CICS

(Customer Information Control System)
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Table of Contents
• • • • • • • • • • • Introduction to CICS Basic Mapping Support Program Control File Processing Error Handling Queues Interval and Task Control Recovery and Restart Program preparation CICS Supplied Transactions Case Study
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Introduction to CICS
• Customer Information Control System -CICS developed in late 1960s as a DB/DC control system • CICS provides an interface between the Operating System and application programs • Macro Level CICS - initial version Assembler macro to request CICS services • Command Level CICS - high level lang.version - commands to request CICS services - Single command can replace series of macros

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3. special recovery/restart proc. 5. 4.Batch & Online : Differences 1. ONLINE SYSTEM Data is entered as needed not in sequence (terminal) Since processing sequence is unpredictable. 5. is required in case of failure Programs and files can be shared Transaction can be run at any time O/p displayed on Terminal updated files Response Time: Could be in minutes or second. 2. 4. Programs and files can‟t be shared Programs are scheduled through jobs O/P printed on paper or in sequential of VSAM or Indexed files Response time: Could be scheduled to be Hours or days 1. BATCH SYSTEM Input data is prepared and given in sequence (file) Processing sequence is predictable and hence restarting the process in case of failure is easy. 6. 3. 2. Usually in seconds 4 . 6.

CICS & Operating System Operating System CICS Enter Code : User’s App. Files & Database 5 .

DB/DC System Terminals Data Base Central System CICS System Environment & API routines. and Application Programs 6 .

CICS System Services • Data-Communication Functions • Data-Handling Functions • Application Program Services • System Services • Monitoring Functions 7 .

A basic unit of work which is scheduled by the operating system or CICS Ex -Read from and write to the terminal • Transaction :. transaction is identified by the transaction identifier (Trans-id) 8 .An entity which initiates execution of a task. In CICS.Task & Transaction • Task :.

Application Programming Concepts • Pseudo-Conversational • Multitasking • Multithreading • Quasi-Reentrancy 9 .

Terminal Conversation • Conversational : A mode of dialogue between program and terminal based on a combination of sending message and receiving message within the same task – Since human response is slower than the CPU speed. A mode of dialogue between program and terminal which appears to the operator as a continuous conversation but which is actually carried by a series of tasks 10 . a significant amount of resource will be wasted just waiting • Pseudo-Conversational.

: process 11 .. * .. EXEC CICS RECEIVE ----. : process EXEC CICS SEND ----...12345 END-EXEC..<= EMP(12345) Details END-EXEC. EXEC CICS RECEIVE ---...<= TSK1. : FIRST-PROCESS..<= User Enters Data END-EXEC.Program Waits For Response .Terminal Conversation Example PROCEDURE DIVISION.SECOND PROCESS.

EXEC CICS RETURN TRANSID („TSK2‟) END-EXEC.Pseudo-Conversation Example Transaction TSK1 Program PROG1 PROCEDURE DIVISION. 12 . : EXEC CICS RECEIVE END-EXEC. : EXEC CICS SEND END-EXEC. : EXEC CICS RECEIVE END-EXEC. Transaction TSK2 Program PROG2 PROCEDURE DIVISION. EXEC CICS RETURN END-EXEC. : EXEC CICS SEND END-EXEC.

CICS Components • Control Programs (or Management Modules) Programs that interface between OS and app. Eg. pgm Handle the general functions that are crucial to operation of CICS • Control Tables Define the CICS environment Functionally associated with the management module • Control Blocks (or Areas) Contain system type information. Task Control Area contains information about the task 13 .

Mangement Pgms & Ctrl Tables • Programs Program Control File control Terminal Control Task Control Temporary Storage Transient Data Storage Control Interval Control Journal Control • Tables PCP FCP TCP KCP TSP TDP SCP ICP JCP Processing Program Table File Control Table Terminal Control Table Program Control Table Temp. Control Table PPT FCT TCT PCT TST DCT 14 . Storage Table Destin.

CICS Program Considerations Considerations: • Must eventually return control to CICS • Can‟t modify procedure division instructions because CICS programs may be shared by many tasks • Can modify working storage since a unique copy of working storage is created for each task 15 .

CICS Program Restrictions Restrictions: • No CONFIG. (STOP RUN & GOBACK are sometimes included in order to eliminate compiler diagnostic but never executed) 16 . DISPLAY. and non-CICS READ & WRITE statements are not permitted because file management is handled by CICS. • COBOL commands such as ACCEPT. CLOSE. SECTION. STOP RUN. I/O SECTION to be specified in the ENVIRONMENT DIVISION. OPEN. • FILE SECTION. GOBACK are avoided. EXHIBIT. TRACE.

Sample CICS Program IDENTIFICATION DIVISION. 05 FILLER PIC X(1). SAMPLE. PROGRAM-ID. ENVIRONMENT DIVISION. 05 WS-IN-EMP-CD PIC X(4) VALUE ALL „X‟. 01 WS-INPUT. 05 WS-TRANSID PIC X(4). WORKING-STORAGE SECTION. 17 . DATA DIVISION.

LINKAGE SECTION. PERFORM 100-RECV-INPUT. 18 . PROCEDURE DIVISION. 000-MAINLINE. CAN Include DFHCOMMAREA if data needs to be communicated between two transactions or multiple iterations of the same transaction. 05 FILLER PIC X(16) VALUE „EMP CODE : „. 01 WS-LENGTH PIC S9(4) COMP. EXEC CICS RETURN END-EXEC.Sample Program (Contd.) 01 WS-OUTPUT. PERFORM 200-SEND-OUTPUT. 05 WS-OUT-EMP-CD PIC X(4)..

