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Assistant Professor Department of Civil Engineering Office Location: Environmental Laboratory Civil Department (Ground Floor)


Environment and its components, Concept of Ecological imbalances, carrying capacity and sustainable development. Evolution of environmental impact assessment (EIA), Current screening process in India. A step-by-step procedure for developing EIA. Elements of Environmental Analysis. Public consultation, Post monitoring, Data collection for Air Quality Impact analysis, Water Quality Impact Analysis and energy impact analysis. Impact Assessment Methodologies-Matrices, overlays, network analysis. Case studies of Industrial EIA and Water resources projects. Brief introduction about Environment legislation and Environmental Audit.


1. Environmental Impact Assessment for Developing Countries: Asit K. Biswas 2. Environmental Impact Analysis Handbook : G.J. Rau and C.D. Wooten 3. Environmental Impact Assessment by C.W. Canter 4. Environmental Impact Assessment Theory and practice Peter Wathern

Course Plan
CHAPTER 1 What is EIA? Why is it important? How did EIA originate? How does it concern you? Who are the stakeholders? Why is it important to understand the EIA report? How can you intervene in the process? Comparison of public consultation in India and other countries. CHAPTER 2 Environmental clearance process in India Central level State level Function of Central and State Expert Appraisal Committees CHAPTER 3 Role of screening Current screening process in India What additional information is missing in screening forms for decision? Case studies CHAPTER 4 Why scoping is important Role of scoping Regulatory provision for scoping in India Decision criteria to undertake rapid or comprehensive EIA Scoping guidelines for defining the Term of reference for projects (TOR).

Course Plan Contd

CHAPTER 5 Introduction to data collection. What data to be collected and its significance such as Air environment Water environment Land environment Biodiversity How data should be collected, interpreted and presented? CHAPTER 6 Impact assessment Introduction to Impact analysis. Criteria for predicting the significance of impacts. Basis thumb rule to evaluate the project feasibility. Method to assess the impact of a project on ground and surface water.

Method to assess the project impact on ecosensitive areas. Project feasibility with respect to land use pattern. Estimation of assimilative capacity of the river. Mass balance and thumb rule to estimate the resource consumption and emission potential of different industrial sector. Thumb rule to estimate the pollution potential based on fuel and raw material analysis. Thumb rule to estimate the stack height. Thumb rule to estimate the water demand, wastewater discharge, load and treatment process efficiency. Thumb rule to estimate the seismic location. Estimation of site suitability with respect meteorological parameter. Thumb rule to assess social issues

Course Plan Contd

CHAPTER 7 Mitigation and Environmental management plant (EMP) Introduction to impact mitigation and impact management. Identification of state of art technologies for resource consumption and pollution prevention. Structural and non-structural mitigation measures in certain industrial projects. Introduction to Environmental management plan. What good EMP should contain.

CHAPTER 8 Public consultation Introduction to public consultation. How one should prepare for the public consultation. Loopholes of public hearing in India CHAPTER 9 Post monitoring Weakness in post monitoring Structural weakness Legal weakness How to strengthen post monitoring

Our natural environment climate, soils, oceans, biological life (plants, animals, bacteria) that can both nurture us and be hazards to us. The built environment that we have created to protect and house ourselves and to provide a modified infrastructure within which we can prosper The economic environment that sustains our built environment and allows the organization of the means of production The social, cultural and legal environments within which we conduct ourselves and our interactions with others. These environments are themselves diverse, continually evolving and have strong interdependence.

What is EIA? What are the core value of EIA?

Evolution and history of EIA

Why is it important? How can you intervene in the process?

Definitions of EIA:
A study of probable changes in various socio-economic and biophysical characteristics and the environment, which may result from a proposed or impending action (Jain, Urban, Stacey, 1977). An activity that aims at establishing quantitative values for selected parameters, which indicate the quality of environment before, during, and after the proposed activities Heer, Hagerty (1977). An instrument to identify and assess the potential environmental impacts of a proposed project, evaluate alternatives, and design appropriate mitigation, management, and monitoring measures (World Bank)

Different names for the same report

An EIA report may be known by several other names such as: Environmental impact assessment (EIA) Environment impact statement (EIS) Environmental statement (ES) Environmental assessment report (EAR) Environmental effects statement (EES)

EIA Three core values

Integrity: The EIA process should be fair, objective, unbiased and balanced. Utility: The EIA process should provide balanced, credible information for decision making. Sustainability: The EIA process should result in environmental safeguards.

Evolution and history of EIA

Development of EIA Pre-1970
Early/mid 1970s Project review based on the technical/engineering and economic analysis. Limited consideration given to environmental consequences. EIA introduced by NEPA in 1969 in US. Basic principle: Guidelines, procedures including public participation requirement instituted. Standard methodologies for impact analysis developed (e.g. matrix, checklist and network). Canada, Australia and New Zealand became first countries to follow NEPA in 1973-1974. Unlike Australia, which legislated EIA, Canada and New Zealand established administrative procedures. Major public inquires help to shape the process development.

Evolution and history of EIA

Development of EIA
Late 1970 and early 1980s
More formalized guidance. Other industrial and developing countries introduced formal EIA requirements (France, 1976; Philippines, 1977) began to use the process informally or experimentally ( Netherlands, 1978) or adopted elements, such as impact statements or reports, as part of development applications for planning permission (German states [lander], Ireland). Use of EA by developing countries (Brazil, Philippines, China, Indonesia) Strategic Environment Assessment (SEA), risk analysis included in EA processes. Greater emphasis on ecological modeling, prediction and evaluation methods. Provision for public involvement. Coordination of EA with land use planning processes.

