.

Process planning and design

The design of products and production processes

are interrelated, which means product design

proceeds at the same time as process design






Product Idea

Economic and Technical feasibility studies

Product design

Production process design

Produce and market new product

Simultaneous Engineering: Process and Product design

Process planning and design

Process Planning covers the selection of processes, equipment, tooling
and the sequencing of operations required to transform a chosen raw material into a finished product

Fig. 2 illustrates the elements of process planning and design and its
inputs and outputs.

Knowledge about operations strategies, product design, technologies of production system and markets are used to develop a detailed plan for producing products.

The output consist of a complete determination of individual technological process steps and linkages between steps, selection of equipment, design of building, layout of facilities, no. of personnel

required, their skills & supervision required.

Value Analysis & Value Engineering

Desired performance Value = ----------------------------Overall costs Value can be increased by either improving the Performance or reducing the cost

In 1961, Lawrence D Miles in his book 'Techniques of Value Analysis
Engineering' defined Value Analysis as an organized creative approach which has its purpose of efficient identification of unnecessary cost i.e. cost which provides neither quality nor use nor life nor appearance nor customer features.

VA is also defined as application of recognized techniques to identify

the functions of a product or service and provide those functions at the lowest possible cost. VA is a standardized, multi - disciplined team approach that identifies the lowest cost way and ensures the highest worth to reliably accomplish the functions of a product, process or service

Value analysis assesses product functions and value to cost ratios, and explores opportunities for reduction. It uses a job plan, is function based, and requires that a product be generated result of the study. The value methodology helps organizations compete more effectively in local, national and international markets by:

Decreasing costs Increasing profits Improving quality Expanding market share Saving time Solving problems Using resources more effectively

Difference Between:
VALUE ANALYSIS Indicates application on the VALUE ENGINEERING Indicates application on the

product that is into

manufacturing. All factors come together including workers, subcontractors, engineers

product at its design stage.

It is always done by a specific product design(engineers) team.

to make a team with total

experience and knowledge

VALUE ANALYSIS It may change the present

VALUE ENGINEERING the changes are executed at

stage of the product or

operation It is worked out mostly with help of knowledge and experience

the initial stages only.

It requires specific technical knowledge.

VA is an step by step approach to identify the functions of a product, process, system or service; to establish a monetary value

for that function and then provide the desired function at an

overall minimum cost without affecting any of the existing parameters like Quality, Maintainability, Productivity, Safety and

other Performance characteristics.

Value Engineering is where the value of all the components used in the construction of a product from design to final delivery stage are completely analyzed and pursued.

The value of a function can be increased by:

1. Decrease the cost while ensuring the same level of performance. 2. Enhance the performance at the same cost. 3. Decrease the cost and increase the performance 4. Increase both performance and cost ensuring that performance increases more than the increment in the cost.

Value analysis through Job plan

Orientation Information Function Creation Evaluation Recommendation Implementation Audit/Follow up

Orientation To create awareness and learn the methodology of tools Training sessions for all supervisory and managerial staff on VA &

Exposure to various techniques for selection of project Formation of team of experts from various functions

Information To collect all the information pertaining to the project (product) Work can be divided among team members


To develop FAST diagram

Start from basic function and probe further with WHY? And

List down all the functions for all the parts

Creation To develop alternate means to achieve these functions Brainstorming sessions to generate ideas

Evaluation phase: The objective of this is to select for further analysis of the most promising of the ideas generated during the creative

phase and to subject the ideas to a preliminary screening to

identify those which satisfy the following criteria. Will it work?

Is it less costlier than the present design? Is it feasible to implement?

Recommendation Phase:

To submit the details about the proposed changes with financial

implications. Report includes proposed changes, reasons of changing, new investments and annual savings. Implementation: To execute the proposed/ accepted changes list down all the activities

and fix up the time frame for each. Make the entire team responsible
for all the activities. Audit / Follow up: To compare the actual results with that of expected. It can be done only after complete execution of the project.

This is the responsibility of top management alone

It refers to the extent to which there is an absence of variety in a product, service or process. Degree of Standardization?

Standardized products are immediately made available to the

customer. Ex- Calculators, cash wash by toyota etc.

Advantages of Standardization
Fewer parts to deal with in inventory & manufacturing Reduced training costs and time More routine purchasing, handling, and inspection procedures Opportunities for long production runs, automation. Orders fillable from inventory

Need for fewer parts justifies increased expenditures on

perfecting designs and improving quality control procedures

Disadvantages of Standardization
Designs may be frozen with too many imperfections remaining. High cost of design changes increases resistance to

Decreased variety results in less consumer appeal.

Modular Design
Modular design is a form of standardization in which component parts are subdivided into modules that are easily replaced or interchanged. It allows: easier diagnosis and remedy of failures easier repair and replacement simplification of manufacturing and assembly

Concurrent Engineering / Simultaneous Engineering

Concurrent engineering is the bringing together of engineering design and manufacturing personnel early in the design phase.

Over the Wall Approach

New Product



The product and service design proceeds at the same time as process design with continuous interaction between the designing team and manufacturing teams.

Manufacturing personnel helps to identify production

capabilities , selecting suitable materials and processes, the conflicts during manufacturing can be reduced. Early consideration of technical feasibility. Shortening the product development process.

The concept of simultaneous engineering has significantly

compressed the design, production and introduction cycles of new products.

Thank You