. EXEC CICS RECEIVE INTO (WS-INPUT) LENGTH (WS-LENGTH) END-EXEC.) 100-RECV-INPUT. 19 .Sample Program (Contd. EXEC CICS SEND FROM (WS-OUTPUT) LENGTH (20) ERASE END-EXEC. MOVE 9 TO WS-LENGTH. MOVE WS-IN-EMP-CODE TO WS-OUT-EMP-CODE 200-SEND-OUTPUT.

CICS Translator The CICS translator converts CICS commands into the COBOL code so that it could be compiled by a Standard Cobol compiler CICS program with CICS Commands COBOL Statements CICS Translator 20 .

Translator • When you compile a CICS/VS program the translator will automatically add many lines of code to your program. which can be seen in the compiled listing 21 .

Basic Mapping Support 22 .

Topics in BMS • Introduction to BMS • Map and Mapset • Physical and Symbolic Map • Map Definition Macros • Screen Manipulation/Handling • Screen Design Considerations • Interfacing with Terminal using a Map 23 .

24 . In order to display formatted screen. NMDS is designed for a particular terminal and is thus both device dependent and format dependent. re-coding is required whenever there is change in the terminal device or screen format. To remove this device and format dependency from application program. a terminal (e.g. this NMDS is a mixture of Buffer Control Characters (BCCs) and text data. CICS provides a facility called Basic Mapping Support (BMS).Introduction to BMS Introductory concepts In online systems. So if NMDS is used. 3278) must receive a series of data stream called Native Mode Data Stream (NMDS) based on the hardware protocol. formatted screens are used.

and field characteristics. • BMS macros are available for Map coding. Titles. • Map is a program written in assembly language..Primary Functions of BMS • Removal of device dependent codes from Application Program • Removal of constant information from Application program (Headers..) • Construct NMDS . 25 . screen field positions. and Mapsets to define the screen attributes.Native Mode Data Stream • Text handling • Terminal Paging & Message routing • Contents of the screen defined thru‟ BMS is called Map. The BMS Macros are coded in the form of Maps.

makes up a Mapset (load module). link edited together. • Mapset must have a entry in PPT as given below: DFHPPT DFHPPT TYPE=ENTRY.PROGRAM=name Or 26 .MAPSET=name TYPE=ENTRY.Map and Mapset • Representation of one screen format is called Map (screen panel). • One or more maps.

.) • Mapset name has two parts.7 chars.Map and Mapset (Contd. 1 char. Used in App. Program. To identify the device type 27 . – Generic name – Suffix • Multimap Panel • Dynamically constructing a screen panel with multiple maps at the execution time 1.

For e.) The concepts of map and mapset can be utilized in two type of cases as given below: Case 1: A mapset consist of a single map.. For e. MAPSET2 MAPNUM1 MAPNUM2 28 .g.g. MAPSET1 MAPNUM1 Case 2: A mapset consists of several maps.Map and Mapset (Contd.

Types of MAPS There are 2 types of MAPS • Physical Map Physical Map is a map used by CICS (CSECT) Ensure device independence in the application program BMS macro coding ==> Assembly==> Link edit ==> Load module ==> LOADLIB ===> To be used by CICS • Symbolic Map Ensure device and format independence in the application program Symbolic Map is a map used by Application Program (DSECT) BMS macro coding ==> Assembly ==> Symbolic map definition ==> COPYLIB ==> Copied (COPY) into CICS application program. 29 .

03 EMPNAA PIC X. 02 EMPNAO PIC X(21). 30 . 02 EMPNAF PIC X. 02 FILLER PIC X(12). 02 EMPNAL PIC S9(4) COMP. 02 FILLER PIC X(12). 02 FILLER PIC X(03). 02 EMPNAI PIC X(21). 02 FILLER REDEFINES EMPNAF. 01 EMPRECO REDEFINES EMPRECI.Example – Symbolic Map 01 EMPRECI.

Physical & Symbolic Map .Logic Flow BMS source Assembler Physical MAP Symbolic MAP Linkage editor Load module (MVS) 31 .

length. The mapset like any other CICS program is stored in CICS runtime library the PPT(Program Processing Table). In case of output operations.Physical Map • Physical Map. the physical map defines the maximum length. 32 • • . the starting position for each field to be read and allows BMS to interpret an input NMDS. In case of input operations. The BMS macros are assembled and link-edited into CICS load library to create the physical map. field characteristics and the default data for each field and allows BMS to construct an output NMDS. At the program execution time the physical map is being used by CICS to load the screen image. the physical map defines the starting position.

and highlight . modify screen cursor position. in the CICS SEND-MAP & RECEIVE MAP commands. . The symbolic map serves as a DSECT for referencing the Terminal Input/Output Area (TIOA).Symbolic Map • The symbolic map is coded using the BMS macro. • The symbolic maps represents the actual data structure of the fields defined in the physical map. assembled separately and catalogued into a copy library. unprotect specific fields on the 33 screen. The program issues a COBOL COPY statement to include it in the program. and is used by the application program to send and receive information from the terminal. • The symbolic map can be used by the CICS application programs to dynamically to alter the field attributes. protect .

LANG=COBOL. STORAGE=AUTO. MODE=INOUT. TIOAPFX=YES X X X X * * ANY COMMENTS 34 . TYPE=MAP.Map definition Macros General Format Column Number 1 setname operation Example EMPMAP DFHMSD 16 operands 72 contd.

OPERATION OPERANDS CONTD : : : Comments : 35 . It is the load module name. Optional key words (parameters) separated by comma.Map definition Macros (Contd. Mapset/Map/Field definition. Used in CICS command to read or write one of the maps in the mapset. ‘*’ in column 1 makes the line comment. Macro identifier. Current line can be continued by leaving this column non-blank (usually X) and the next line have to be started in 16th column.) Explanations: SETNAME : Name of the mapset..

.) INITIAL VALUES Escape Chars : : Always surround initial values by single quote marks ‘ and & 36 .Map definition Macros (Contd.