Evolution and history of EIA

Development of EIA
Mid 1980s to end of decade In Europe, EC Directive on EIA establishes basic principle and procedural requirements for all member states. Increasing efforts to address cumulative effects. World Bank and other leading international aid agencies establish EA requirements. Spread of EIA process in Asia. Requirement to consider trans-boundary effects under Espoo convention. Increase use of GIS and other information technologies. Sustainability principal and global issues receive increased attention. India also adopted the EIA formally. Formulation of EA legislation by many developing countries. Rapid growth in EA training.


History of EIA in India

In 1984 Gas leak tragedy in Bhopal Indian Govt. formed EPA in 1994 & EIA mandatory for certain projects. The MoEF, under the EPA 1986, promulgated the EIA notification making environmental clearance mandatory for expansion or modernisation of any activity or for setting up new projects. The EIA notification has been amended 13 times in the past 12 years. While most of the amendments diluted the environmental clearance process, there were some, which also strengthened it.

On 27 January 1994

Why is it important?
To understand the short term and long term impact of project. To identifies the likely environmental, economical and social burden of the project for decision makers. The long-term objective of EIA is to promote sustainable development by ensuring the balance between environment and development. Opportunity to the local people to understand the project so that they can participate and intervene in project development.

The EIA process

1. Screening: First stage of EIA, which determines whether the proposed project, requires an EIA and if it requires EIA, then the level of assessment required.
2. Scoping: This stage identifies the key issues and impact that should be further investigated. This stage also defines the boundary and time limit of the study. 3. Impact analysis: This stage of EIA identifies and predicts likely environmental and social impact of the proposed project and evaluates the significance. 4. Mitigation: This step in EIA recommends the actions to reduce and avoid the potential adverse environmental consequences of development activities.

5. Reporting: This stage presents the result of EIA in a form of a report to the decisionmaking body and other interested parties.
6. Review of EIA: It examines the adequacy and effectiveness of the EIA report and provides information necessary for the decision-making. 7. Decision-making: It decides whether the project is rejected, approved or needs further change. 8. Post monitoring: This stage comes into play once the project is commissioned.

Types of EIA
Broadly EIA classified into two types:
Rapid EIA
This is carried out for projects that are likely to cause limited adverse impacts. In rapid EIA, data or information is collected for only one season (other than monsoon). Therefore, the time frame for undertaking rapid EIA is much shorter (3 months).

Comprehensive EIA
As the name suggests, this is conducted over a year as it involves collection of data/information for three seasons (other than monsoons). It is usually conducted for projects that are likely to cause more or a series of adverse impacts. However, in India, there are no clear guidelines on the type of projects for which comprehensive EIA should be conducted. As per the new EIA notification, the authority in charge of issuing environmental clearances (either the Union ministry for environment and forests (MoEF) or the state level body) decides whether the project proponent has to conduct a rapid or a comprehensive EIA.

Public participation in different countries

Europe Japan Canada Netherlands and Denmark US The views of NGOs and affected people are considered during screening, scoping and EIA review. Provisions of public feedback at screening, scoping and draft environmental impact statement. People are consulted during screening, scoping and hearing. Consultation and public participation is a regulatory requirement Publish a notice of intent in the Federal register and asks public to comment. Commonly called the Public Consultation legal provision, people are consulted at the latter stage of the EIA process once the draft EIA report has been prepared. There is no public consultation in the initial phase.


How can you intervene in the process?

Local communities can intervene during the public hearing process. Relevant issues can be raised. Loopholes/gaps/inadequacies in the EIA report can be pointed out. Legal options can also be exercised. A properly presented rigorous analysis of the EIA report can be presented to the court. A critical analysis of the EIA report can also be sent to the National Environmental Appellate Authority for a final appeal in case the project is given a clearance.

Environmental clearance process in India Central level State level Function of Central and State Expert Appraisal Committees The union Ministry of environment and forests brought out the new EIA notification in 2006. In the new notification (dated 14th September 2006), the process of screening and scoping has been made mandatory.

EIA at project
Old notification

Six stages: (1) Project concept (2) Pre-feasibility (3) Feasibility (4) Design and engineering (5) Implementation and (6) Monitoring and evaluation.

New notification Four Stage Stage first - screening (only for category B projects and activities), Stage second - scoping (applicable for A and B1 type project), Stage third - public consultation, Stage fourth project appraisal.

Fig: EIA process in India

Project concept and site selection

Proposal of project

Project MOEF





Project B, Get clearance from state

Submission of Form & relevant information to Expert Appraisal Committee (Both for project A &B)

Screening (Applicable for B category project

EIA required
(called B1 project)

EIA not required

(Called B2 project) Scoping (For both A & B category project) Impact assessment

Not approved

Draft EIA followed by public consultation


Submission to appraisal committee and decision

Post monitoring

Bodies involved in the assessment process

Environment quality experts: Experts in measurement and monitoring, as well as analysis and interpretation of environmental parameters Sectoral experts: Experts in management of processes and operations in the relevant industrial sectors EIA process experts: Experts in conducting eias and preparing Environmental Management Tools (emps) Risk assessment experts Life science experts in floral and faunal management Forestry and wildlife experts Environmental economics experts

Function of Central and State Expert Appraisal Committees

The function of the expert appraisal committee is to evaluate the project feasibility at the central level for A category project before granting environmental clearance. However similar function is rest with state level SEAC. The function of EAC and SEAC are given below

Function of Central and State EAC

The EAC and SEAC expert appraisal committees at the central and state or the Union territory level are responsible to screen, scope and appraise projects or activities The authorized members of the EAC and SEAC, may inspect any site connected with the project or activity in respect of which the prior environmental clearance for the purposes of screening or scoping or appraisal. EAC and SEAC will decide the Terms of Reference (ToR) on the basis of the information furnished in the prescribed application i.e. form1/form 1A including Terns of Reference proposed by the applicant. The application for the project may by rejected regulatory authority on the recommendation of the EAC and SEAC at central and state level respectively. In case of such rejection, the decision together with reasons shall be communicated to the applicant.

