Ruler of Kuwait is Sheikh Jaber AlAhmad Al-Sabah, the Emir

Petroleum and oil are main production
Agriculture and food production is limited; fishing is now more essential

Surrounded by it’s enemy, Iraq, and larger countries, Iran and Saudi Arabia Invaded by Iraq and taken over in 1990. Main religion: ISLAM

•U.S., Saudi Arabia tells Iraq to leave Kuwait. Hussein ignores them.

•U.S. builds up forces in region.
•War fought between Iraq and Kuwait •44 days long

•Caused by Iraq’s refusal to withdraw from Kuwait
•U.S. started a coalition which began a massive air war •Kuwait is liberated •Sheik comes back to rule his badly damaged country

Gulf War: Desert Storm

Gulf War: Iraqi Surrender

Hussein still claims Kuwait as part of Iraq
Secured by American soldiers and weapons America has a defense agreement with Kuwait Ruled by Emir, is a monarchy Women lost the right to vote and run for office in November

•chief of state: President SADDAM Hussein (since 16 July 1979); •head of government: Prime
Minister SADDAM Hussein (since 29 May 1994); •Revolutionary Command Council; Chairman SADDAM Hussein •Sunni Muslim •1937: Born in Audi, near the city of Tikrit, 200 km north of Baghdad.

Gulf War
•Reason: Iraq's occupation and annexation of Kuwait in August 1990. & the Iraqi refusal to withdraw from Kuwait before the time limit

•August 2Iraq invades Kuwait.
•January 17 Allied attack begins with Apache strike at 2:38 A.M. •February 28 Cease-fire takes effect at 8 A.M. •June 8 Victory parade in Washington. •2,300 civilians died during the air campaign.

•At the end, the the Iraqi army stood at 1,300,000 soldiers; 4500 tanks; 600 combat aircraft. •Intended to "liberate" the oil-rich, Khuzistan •Lasted 8 years from 1980-1988

Weapon Inspections
•Reason: Iraq surrendered to allied forces in 1991. Agreed to give United Nations inspectors access to all facilities the U.N. believed capable of producing weapons of mass destruction.

•A special United Nations commission called UNSCOM was created to carry out the task.
•Hussein has too many weapons. •Hussayn doesn’t participate very well with the U.N

Hussein vs. Weapons Inspectors

Weapons Inspections

•Shah was a monarchy that ruled over Iran for 38 years

•Under the Shah, Iran was not Islamic by law
•Shah considered valuable and powerful ally by US. •Shah were hated by most Iranians because of ties with U.S. and because they were secular.

•Led by Ayatullah Khomeini from outside Iran. He had been expelled by Shah in 1964. He sold cassettes of anit-Shah sermons into Iran. •Revolution led other Persian Gulf countries to think they might have a revolution also •Began with small protests and elevated to kick out the Shah.

•The Shah fled in 1979.
•Afterwards, Khomeini returned to Iran and created the Islamic Republic.

•Lasted from 1980-1888 •600,000-1,000,000 people killed

•Used trench warfare
•Able to push back the Iraqis because of population

•Ended in a stalemate, which means that nobody won.

Khaminei is the religious leader Khatami is the current president of Iran of Iran He was elected in 1997
He wants to be more like the Shah He has improved freedom of speech and improved Iran’s economics He is supported by the military He wants to be more like Ayatollah Khomenei.

• Modern Saudi Arabia founded by Wahhabis, a group of religious desert warriors. • Strict application for Sharia Law, based on Koran, the Sunna. • 1802: Wahhabis captured Mecca and founded the capital of Riyadh in 1824. • Abdul Aziz unifies country.

The Al Saud Family
• 1902: Abdul Aziz Ibn Saud captured Riyadh. He captured many territories and proclaimed himself King. • 1932: He named his vast realm, Saudi Arabia. After his death in 1953, his eldest son, Saud, became King. • 1958: King Saud transferred his legislative and executive powers to the prime minister, his brother, Prince Faisal.



• Saudi Arabia’s vast oil fields bring wealth and foreigners to Saudi Arabia. • Saudi Arabia supplies the U.S. with 1.4 million barrels of oil a day, making Saudi Arabia the world’s most important oil producer. • Saudi Arabia contains 261 billion barrels of proven oil reserves. • Discovery of oil, several places around the Persian Gulf • Largest exporter of the world


In the Gulf War
• S.A. was an ally to Kuwait in war against Iraq. • S.A. contributed more money than soldiers because they were afraid that Iraq would threaten the territory of S.A. Remember: Saudi Arabia and Iraq are boarding countries. • Saudi Government invites American soldiers into country for protection against the Iraqi military threat. • Saudi citizens were very controversial about the idea of having U.S. troops in the holy lands.

• Fundamentalists wanted to overthrow Saudi government with terrorism.
•There is still terrorism in Saudi Arabia today.

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