Order of Macros DFHMSD TYPE=DSECT DFHMDI DFHMDF DFHMDF : DFHMDI DFHMDF DFHMDF : DFHMSD TYPE=FINAL END Mapset Map A field A field Map A field A field Mapset 37 .

LANG=COBOL.PRINT) 38 . TIOAPFX=YES. and they're loaded together at execution time. Only one mapset is allowed in one assembly run. X X CNTL=(FREEKB.FRSET. Example: TSTMSET X DFHMSD TYPE=&SYSPARM. All the maps in a map set get assembled together.DFHMSD Macro The DFHMSD macro is used to define a mapset (TYPE=MAP) and its characteristics or to end a mapset definition (TYPE=FINAL). X X STORAGE=AUTO. MODE=INOUT.

) Options TYPE= DSECT MAP &SYSPARM FINAL MODE= IN OUT INOUT To define the map type For symbolic map For physical map For special assembly procedure To indicate the end of a mapset coding To indicate input/output operations For an input map only For an output map only For maps involving both input and output.DFHMSD Macro (Contd. 39 ..

Required for the CICS command level..DFHMSD Macro (Contd. 40 .) STORAGE = AUTO To acquire a separate symbolic map area for each mapset BASE To have the same storage base for the symbolic maps of from more than one mapset TIOAPFX= YES To reserve the prefix space (12 bytes) for BMS commands to access TIOA properly.

DFHMSD Macro (Contd..)
CNTL=
FREEKB FRSET ALARM PRINT

To define the device control requests To unlock the keyboard To reset MDT to zero status To set an alarm at screen display time To indicate the mapset to be sent to the printer
This ensures device independence, required if other than 3270 terminal is being used To specify the user provided suffix number. This must correspond to the TCT parameter.

TERM=type

SUFFIX=nn

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DFHMDI Macro
Defines a map and its characteristics Example EMPMAP DFHMDI SIZE=(ll,cc), X LINE=nn, X COLUMN=mm, X JUSTIFY=LEFT/RIGHT Options SIZE=(ll,cc) To define the size of the map by the line size (ll) and the column size (cc). Useful when the screen contains. LINE Indicates the starting line number of the map. COLUMN Indicates the starting column number of the map. JUSTIFY To specify the entire map (map fields) is to be left or right justified.
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DFHMDF Macro
The DFHMDF macro is used to define a field in a map and its characteristics. This is the position on the screen where the field should appear. It's the position relative to the beginning of the map. Field starts with its attribute byte, so if POS=(1,1) is coded, then the attribute byte for that field is on line 1 in column 1, and the actual data starts in column 2. The length of the field (not counting the attribute byte) is specified. Literals can be specified within quotes; these character data is for an output field. It is used to define labels and titles for the screen and keep them independent of the program.

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Sample Screen layout The above defines the screen layout as given below: ITEM NUMBER :&nnnnnnnn Where „&‟ Is the Attribute character „n‟ Is unprotected numeric „_„ Is Cursor 44 .

cc).cc).NUM. PICOUT=„9(8)‟. JUSTIFY=RIGHT. INITIAL=„Customer No. :‟. LENGTH=14 CUSTNO DFHMDF POS=(ll. ATTRB=ASKIP.DFHMDF Macro For The Above Layout Define a field and its characteristics Example DFHMDF POS(ll. LENGTH=8 X X X X X X X X 45 .FSET. PICIN=„9(8)‟. ATTRB=(UNPROT.IC).

If data is entered. ASKIP Autoskip. it will cause the input-inhibit status. UNPROT Unprotected field.” and “-“) are allowed.Attribute character Function: The attribute character is an invisible 1-byte character. The cursor skips to the next field. PROT Protected field. which precedes a screen field and determines the characteristics of a field. Data cannot be entered into this field. Data can be entered and this is used for all input fields. Data cannot be entered in this field. 46 . Only numbers (0 to 9) and special characters (“. NUM Numeric field.

the cursor is placed in the last field. Insert cursor. MDT is set on so that the field data is to be sent from the terminal to the host computer regardless of whether the field is actually modified by the user. 47 . In case.. The cursor will be positioned in this field. IC is specified more than once.) BRT Bright display of a field (highlight). NORM Normal display.Attribute character (Contd. FSET Field set. DRK IC Dark display.

the data of the field will be sent by the terminal hardware to the host computer. it is automatically set to “1” (on) by the terminal hardware. 48 . 1. it indicates that the terminal operator has not modified the field. it indicates that the operator has modified this field. Only when MDT is on.Modified Data Tag Function: Modified Data Tag (MDT) is a one bit of the attribute character. If it is on (1). Three ways of setting and resetting the MDT. An effective use of MDT drastically reduces the amount of data traffic in the communication line and thus improves performance. Terminal user modifies a field on the screen. If it is off (0).

not modified for all the fields of the mapset or the map.e. 49 . when the map is sent to the terminal. If FSET is specified in the ATTRB parameter of the DFHMDF macro for a field. modified) for the field regardless of whether the field has been modified by the terminal user. If CNTL=FRSET is specified in the DFHMSD or DFHMDI macro.Modified Data Tag (Contd. (on i..e. MDT will be set to “1”. MDT will be reset to “0” (off) i. when the mapset or the map is sent to the terminal.) 2. 3.

Skipper Technique • Unlabelled 1-byte field with the autoskip attribute • DFHMDF POS(ll.LENGTH=1 • To skip the cursor to the next unprotected field after one unprotected field.ATTRB=ASKIP.cc). • Screen Layout : &xxxxx&$ &xx where $ Skipper field & Attribute byte X Unprotected field 50 .

LENGTH=1 • To stop the cursor in order to prevent erroneous field overflow by terminal user.ATTRB=PROT.cc).Stopper Technique • Unlabelled 1-byte field with the protect attribute • DFHMDF POS(ll. • Screen Layout : &xxxxx&$#&$ where # Stopper field 51 .