Function of Central and State EAC

The EAC and SEAC are responsible to scrutiny application and other documents like the final EIA report, outcome of the public consultations including public hearing proceedings, submitted by the applicant to the regulatory authority concerned for the grant of environmental clearance. The project proponent is also be invited for furnishing necessary clarifications in person or through an authorized representative. The regulatory authority shall normally accept the recommendations of the central and state level expert appraisal committee concerned. In cases of disagreement with the recommendations of the EAC and SEAC, the regulatory authority shall request for reconsideration within forty-five days of the receipt of the recommendations of the EAC and SEAC. The decision of the regulatory authority after considering the views of the central and state level expert appraisal committee concerned shall be final and conveyed to the applicant.

State Level Environment Impact Assessment Authority (SEIAA)

Environment Impact Assessment Authority (SEIAA) Its is compose of three members which includes member secretary, chairman and one more person. Main function of SEIAA is to grant environmental clearance based on the recommendation of SEAC. Decision of the Authority on the basis of consensus. SEIAA is an independent body; members/chairman have fixed term, can not be removed except for cause Three (3) member SEIAA to be notified by MOEF after every three years Chairman and other member shall be experts/professionals fulfilling the eligibility criteria given in Appendix VI. Chairman shall be an expert in EIA process. Member Secretary shall be a serving officer of the state government familiar with environmental laws. No funding from MoEF

Forms of impact assessment

There are various forms of impact assessment such as health impact assessment (HIA) and social impact assessment (SIA) that are used to assess the health and social consequences of development so that they are taken into consideration along with the environmental assessment. One of the forms of impact assessment is strategic environment assessment, which is briefly discussed below:

Strategic EIA
Strategic environment assessment (SEA) refers to systematic analysis of the environmental effects of: development policies, plans, programmes and other proposed strategic actions. This process extends the aims and principles of EIA upstream in the decision-making process, beyond the project level , major alternatives are still open. SEA represents a proactive approach to integrating environmental considerations into the higher levels of decision-making.

Difference in EIA and SEA

Environment impact assessment
Takes place at end of decision-making cycle

Strategic environment assessment

Takes place at earlier stages of decision making cycle Pro-active approach to development Reactive approach to development proposal proposals Identifies specific impacts on the Identifies environmental implications, issues of sustainable development environment Considers broad range of potential Considers limited number of feasible alternatives Alternatives Early warning of cumulative effects Limited review of cumulative effects Emphasis on meeting environmental Emphasis on mitigating and minimizing objectives, maintaining natural systems impacts Broad perspective, lower level of detail to Narrow perspective, high level of detail provide a vision and overall framework Well-defined process, clear beginning and Multi-stage process, overlapping components, end policy level is continuing, iterative Focuses on standard agenda, treats Focuses on sustainability agenda, gets at symptoms of environmental deterioration sources of environmental deterioration

Different forms of impact assessment

Macro Impact Assessment
1. 2. 3. 4. Environmental Impact Assessment Social Impact assessment Technology Impact Assessment Policy Impact Assessment

Micro Impact Assessment

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. Economic and Fiscal Impact assessment Demographic Impact assessment Health Impact assessment Ecology Impact assessment Risk Impact assessment Climate Impact assessment Development Impact assessment

Social Impact Assessment

It can be defined as the processes of assessing or eliminating the social consequences in advance. The social consequences particularly in the context of appropriate national, state or provincial environmental policy legislation. Social impacts include all social and cultural consequences to human population of any public and private action. Cultural impacts involve change to norms, values, and beliefs of individuals that guide and rationalize their cognition of themselves and their society.

Social Impact Assessment Cont

1. 2. 3. The SIA process provides direction in Understanding, managing and controlling change. The prediction of likely impacts from change strategies or development projects that are to be implemented The identification, development and implementation of mitigation strategies in order to minimise potential impacts. The development and implementation of monitoring programs to identify unanticipated social impacts that may develop as a result of social change. The development and implementation of mitigation mechanisms to deal with unexpected impacts as they develop. The evaluation of social impacts caused by earlier development projects, technological change, specific technology and government policy.



Guidelines & Principles of SIA

1. 2. 3. Public involvement: Develop and implement an effective public involvement plan to involve all potentially affected publics. Identification of alternative: Described the proposed action or policy change and reasonable alternatives. Profile baseline conditions: This will include developing and understanding of the relationship between the social and biophysical environment; historical background of the area; contemporary issues; political and social structures; culture; attitudes and social-psychological condition; as well as basic population characteristics. Scoping: identify the full range of possible social impacts through a variety of means including discussion or interviews with numbers of all potentially affected. Projection of estimated effects: Evaluate all possible impacts to determine the probable impacts.

4. 5.

Role of screening Current screening process in India What information is missing in screening forms? Case studies

It is the first step of the environmental impact assessment, which helps to assess the environmental impacts of an industrial, or development project and decides whether an environmental impact assessment is required for the project or not.

Fig: EIA process in India

Project concept and site selection

Proposal of project

Project MOEF





Project B, Get clearance from state

Submission of Form & relevant information to Expert Appraisal Committee (Both for project A &B)

Screening (Applicable for B category project

EIA required
(called B1 project)

EIA not required

(Called B2 project) Scoping (For both A & B category project) Impact assessment

Not approved

Draft EIA followed by public consultation


Submission to appraisal committee and decision

Post monitoring

What information is missing in screening forms?

Why scoping is important Role of scoping Regulatory provision for scoping in India Decision criteria to undertake rapid or comprehensive EIA Scoping guidelines for defining the Term of reference for projects (TOR).

Why scoping is important?

The scoping phase is the backbone of the
environmental impact assessment process It involves trying to find answers to questions like 1-what are the issues to be addressed, 2- how to proceed, 3- what extent of analysis is needed, 4- what infrastructure is needed 5- and what kind of people should be involved in the assessment.

Role of scoping
Ideally, the role of scoping is to determine three key issues, namely, Justification of the project (both scenarios with and without the project, extent of benefit to the local communities due to the project) Site alternatives (assessment of different sites with respect to stress on biophysical environment and its cumulative effects) Design alternatives (type of technology, structural and non-structural mitigation measures to reduce significant impacts).

Regulatory provisions for scoping in India

As per the new notification, the ToR for scoping would be decided by the expert appraisal committee at the central-level or the state-level expert appraisal committee based on information furnished in the application Form1/Form 1A, ToR prepared by the project proponent and a report of the site visit (if the appraisal committee deems a requirement of a site visit to the area). The expert committee has to convey the ToR for the EIA study to the project proponent within 60 days of the receipt of Form 1. Otherwise, the ToR suggested by the applicant shall be deemed as the final ToR approved for the EIA studies.

Scoping guidelines for defining the Term of reference for projects (TOR).
Issues to be considered Site alternative Description Extent of investigation/best practice in scoping

The provision of site alternatives is never considered in the EIA process because site selection is driven by availability of raw materials and other economic factors. There are hardly any considerations of environmental and social impacts while locating a project. In order to locate a project, the siting guideline should be properly followed (see annexure 1.2 for siting guidelines).

Final decision on the site should be made based on the detailed investigation of environmental, social and economic issues related with each sites. Environmental issues: Type of land use pattern, water potential and competitive users, pollution potential with respect to assimilation capacity of the area/medium, and proximity to sensitive areas. Social issues: Population density, impact on local resources, impact on public amenities and infrastructure, scenario with and without the project, proximity of human habitation. Cont

Annexure 1.2: Siting Guidelines

The following guidelines should be taken into account while identifying a suitable site for setting up an industry. No forest land shall be converted for non forest activity for the siting of an industry [Ref: Forest(Conservation)Act, 1980]: No prime agricultural land shall be converted into an industrial site Within the acquired site the industry unit must be located at the lowest elevation to remain hidden from general vision: Land acquired shall be sufficiently large to provide space for appropriate treatment of waste water after maximizing possible reuse and recycling reclaimed (treated) wastewater shall be used to raise a green belt and to create a water body aesthetics recreation and if possible for aquaculture. The green belt shall be 1/2 km wide around the boundary limits of the industry. For an industry having an odour problem it shall be a kilometer wide: The green belt between two adjoining large scale industries shall be one kilometer.

Siting Guidelines Contd..

Enough space should be provided for storage of solid wastes, so that these would be available for possible reuse: Lay out and the from of the industry coming up in an area must conform to the landscape of the area without affecting the scenic features of that place: The associated township of the industry must be created at a place having physiographic barriers between the industry and the township: Each industry is required to maintain three ambient air quality measuring stations within 120 degree angle between the stations:

Areas to be avoided
Ministry of environment and forests, government of india has notified the following areas for prohibiting and restricting specified industrial activites in the country:
Murud Jangira Disst. Maharashtra , (Notification,189) Doon Valley in uttar Pradesh. (Notification, 1989) Antop Hill in Bombay (Notification, 1980) Dahanu Taluka in Maharashtra (Notification, 1996) Namaligarh East of Kaziranga (Notification, 1996) Specified Areas of Aravali Range. (Notification, 1992) Matheran and surrounding region in the state of Maharashtra declared as the Matheran Eco-sensitive Zone (Notification Dt. 4th Feb 03) Coastal Regulation Zone (CRZ)-500 meters from the high tide line (HTL) towards the landward side. (Section 9 for details on CRZ Rules, 1991 & Amendments).

Guidelines for defining the Term of reference for projects (TOR). Contd..
Issues to be considered

Description The technology used for manufacturing has a huge impact on the environment. Therefore it should be selected after considering all possible alternatives. For instance in , most of the industries still use outdated technologies when compared to global trends.
This impact is very high in case the project is located close to a sensitive area. In case of industrial, irrigation and mining projects, there are several examples of how the impacts on biodiversity were ignored for setting up a project. An excellent example is of the Himachal-based cement plant of Gujarat Ambuja Cements Limited (GACL). The production unit and the mines are located in extremely ecosensitive areas there are 19 protected forest blocks in the region. The production unit is close to the Darlaghat Wildlife Sanctuary, the mines are close to the Majathal Sanctuary. However, for setting this plant, the Darlaghat sanctuary was denotified by the government. Similarly, the construction work of Durgawati water resource project continues on the forestland. Expert committee in their report mentioned that the state government had denotified 160 acres of forestland including 5.44 acres in the Kaimur Wildlife Sanctuary through a notification on November 5, 2004 for setting up this project.