• The symbolic map starts with the 01 level definition of the map name specified in the DFHMDI macro with the suffix ‘I’ for the input map and the suffix ‘O’ for the output map. this is required by the BMS under the CICS command level. • Next is the definition of FILLER PIC X(12). which is the TIOA prefix created by the TIOAPFX=YES of the DFHMSD macro. the COBOL COPY statement can be used to include it in the application program. 52 .Format Of the Symbolic Map Format of Symbolic Map • Once the symbolic map is assembled and is placed in the COPY library.

this is used for the dynamic cursor positioning..Format Of the Symbolic Map (Contd. BMS creates three fields for inputs and three fields for outputs. by placing one character suffix to the original field name. The meaning of these fields are given below: • Name + L: The half-word binary (PIC S9(4) COMP) field. For the input field. the actual number of characters typed in the field will be placed by the BMS when the map is received.) For each field name (1 to 7 characters) specified in the DFHMDF macro. 53 . For the output field.

the field has been cleared). The Attribute byte for both input and output • Name + I: The input data field.) • Name + F: Flag Byte.Format Of the Symbolic Map (Contd. Note that space X’40’ is data. The application program should differentiate X’00’ from space (X’40’). it will be X’80’ if the field has been modified but no data is sent (i.e. X’00’ will be placed if no data is entered. For the input field. • Name + O: The output data field. • Name + A: fields. 54 . Otherwise this field is X’00’..

02 EMPNAL PIC S9(4) COMP. 02 FILLER REDEFINES EMPNAF. 02 FILLER PIC X(12). 01 EMPRECO REDEFINES EMPRECI.Example Of Symbolic Map 01 EMPRECI. 02 EMPNAF PIC X. 03 EMPNAA PIC X. 02 FILLER PIC X(12). 02 EMPNAI PIC X(21). 02 EMPNAO PIC X(21). 55 . 02 FILLER PIC X(03).

FSET.ATTRB=(UNPROT.IC).LENGTH=10 56 . Example : DFHMDF POS=(5. or to point to an error which has occurred during editing the user entries.8). The cursor positioning is important to prompt an user of an entry he has to make. • Static positioning (Achieved thru Map definition ATTRIB=IC).Cursor Positioning Techniques CICS provides multiple ways of to specify where to position the cursor on the screen.

the mapset should be coded with MODE=INOUT in the DFHMSD macro. The cursor is placed dynamically through an application program by moving -1 to the symbolic map field-length field (i.) • Dynamic/Symbolic Positioning. The SEND MAP command must be issued with the CURSOR option (without value).. This approach is very useful when the cursor is to be placed at the field where data entry error has been detected by the data edit routine. fieldname + L) for the field where the cursor is to be placed. 57 .e.Cursor Positioning Techniques (Contd. Also.

) Example Of Dynamic Cursor Positioning. WORKING-STORAGE SECTION.Cursor Positioning Techniques (Contd. 05 FIELD1I PIC X.. 05 FIELD1L PIC X(5). 05 FIELD1F PIC X. : COPY MAPSET1 01 MAPSET1I 05 FILLER PIC X(6). 58 .

.Cursor Positioning Techniques (Contd. EXEC CICS SEND MAP(‘MAP1’) MAPSET(‘MAPSET1’) CURSOR ERASE END-EXEC. The cursor will be placed at FIELD1 field of the map during execution. : MOVE –1 TO FIELDL. 59 .) PROCEDURE DIVISION.

Cursor Positioning Techniques (Contd.. overriding the static cursor position defined at the map definition time. the map will be displayed with the cursor placed at the specified position.) Dynamic/Relative Positioning (application program) The cursor is placed dynamically through an application program using the CURSOR(data-value) option in the SEND MAP command with the value of the relative position (starting from zero) of the terminal. 60 . At the completion of the SEND MAP command.

.) Example EXEC CICS SEND MAP(„MAP1‟) MAPSET(„MAPSET1‟) CURSOR(100) ERASE END-EXEC. 61 .Cursor Positioning Techniques (Contd. The cursor will be placed at FIELD1 field of the map MAP1 during execution.

Text Handling Function – BMS prepares text without using a map and sends to the terminal. 3. BMS prepares the output NMDS. . The following are the three basic functions performed by CICS commands: Map Sending function – using the data in the symbolic map. These operations are performed by a set of CICS commands for BMS. 62 1. BMS prepares data in the symbolic map through the corresponding physical map. Map Receiving Function – using the input NDMS from the terminal.Interfacing with a Terminal using a Map The BMS maps are used in the application programs for the actual terminal input/output operation. 2. and sends to the terminal. the corresponding physical map.

) Flow of Information from 3270 Terminal and the Application Program.Interfacing with a Terminal using a Map (Contd.. Application Program Send Map Command Symbolic Map BMS Output NDMS Terminal Physical Map Data Entry Application Program Receive Map Command Symbolic Map BMS Input NDMS Terminal 63 .

) The following are the available commands: • RECEIVE MAP • SEND MAP • SEND CONTROL • SEND TEXT • SEND PAGE : : : : : To receive a map To send a map To send a control function to the terminal To send a text To send the accumulated text or maps as a logical message 64 .Interfacing with a Terminal using a Map (Contd..

the symbolic map will contain valid data from the terminal in the following three fields as per each field defined by the DFHMDF macro: Field name + L : The length field. typed in the screen field. which contains the actual number of characters. It will be X‟80‟ if the field has been modified but cleared. At the completion of the command. : The Flag Byte which is normally X‟00‟. Field name + F Field name + I 65 . : The actual input data field. X‟00‟ will be placed if no data is entered.Receive Map Command RECEIVE MAP Command is used to receive input from a terminal.