Extent of investigation/best practice in scoping

In a country like India, where regulatory mechanism for industrial pollution is weak, the best way to reduce the industrial pollution is by allowing only state of art technology for instance in Chlor-alkali sector, the state of art technology is membrane cell technology and for aluminium smelter state of art is prebaked technology
Preventive approach - Not to locate projects close to sensitive areas such as national park, wildlife and protected area buffer zones (Part of National Park and Wild Life habitats) In case of hydropower projects, Small hydropower project is one alternative solution to reduce magnitude of impact. In case of hydropower project EIA should focus more to identify the impact on biodiversity, submergence, siltation, downstream ecology, social impacts and disaster management.

Impact on sensitive locations (forests, wildlife sanctuaries, national parks, archaeological sites etc.)

Issues to be considered
Impact of change in land use patterns Cumulative load Impact on water resources Impact during preconstruction stage. Impact on biodiversity Impact on air by point source emissions Toxic emissions Impact of water pollution Sediment impact Impact of solid/hazardous wastes generation and handling Impact of noise Blasting Transportation issues Risk Assessment team and monitoring infrastructure

Introduction to data collection. What data to be collected and its significance such as Air environment Water environment Land environment Biodiversity How data should be collected, interpreted and presented?

Data collection
Data collection is done basically with two intentions:
To get an idea of the existing social, environmental and economic scenario in and around the proposed plants location, To get an idea of possible implications of setting up the plant in the region

What data is needed?

While data is required for all projects:
Different projects require different kinds of data for an effective environmental assessment
depending on their location and the nature of their operations. Industrial projects (manufacturing industries), mining projects, infrastructure projects, hydroelectric and irrigation projects thermal power plants

Infrastructure projects
This includes highways/ airports/ bridges/ pipelines/ ports/ railway networks
In the case of pipelines, railway networks, roads and highways, the study area is usually taken as a 2 km corridor (1 km on each side) along the entire length of the project. In addition, the study area includes a 5-km radius area surrounding key areas in the network like large towns, cities etc. In the case of airports/ports, the study area is a 10-km radius

Topography (flat/hilly) Existence of other industries/development projects within the study area (Number of projects/distance of these projects from the proposed project) Details of population in the area distance of the nearest human habitation, villages in the study area and their population. In the case of selected key areas, data corresponding to a 1-km radius, 2-km radius and a 5-km radius should be collected

Location Contd...
Existence of eco-sensitive areas in the study area and their distance from the proposed project
wildlife sanctuaries national parks forests/wetlands and mangroves archaeological sites/sites of historical importance habitats for migratory birds estuary or sea lakes and reservoirs or dams)

Land use studies

Existing land use patterns in the study area.
Data from different sources such as from census records, local land records, agricultural census as well as Indian Remote Sensing satellite imagery should be collected and analysed.

Existing land use patterns in the land for which Right of Use/ownership has to be acquired for setting up the project

Land use studies Contd...

Data on land use should be collected under the following categories:
Urban (this can be built-up land, notified industrial area or mixed land use) Forestland Agricultural land (with some indication of productivity information on whether single-cropped land/double-cropped land/triple cropped land should be collected) Fallow land Scrubs/grazing land Water bodies Wetlands (mangroves/salt plans/mudflats) Wasteland (this refers to rocky/marshy/salt affected/water logged/gullied land)

Type of soil within the study area (composition/ characteristics). Characteristics such as pH, nitrogen/ phosphorous/ potassium/ calcium/ magnesium/ sodium, sodium absorption ratio (SAR), electrical conductivity, available water storage capacity, infiltration rate, porosity, texture, permeability, percentage of sand, silt and clay in the soil etc. should be collected Availability and characteristics of topsoil in the study area (depth of topsoil, composition)

Soil Contd...
Soil and slope stability reports on studies done in the area. This is particularly important in case of projects located in hilly and mountainous terrains, where risks of landslides can be high. It is also important in case of large-scale projects located in seismically active zones

Geology & Climate

Data on the seismic zone in which the project location falls and the maximum observed seismic intensity in the region Physiography and general geology of the area

Climatology and meteorology

Month-wise data on atmospheric pressure, temperature and relative humidity. Wind speed and wind direction data at the project site. A wind rose diagram (providing monthwise or at least annual data) has to be constructed

Hydrogeology and local water regime

Drainage patterns in the area details of rivers/tributaries/streams/aquifers draining the region in the study area Details of canal and river crossings Water consumption by the project Detailed water quality study in surface water bodies in the study area Detailed groundwater quality study

Quarrying and landfilling

Data on the approximate quantity of material excavated during construction, for instance during dredging (along with information on the type of material that is excavated)

(Note: This might be substantial for instance in the case of construction of tunnels etc.)
Data on the approximate quantity of the material that might be used for landfilling (for instance silt from nearby areas) low-lying areas

Ambient air quality data on suspended particulate matter (SPM), respirable suspended particulate matter (RSPM), sulphur dioxide (SO2), and different oxides of nitrogen (NOX), dust fall, carbon monoxide and hydrocarbons Data should be calculated on a 24-hour basis number of vehicles passing/hour should be noted, along with information on the type of vehicle (heavy motor vehicles/light motor vehicles/twothree wheelers)

Information on the possible sources of noise from the proposed project noise levels, duration of noise Data on the ambient noise levels collected near residential areas, commercial areas and silent zones. 24-hour data is to be collected

If there are forests in the study area, a detailed study of what kinds of forests exist (teak/sal/mixed etc.) has to be done. Usually, this data is available with the Forest Department.