MAPFAIL 66 . • Conditions: INVREQ.) Syntax: EXEC CICS RECEIVE MAP (MAPNAME) MAPSET(MAPSETNAME) [ SET(POINTER)| INTO(DATANAME) ] [ LENGTH(MSG-LEN)] [ HANDLE | NOHANDLE ] [ RESP() ] END-EXEC.Receive Map Command (Contd..

SET is used when the address pointer is to be set to the address of the symbolic map (by CICS) so that the application program can directly refer to the record without moving the record content into the working storage area defined in the program. MAPSET specified the name of the MAPSET defined thru DFHMSD command which includes the MAP. INTO is used to specify the area in the working storage section to which the data from the terminal is to be placed. 67 . which describes the screen details..Receive Map Command (Contd.) MAP specified the name of the MAP defined thru DFHMDI command .

Receive Map Command (Contd. It occurs when the following keys are pressed in response to the RECEIVE MAP command: CLEAR or Attention Keys & ENTER or PF keys without entering data. LENGERR. Conditions : INVMPSZ . MAPFAIL MAPFAIL is set when the data being mapped has a length of zero. INVREQR .) RESP will be used by CICS to place a response code at a completion of the command. NOHANDLE will cause no action to be taken for any exceptional condition occurring during execution of the CICS command. 68 .. HANDLE is used to transfer control to the procedure label specified if the exceptional condition specified occurs.

the application program must prepare the data in the symbolic map of the map to be sent. which has the following three fields per each field defined by the DFHMDF macro: Name + L: The length field. Name + O: The actual output data field. Before issuing this command. Name + A: The Attribute byte for output fields.SEND MAP Command The SEND MAP command is used to send formatted output to a terminal. Application program will use it for dynamic cursor positioning. for which the application program need not prepare except when used for the dynamic cursor positioning. 69 . where the application program places the data.

[ ERASE ] .. [ RESP (DATANAME) ] END-EXEC. [ CURSOR(VALUE) ]. • Conditions : INVREQ. [ HANDLE | NOHANDLE ] . [DATAONLY] | MAPONLY]. [ FREEKB ] .) EXEC CICS SEND MAP(MAP1) MAPSET(MAPSET1) ] [FROM(DATANAME) ].LENGERR 70 .SEND MAP Command (Contd. [ FRSET ] .

.SEND MAP Command (Contd.) MAP specified the name of the MAP defined thru DFHMDI command . MAPSET specified the name of the MAPSET defined thru DFHMSD command which includes the MAP. which describes the screen details. DATAONLY is used when only the data from the program is to be sent to the screen. 71 . The constants in the map are not sent. MAPONLY is used when no data from your program is to be merged into the map.

SEND MAP Command (Contd.. 72 .) FROM is used to specify the area in the working storage section from which the data is to be sent to the terminal.

PA keys. the AID (Attention Identifier ) Keys are being used to send the information back from the terminal to CICS to application program.AID KEYS First time when a transaction is initiated the application program throws the screen image on the terminal thru SEND MAP command. recently used AID key. CICS application program needs to trap the attention identifier keys and process various functions related to the AID keys. 73 . Once the screen appears. ENTER & CLEAR key • EIBAID in the CICS Executive Interface Block contains. Salient Points • PF keys.

Flow : User hits AID key – Control goes to CICS – To Application program.) • DFHAID – CICS System copybook which stores the values of the EIBAID field for the various AID keys. Program compares EIBAID to the DFHAID field and performs processing logic as per the AID key pressed. EIBAID contains information about the last AID key pressed. Syntax : EXEC CICS HANDLE AID Option (label) END-EXEC Conditions : INVREQ 74 . • HANDLE AID establish the routines that are to be invoked when the aid is detected by a RECEIVE MAP command..AID KEYS (Contd.

75 . • Screen title and field descriptions should be self-explanatory.Screen Design Considerations Functional Screen Design • Screen layout should be similar to source where terminal users enter data. • Screen id should be placed at the top right corner of a screen. This helps at problem determination time. Instructions should be concise.

g. Preferably the last few lines can be used for the error messages. • Error messages should be provided. the field contact information can be split into contact numbers. sequence numbers helps. email ids and postal address. 76 .Screen Design Considerations (Contd.. • In case of repeated fields or group of fields. E.) • Large fields can be broken into a number of small fields.

in case the user forgets to enter a field data. 77 . Using a different colour or blinking the error field can achieve this. • Default values in fields helps in reducing keystrokes by the users. • Highlight the error field. • The cursors should be placed in the appropriate fields.Screen Design Considerations User-Friendly Screen Design • Screens should be simple and friendly. • Calculations should be done by program and not by users. defaults values are assigned according to the field. Also. This enables users to identify the erroneous field easily.

) • Alarm sound can be used for error entries. Artistic Screen Design • A simple screen layout is always preferred. • Provide suitable help messages for erroneous entries. spaces.Screen Design Considerations (Contd. and lines makes a screen look good. The help message should be instructive and kind and should not be rude. • Proper use of indentations. which has details on each field. • Provide help on fields and their meanings.. Using an attention key for a help menu. 78 . makes a screen user-friendly.

however the colour used should be in accordance with the norms and standards followed.. This reduces manual skipping and is preferred.Screen Design Considerations (Contd. • Skipper/Stopper techniques can be used at appropriate places. • Related fields can be grouped together. Considerations for Human Errors • Important and useful fields can be placed at the top part of the screen. • Protected fields should be skipped automatically. 79 .) • Colour can help in improving the screen design.

Exercise .1 80 .

CICS File Processing Techniques 81 .

CICS VS FILE PROCESSING File handling in CICS is achieved thru a set of file handling commands. Reading a file sequentially Reading a Key Sequenced file randomly Reading a file sequentially starting from a specific point. Defining a specific file to the CICS system. Reading and Updating a record Deleting a Record. It is essential to know the various file handling commands for application programming. Handle any errors that occur during file processing • • • • • • • 82 . File Specific functions to be performed are the following.

and the Input – Output Section. When CICS/VS is closed down it closes all the files. Application program directly Refer to filenames in EXEC CICS Command. The files do not need to opened and closed in a CICS application program . Application programs do not need The FD Section. It goes through the FCT and makes all the files available. 83 .CICS VS FILE PROCESSING Instead. This list is called the FILE CONTROL TABLE (FCT) and is maintained by the systems programmers When CICS/VS is started up. before being used in the program. Files do not need to exclusively defined in Application programs. CICS has a list of all the files it is allowed To access.

84 .key) END-EXEC. READ DATAFILE INTO REC-AREA AT END MOVE ‘Y’ TO EOF-FLAG Replaced by WRITE RECORD-NAME FROM RECORD-AREA Replaced by EXEC CICS WRITE DATASET (‘File identifier’) FROM (Record-Name) RID-FLD (Record.CICS COBOL V/S COBOL BATCH COBOL CICS COBOL EXEC CICS READ DATASET (‘FILE IDENTIFIER) INTO (RECORD NAME) RID-FLD (record-key) END-EXEC.

VSAM Different types of VSAM Datasets used in CICS are : • ESDS • KSDS • RRDS Entry Sequenced Dataset Key Sequenced Dataset Relative Record Dataset 85 .

Data Independence. Modifying an Existing Record. 86 .Services Provided By CICS • Basic Operations required for a file are Adding a Record. (Record Level Locking). Journaling. Opening and closing Files. Deleting an Existing Record. CICS Provides Exclusive Control. • In Addition. Browsing One or Selected or All Records.

) • Defining files can be done either by CEDA Transaction or DFHFCT Macro. access methods. etc. 88 .Defining A File in CICS • Files should be defined in FCT (File Control Table). • FCT will contain all the Information about a file (like dataset name. permissible file service request.

ACCMETH=VSAM. SERVRQ=(ADD.DELETE.Syntax of DFHFCT Macro DFHFCT TYPE=FILE.BROWSE.UPDATE). DATASETNAME=NAME. FILSTAT=(ENABLED.READ.OPENED) 89 .

• Records can be inserted. 90 . A number of records can be added at a time. • Records can be written in any order. • Program should not open or close a File. updated or deleted.File Handling in Programs • Files should not be defined in the Program.

• Into/From (WS-Rec) :. 91 .Important Key-Words • Dataset/File :.Name in the FCT.Working-Storage Area defined in the program where the CICS Puts/Gets the Data. • LENGTH :. • RESP :.Contains the return code of the executed command.Contains the Record Key. • RIDFLD :.Length of the Record to be Retrieved or Written.

NOTFND. IOERR. Condition: DISABLED. NOTOPEN. DUPKEY.Random READ EXEC CICS READ File(filename) [SET() | Into()] RIdfld(Rec-Key) END-EXEC. LENGERR. 92 .

Example for Random Read EXEC CICS READ File( 'INVMAS ') Into(WS-INVMAS-REC) Length(WS-INVMAS-LEN) RIdfld('7135950602') | RIdfld(WS-INVMAS-KEY) END-EXEC. 93 .

• End the Browse Operation at last. • During Browse Operation. • Browse can be re-positioned. • Next and Previous Records can be Read as required Using ReadNext and ReadPrev. Records cannot be Updated. • Establish the pointer to the First Record to be Read Using StartBr. 94 .Sequential Read • Sequential Read is done by Browse Oper.

NOTFND. Condition : DISABLED. IOERR. 95 . NOTOPEN.Syntax for STARTBR EXEC CICS STARTBR FILE(filename) RIDFLD(data-area) END-EXEC.

96 .Reading the Record after STARTBR • Sequentially the Next or Previous Record can be read by a READNEXT or READPREV. • The first READNEXT or READPREV will read the Record where the STARTBR has positioned the File Pointer.

LENGERR. Condition : DUPKEY. NOTFND.Syntax of READNext/READPrev EXEC CICS READNext | READPrev FILE(name) INTO(data-area)|SET(ptr-ref) RIDFLD(data-area) END-EXEC. IOERR. ENDFILE. 97 .

Condition: INVREQ 98 . • SYNTAX : EXEC CICS ENDBR FILE(filename) END-EXEC.ENDBRowse • ENDBRowse terminates a Previously issued STARTBR.

• Syntax : EXEC CICS RESETBR FILE(filename) RIDFLD(data-area) END-EXEC.RESETBR • Its effect is the same as ENDBR and then giving another STARTBR. Condition: IOERR. NOTFND. 99 .

WRITE Command • Adds a new record into the File. RIDFLD should be the Record Key. • For KSDS. • MASSINSERTion must be done in ascending order of the Key. • For ESDS. The record will be written depending on the Key. 100 . RBA value is returned and Record will be written at the end of the File. RIDFLD is not used but after write execution.

101 .Syntax for WRITE EXEC CICS WRITE FILE(filename) FROM(data-area) RIDFLD(data-area) END-EXEC. IOERR. DUPREC. LENGERR. NOSPACE. NOTOPEN. Condition: DISABLED.

• REWRITE automatically UNLOCKs the Record after execution.REWRITE Command • Updates a Record which is Previously Read with UPDATE Option. 102 .

NOSPACE. 103 . IOERR. Condition: DUPREC.Syntax for REWRITE EXEC CICS REWRITE FILE(filename) FROM(data-area) END-EXEC. LENGERR.

The record read with READ with UPDATE will be deleted.DELETE Command • Deletes a Record from a dataset. 104 . • Record can be deleted in two ways. 1. • Multiple Records Delete is possible using Generic Option. RIDFLD with the full key in it 2.

IOERR. NOTFND. DUPKEY. Optional Condition: DISABLED.Syntax of DELETE EXEC CICS DELETE FILE(filename) RIDFLD(data-area) END-EXEC. 105 . NOTOPEN.