The following data is collected for each type of forest:

Location/topography where the forests are located Percentage area of the total study area occupied by each forest type Type of soil Crown density of the forests

Detailed inventorisation of fauna found in the study area data on wildlife/ butterflies/ mammals/ birds/ reptiles/ amphibians/ migratory birds and animals/ phytoplankton/ zooplankton should be collected Presence of nesting/breeding grounds/ watering holes Classification of animals under various schedules of the Wildlife Act (1972) Physiochemical characteristics of all the local water bodies temperature, light penetration, turbidity, pH, dissolved oxygen, phosphates, nitrates and sulphates

Demography and socio-economic data

Population Population density Number of villages, distance and direction from the proposed project Number of households Male/female population Ethnic profile: percentage of people belonging to scheduled castes, scheduled tribes and other vulnerable communities out of the total population

Demography and socio-economic data Contd...

Demographic profile of the people being displaced: percentage of displaced people belonging to scheduled castes, scheduled tribes and other vulnerable communities. Literacy rates, educational status, and educational infrastructure Data on employment: How many to be employed, what percentage from local communities, what kind of employment (daily wage/contract/permanent, proportion of workers/middle management/upper management)

Demography and socio-economic data Contd...

Occupation: Occupation should be collected on various categories like agricultural workers (agrarian labourers), cultivators, occupied in fisheries/ livestock/ fishing and allied activities, mining and quarrying workers, manufacturing and processing in household industry, construction workers, manufacturing and processing in industry (other than household industry), trade and commerce workers, transport, storage communication workers, marginal labour, other service workers and non-workers. Also data on child employment.

Demography and socio-economic data Contd...

Infrastructure facilities: Details of schools, colleges, hospitals, private doctors, veterinary hospitals, roads, aanganwadis, electrification, source of drinking water, source of irrigation water, and sewage management in the region. Also, data on whether the project plans to improve these facilities. If so, how. Details of influx into the study area due to the project: No of people entering, time period of influx (temporary/permanent), facilities available to deal with the influx

Demography and socio-economic data Contd...

Land holdings: Details of average size of land holdings, number of families owning land (if at all) within a particular bracket (landless, land less than 0.5 acres, between 0.5-1 acres, between 1-2 acres etc.) Income levels: Classification required (less than Rs 3,600/month per household, between Rs 3,601-6,400 per household etc.)

Demography and socio-economic data Contd...

Fuel requirement Health status: Details of common ailments in the local community and their month-wise frequency Details of the compensation/rehabilitation package being offered

How should data be collected?

1. Method followed for data collection:
I. There are well-established rules for collecting different kinds of data, and these rules should be followed in order to ensure reliability of the data. II. For instance, in order to collect accurate data on water flow, measurements have to be taken at various points in the river.

Data collection Cont

2. Time of data collection:
I. The time period over which data collection takes place is very important, and often crucial in making decisions on possible environmental impact. II. For instance, unless water flow data is collected during the lean period, typically peak summer, the data loses relevance since it will not be able to give an accurate picture of water stress. III. To give another example, data on wind speeds should be collected throughout the day to get a good picture of the wind profile of the area.

Data collection Cont

3. Place of data collection:
I. II. The point where data is collected is important in many cases. For instance, in the case of industries which discharge vast quantities of wastewater in local water bodies, data on water flow and water quality has to be collected downstream of the proposed point of discharge if any decision on whether the existing assimilative capacity of the river is capable of handling the effluents has to be made. III. Similarly, stations for monitoring air should be located downwind with respect to the most prevalent wind direction to get a good picture of air quality.

Data related to air

The important parameters of air quality are: suspended particulate matter (SPM) respirable suspended particulate matter (RSPM) sulphur dioxide (SO2) different oxides of nitrogen (NOX). Apart from these, some other parameters (like hydrocarbons, chlorine) might have to be monitored, depending on the nature of the project.

What are the common air pollutants that are measured?

I. This refers to solid and liquid particles suspended in the air. II. The size of these particles can hugely vary from 200 micron to as low as 0.01 micron. III. SPM can accumulate in the lungs and bronchi and cause breathing problems to those affected. IV. Particles suspended in the air scatter and absorb sunlight. V. They can produce a haze, reduce visibility and can also reduce the amount of solar energy reaching the earth.

Common air pollutants.....measur.. Contd...


I. II.

This refers to particulate matter less than 10 micrometers in size. These are more harmful than SPM emissions, since they can penetrate the lungs.
This is a heavy, pungent and colourless gas. Industrial sources include burning of coal (particularly imported coal), pet coke and oil as well as other industrial processes like smelting and petroleum refining. These emissions can cause pulmonary damage. They can injure the bronchial tubes leading to the lungs, as well as the delicate tissue of the lungs themselves. They can cause irritation to the eyes, nose and throat. They can also damage leaves and stems of plants. SO2 emissions can also affect the pH balance of water. These emissions form sulphuric acid with water. This acid attacks metal, concrete, granite and other structural materials.


I. II.

Common air pollutants.....measur.. Contd...