• Syntax : EXEC CICS UNLOCK FILE(filename) : [other options] END-EXEC.UNLOCK • To Release the Record which has been locked by READ with UPDATE Command. 106 . Condition: DISABLED. IOERR. NOTOPEN.

General Exceptions • The following exceptions usually will occur for ALL CICS file handling commands. NOTAUTH. FILENOTFOUND. INVREQ 107 . SYSIDERR.

CICS Error Handling Procedures 108 .

generation parameters and JCL • Errors related to hardware or other system conditions beyond the control of an application program. • Errors caused by mismatches between applications and CICS tables. • Conditions caused by user errors and input data errors. • Conditions caused by omissions or errors in the application code.Error Handling in CICS Possible Errors: • Conditions that aren't normal from CICS's point of view but that are expected in the program. 109 .

A return code is set in EIBRESP and EIBRCODE. following the command that has failed to execute.System will terminate or suspend the task depends on the exceptional condition occurred 110 .Control returns to the next inst. This state occurs „cause of NO HANDLE /RESP/IGNORE conditions • Pass control to a specified label . • Rely on the system default action .Error Handling methods When the error (exceptional conditions) occur.Control goes to a label in the program defined earlier by a HANDLE CONDITION command. the program can do any of the following • Take no action & let the program continue .

Error Handling methods (Contd. • Syntax : EXEC CICS HANDLE CONDITION ERROR(ERRHANDL) LENGERR(LENGRTN) END-EXEC This example handles DUPREC condition separately.. LENGERR will be handled by system 111 .) • HANDLE CONDITION condition[(label)]. and 'label' specifies the location within the program to be branched • Remains active while the program is executing or until it encounters IGNORE/another HANDLE condition.. 'condition' specifies the name of the condition.. all the other Errors together.

The error handling logic can be coded in the REC-NOT-FND paragraph.HANDLE Condition Example of Handle condition: EXEC CICS HANDLE CONDITION NOTFND(RECORD-NOT-FOUND) END-EXEC This condition catches the NOTFND condition and transfers control to the REC-NOT. 112 .FOUND paragraph in the program.

Alternative to Handle condition • NOHANDLE to specify “no action to be taken for any condition or attention identifier (AID) “ • RESP(xxx) "xxx" is a user-defined full word binary data area. If xxx=DFHRESP(NOSPACE) .. or If xxx=DFHRESP(NORMAL) .. 113 .. it can be tested by means of DFHRESP as follows. Later. it contains a return code.. On return from the command.

.. • „condition‟ specifies the name of the condition that is to be ignored( no action will be taken) • Syntax : EXEC CICS IGNORE CONDITION ITEMERR LENGERR END-EXEC • This command will not take any actions if the given two error occurs and will pass the control to the next instruction 114 .IGNORE Condition • IGNORE CONDITION condition .

Sample program to use Handle condition Here is an example of the CICS.COBOL code with proper handling of errors Procedure Division. : EXEC CICS READ DATASET(SAMPLE) RIDFLD(EMP-NO) INTO (EMP-REC) END-EXEC : GO TO LAST-PART 115 . EXEC CICS HANDLE CONDITION NOT-FND(REC-NOT-FOUND) END EXEC.

Sample program to use Handle condition (Contd. EXEC CICS SEND MAP („TC0BM31‟) MAPSET(„TC0BM30‟) FROM („TC0BM310‟) DATA-ONLY END-EXEC 116 .) REC-NOT-FOUND MOVE „NOT-ON-FILE‟ TO NAMEO ( SYMBOLIC MAP PARAMETER) LAST-PART..

a sub-program can suspend Handle commands of the called program using PUSH HANDLE. HANDLE AID and HANDLE ABEND commands. 117 . it can restore the Handle command using POP HANDLE. • While receiving the control. • Used for eg.PUSH & POP • To suspend all current HANDLE CONDITION. IGNORE CONDITION. while calling sub-pgms (CALL). • While returning the control.

Syntax of Push & Pop • Syntax of Push : EXEC CICS Push Handle END-EXEC. • Syntax of Pop : EXEC CICS Pop Handle END-EXEC. 118 .

EXEC Interface Block (EIB) • CICS provides some system-related information to each task as EXEC Interface Block (EIB) • Unique to the CICS command level EIBAID Attention.Id (1 Byte) EIBCALEN Length of DFHCOMMAREA (S9(4) comp) EIBDATE Date when this task started (S9(7) comp-3) EIBFN Function Code of the last command ( 2 Bytes) EIBRCODE Response Code of the last command (6 Bytes) EIBTASKN Task number of this task (S9(7) comp-3) EIBTIME Time when this task started (S9(7) comp-3) EIBTRMID Terminal-Id (1 to 4 chars) EIBTRNID Transaction-Id (1 to 4 chars) 119 .

PROGRAM=TEST. PGMLANG=COBOL 120 .PPT DFHPPT TYPE=ENTRY PROGRAM |MAPSET= name [PGMLANG= ASM|COBOL|PLI] [RES= NO|FIX|YES] : : other options : Eg.Processing Program Table . DFHPPT TYPE=ENTRY.

PCT Entry
DFHPCT TYPE=ENTRY TRANSID= name PROGRAM=name TASKREQ=pf6 RESTART=yes/no ( TRANSEC = 1 to 64) RSLKEY= 1 to 24 resource level key SCTYKEY= 1 to 64 security key : : other options

121

PROGRAM CONTROL
122

Program Control Commands
• LINK • XCTL • RETURN • LOAD • RELEASE

123

LINK • Used to pass control from one application program to another • The calling program expects control to be returned to it • Data can be passed to the called program using COMMAREA • If the called program is not already in main storage it is loaded 124 .