4. NOX:
I. II. III. These are reddish brown gases with a characteristic odour. Industrial sources of nitrogen oxides are generally combustion of fuels. Other sources are internal combustion engines as well as natural processes. IV. The various oxides of nitrogen can have an adverse impact on air quality as well as on human health. V. Nitrous oxide reduces the oxygen carrying capacity of blood, and can be fatal in high concentration. VI. Emissions of nitrogen oxides cause increased respiratory infections in children (mainly bronchitis). VII. Nitrogen dioxide and water combine to form nitric acid. In addition, the oxides of nitrogen combine with water on mucous membranes to form mild acid solutions.

How is data on concentration of air pollutants collected?

Air pollutants are expressed in parts per million (ppm) or micrograms per cubic meter (g/m3). In order to convert concentration of air pollutants from ppm to g/m3, the following formula is used: 1 ppm = 44.64 x M x 273 / (273 + T) x (P2 / P1), where M = Molecular weight of the pollutant T = Temperature of the gas in C P2 = Pressure of the gas P1 = Pressure of the gas at standard temperature (0 C) and pressure (1 bar or 100 kilo Pascal) Molecular weight is calculated based on the atomic weights of the constituent gases. For example, molecular weight of CO2 is 44 (12 x 1 + 16 x 2)

Inversions, mixing heights and stable layers

Understanding the concept of inversion, mixing heights and stability layers is very important in predicting the impact of air pollutants released by the project on ambient air quality. They play a key role in determining how dispersion of the pollutants will take place. This data also helps in deciding the optimum height of stacks such that dispersion takes place effectively and without polluting regions near human habitation. In the atmosphere, temperature normally changes with height as expressed by the formula: dT/dZ = -(n-1)/nR, Where : T = Temperature Z = Height n = 1 for isothermal conditions, 1.4 for adiabatic conditions

When n is greater than 1.4 (super adiabatic condition), When n lies between 1 and 1.4 (sub adiabatic condition) it leads to instability. When n is lesser than 1, the atmospheric conditions are highly stable. In all such cases, the rate at which temperature changes with height is referred to as Environmental Lapse Rate (ELR) When the rate of change of temperature with height is positive (n<1), the condition is called inversion. There are two types of inversion
radiation inversion (also known as ground based inversions) and subsidence inversion (also known as elevated inversions)

Figure : Rates of change of temperature with height

Radiation inversion

Subsidence inversion

Double inversion

Mixing depths
The vertical extent to which the mixing takes place varies diurnally, from season to season, and is also affected by topographical features. The greater the vertical extent, the larger the volume of atmosphere available for dispersion of the pollutants. The depth of the mixing layer is known as the Mean Mixing Depth. Atmospheric conditions influence the way thermal plumes behave. Behaviour of plumes under different conditions Case 1- Looping: This occurs when n > 1.4 and atmospheric conditions are unstable Case 2 Coning: This occurs when n is between 1 and 1.4 and atmospheric conditions are unstable Case 3 Fanning: This occurs when n < 1, and inversion takes place Case 4 Lofting: This occurs when the inversion layer lies below the stack height Case 5 Fumigation: This occurs when the inversion layer lies above the stack height Case 6 Trapping: This occurs when double inversion layers occur Case 7: Neutral: This occurs when n = 1, and atmospheric conditions are stable

Figure : Behaviour of plumes under different conditions

Monitoring of stack emissions

The determination of concentration of various pollutants present in emissions from a stack consists essentially of sampling iso-kinetically. Iso-kinetic sampling means that the kinetic energy of the gas stream in the stack should be equal to the kinetic energy of the gas stream flowing through the sampler . NOTE: Samples must be collected without physical or chemical alteration and without altering the flow pattern or concentration of the pollutant. Samples must be obtained at a point of average gas density and average pollutant concentration. Therefore, selection of suitable locations for sampling is very important.

Stack Monitoring Procedure

The sampling port is to be located at 8 diameters from the inlet of the stack (or from any bends, expansions or flow disturbances) and 2 diameters from the exit of the stack. It should be of 7-10 cm in size and a strong platform should be constructed about 1 m below the sampling ports. The stack monitoring equipment (thermocouple for measuring temperature, pitot tube for measuring pressure, dry gas meter for measuring the total gas flow, collection filter for filtering the gases, vacuum pump for drawing gas etc.) will be shifted to the platform. Insert the thermocouple into the stack and record the temperature of the gas. Insert the pitot tube upside down and record the static pressure of the gas (PU = BA + PS, where PU is the absolute stack pressure in mm Hg, BA is the barometric pressure in mm Hg and PS is the static pressure in the stack in mm Hg)

Stack Monitoring Procedure

The inner diameter of the stack is recorded and points are marked (see annexure: Guidelines for locating sampling points). The velocity at each of these points is calculated using the formula given below, and then the average velocity is calculated. VS = 33.5 x 0.96 x [(TS x H) / (M x PU)] 0.5, where TS = Stack gas temperature in C, H is the pressure difference measured with the pitot tube in mm of water, M is the molecular weight of the stack gas measured with the help of Orsat apparatus, and PU is the absolute stack pressure

Guidelines for ambient air quality monitoring

Air pollution should be monitored during the winter months. The minimum number of sampling stations should be six. While selecting stations, various factors like population density, concentration of industries, and intensity of traffic should be taken into account. Monitoring stations should be located downwind of the most prevalent wind direction The stations should not be located near buildings Samples are generally taken for a period of 24-hours

Representation of data
When many samples are taken (say over a period of a month), ambient air quality is typically represented by the following figures:
Maximum value: This is the maximum emission value recorded Minimum value: This is the minimum emission value recorded Average value: This is the average emission value recorded 98 percentile: This is a value such that at most 2 per cent of the observations are higher than this value.

Meteorological Data
Climatology Data Indian Bureau of Mines (IBM) and the Indian Meteorological Department (IMD) Rainfall: Rainfall (in mm) = Volume of rainfall collected (in mm3) / (Area of the aperture of the gauge in mm2) Index of wetness = Actual rainfall in a given year at a given place / Normal annual rainfall of that place Arithmetical mean method: P = (P1 + P2 + P3 + . Pn)/ n Thiessens mean method: P = (A1P1 + A2P2 + A3P3 + . An Pn)/ A Isohyetal method: P = (A1P1 + A2P2 + A3P3 + . An Pn)/ (A1 + A2 + A3 + .An)

Data related to noise

Noise survey should be done in the study area covering the following three zones, and data should be collected for 24 hours at each location: Residential zones Commercial zones Silent zones

Noise pollution parameters

L10 = Noise level exceeded 10 per cent of the time L50 = Noise level exceeded 50 per cent of the time L90 = Noise level exceeded 90 per cent of the time Leq (Lequivalent) = This is the equivalent continuous sound level during the period of measurement. It is calculated as follows: Leq = L50 + [(L10 L90)2/60)] Lday = Leq measured over a period of time during 6 am to 9 pm Lnight = Leq measured over a period of time during 9 pm to 6 am Day-Night Sound Level (Ldn) = 10 log {1/24 [15 (10Lday/10) + 9 (10(Lnight + 10)/10)]}

Data related to water

Surface water (rivers, lakes, streams and ponds)
Eg. river, first the width of the river is measured. This width is divided into convenient equal portions (thus dividing the river into various channels), say divisions of 10 m width each (with the width of the last channel depending on the width of the river). Flow is calculated at each of these channels The velocity of the water at each channel is also measured with the help of a rotometer. The formula for calculating flow is as follows: Q (in m3/sec) = Depth of the channel (in m) x Width of the channel (in m) x Velocity of the channel (m/sec)

Porosity = Total volume of voids in the aggregate (Vs)/Total volume of the aggregate (V) x 100
Type of rock formation Granite, Quartzite Slate, Shale Limestone Sandstone Sand and Gravel Only Gravel Only Sand Clay and Soil Porosity 1.5% 4% 5-10% 10-15% 20-30% 25% 35% 45%

Permeability: This is defined as the ability of a rock to let water pass though it. It is measured in terms of coefficient of permeability.
Type of rock formation Average value of permeability coefficient in cm/sec 0.6 x 10 -5 4 x 10 -5 4 x 10 -5 0.004 0.4 4.0 0.04 0.04 x 10 -5

Granite, Quartzite Slate, Shale Limestone Sandstone Sand and Gravel Only Gravel Only Sand Clay and Soil

Velocity of groundwater
Slichters formula: Groundwater velocity va (in m/day) is given by: va = KID102/
where K is a constant (approximately 400) I is the slope of the hydraulic gradient line D10 is the effective size of the particles in the aquifer in mm and is the viscosity of water depending on the temperature

Velocity of groundwater
Hazens formula: Groundwater velocity va (in m/day) is given by: va = KID102/60 x (1.8T + 42)
where K (approximately 1,000) is a constant I andD10 is same as and T is the temperature of water in degrees celsius

Measuring of groundwater yields (Q in m3/sec): Q = x va x Area of the aquifer in m2

where is the porosity of the soil medium

Data related to Biodiversity

The main purpose of ecological studies is the following:
To assess the nature and distribution of vegetation in and around the project site To assess the distribution of animal life spectra To understand the productivity of water bodies To assess the biodiversity and to understand the resource potential of the region To ascertain migratory routes of flora and fauna and possibility of breeding grounds

Raunkiaers classification of the life form spectrum

Data collected on flora should be categorised into the following groups
Phanerophytes: Shrubs and trees Therophytes: Annuals including ferns Hydrophytes: Water plants except phytoplankton Hemicryptophytes: Plants with perennial shoots and buds close to the surface Geophytes: Plants, with penetrating parts buried deep in the substratum

To assess biodiversity in flora, the following data collection methods can be used:
Belt transect studies: This is done to determine the distribution pattern of the dominant species in the region. Girth, height and canopy of the dominant species with 25 m on each side of every nodal point are measured and tabulated. Plot quadrate method: This technique is used only when a part of a large area is sampled. Relative Basal Area: Basal area is a term commonly used for woody trees it refers to the cross-sectional area of all trees of a certain species. Bt = (D12 + D22 + D32 + .. Dn2)/4 /10 cm2/hectare

To assess biodiversity in flora

Relative Density: Density is the number of species in a specified area.
Suppose there are n teak trees in a 10-hectare quadrant, the density for teak trees (Dt) would be n/10. Suppose there are N tree species in the quadrant, with densities of D2, D3 ..DN respectively, the relative density of teak trees (Drt) would be:

Drt = Dt/(Dt + D2 + D3 + .DN) x 100

Data related to Biodiversity

Apart from classifying the species under the above-mentioned categories, for each listed species, information on its economic importance should be collected.
For instance, classification under categories like fruit, fruit vegetables, leafy vegetables, cereals, millets, pulses, timber, fodder and forage, fuel, medicinal plants, ethnobiological use, flowers, poisonous plants, sacred plants, oil seeds, aquatic weed, terrestrial weed, silk, fibre, tanning etc. can be done.