Conditions : PGMIDERR.LINK Syntax EXEC CICS LINK PROGRAM(name) [COMMAREA(data-area) [LENGTH(data-value)]] END-EXEC. LENGERR 125 . NOTAUTH.

XCTL • To transfer control from one application program to another in the same logical level • The program from which control is transferred is released • Data can be passed to the called program using COMMAREA • If the called program is not already in main storage it is loaded 126 .

LENGERR 127 . Conditions : PGMIDERR.XCTL Syntax EXEC CICS XCTL PROGRAM(name) [COMMAREA(data-area) [LENGTH(data-value)]] END-EXEC. NOTAUTH.

RETURN • To return control from one application program to another at a higher logical level or to CICS • Data can be passed using COMMAREA when returning to CICS to the next task 128 .

Conditions : INVREQ.RETURN Syntax EXEC CICS RETURN [TRANSID(name) [COMMAREA(data-area) [LENGTH(data-value)]]] END-EXEC. LENGERR 129 .

CICS PROG A LINK RETURN PROG C LINK RETURN Level 0 Level 1 PROG B XCTL Level 2 Level 3 Application Program Logic Levels PROG D XCTL PROG E RETURN 130 .

PGMIDER 131 . Condition : NOTAUTH.LOAD • To load program/table/map from the CICS DFHRPL concatenation library into the main storage • Using load reduces system overhead • Syntax : EXEC CICS Load Program(name) [SET (pointer-ref)] [LENGTH (data-area)] END-EXEC.

INVREQ 132 . NOTAUTH.RELEASE • To RELEASE a loaded program/table/map • Syntax : EXEC CICS RELEASE PROGRAM(name) END-EXEC. Conditions : PGMIDERR.

COMMAREA • Data passed to called program using COMMAREA in LINK and XCTL • Calling program .Working Storage definition • Called program .Linkage section definition under DFHCOMMAREA • Called program can alter data and this will automatically available in calling program after the RETURN command ( need not use COMMAREA option in the return for this purpose ) • EIBCALEN is set when COMMAREA is passed 133 .

Communication With Databases
134

CICS - DB2
• CICS provides interface to DB2. • DB2 requires “CICS Attachment Facility” to connect itself to CICS • CICS programs can issue commands for SQL services in order to access the DB2 database.
EXEC SQL function [options] END-EXEC

135

Operating system

CICS REGION

DB2

REGION

App. Pgm. EXEC SQL..

CICS Attachment Facility

DB2 Database

DB2 Database access by CICS
136

• The RCT must be link-edited into a library that is accessible to MVS 137 .RCT Entry • The CICS-to-DB2 connection is defined by creating and assembling the resource control table (RCT) • The information in RCT is used to control the interactions between CICS & DB2 resources • DB2 attachment facility provides a macro (DSNCRCT) to generate the RCT.

DB2 - Precompiler
Source Program (EXEC SQL...
| EXEC CICS...) DB2 Precompiler | CICS command translator | Compile By COBOL | Linkedit by Linkage editor | Load Module
138

QUEUES
139

Transient data Control
• Provides application programmer with a queuing facility • Data can be stored/queued for subsequent internal or external processing • Stored data can be routed to symbolic destinations • TDQs require a DCT entry • Identified by Destination id - 1 to 4 bytes

140

Logging data.Create files for subsequent processing by Non-CICS / Batch programs. 141 . Can associate with any sequential device .ATI (Automatic Task Initiation) associated with trigger level . statistics.association within the same CICS subsystem Typical uses are .TDQs • Intra-partitioned .Broadcasting etc • Extra-partitioned . DASD.Message switching .Tape. transaction error messages .association external to the CICS subsystem. Printer etc Typical uses are .

142 .TDQs • Operations Write data to a transient data queue (WRITEQ TD) Read data from a transient data queue (READQ TD) Delete an intra partition transient data queue (DELETEQ TD).

Conditions: DISABLED. QIDERR.WRITEQ TD • Syntax : EXEC CICS WRITEQ TD QUEUE(name) FROM(data-area) [LENGTH(data-value)] [SYSID(systemname)] END-EXEC. NOSPACE. INVREQ. ISCINVREQ. SYSIDERR 143 . NOTAUTH. IOERR. LENGERR. NOTOPEN.

NOTOPEN. ISCINVREQ.READQ TD • Reads the queue destructively .Data record not available in the queue after the read. INVREQ. QZERO. NOTAUTH. SYSIDERR 144 . LENGERR. • Syntax : EXEC CICS READQ TD QUEUE(name) {INTO(data-area) | SET(ptr-ref) } [LENGTH(data-value)] [NOSUSPEND] END-EXEC. QBUSY. Conditions : DISABLED. QIDERR. IOERR.

DELETEQ TD • Deletes all entries in the queue • Syntax : EXEC CICS DELETEQ TD QUEUE(name) END-EXEC. QIDERR. NOTAUTH. ISCINVREQ. Conditions: INVREQ. SYSIDERR 145 .

• DFHDCT is a macro to define intra & extra partition TDQs TYPE=INTRA/EXTRA • REUSE option specified along with intra partition TDQ tells whether the space used by TDQ record will be removed & reused after it has been read. 146 .Destination Control Table • DCT is to register the information of all TDQs • Destination Control Program (DCP) uses DCT to identify all TDQs and perform all I/O operations.

Automatic Task Initiation • Facility through which a CICS transaction can be initiated automatically DFHDCT TYPE=INTRA DESTID=MSGS TRANSID=MSW1 TRIGLEV=500 When the number of TDQ records reaches 500. the transaction MSW1 will be initiated automatically • Applications Message switching & Report printing 147 .

1 to 8 bytes .Temporary Storage Control • Provides application programmer the ability to store and retrieve data in a TSQ • Application can use the TSQ like a scratch pad • TSQs are .Typically a combination of termid/tranid/operid • Each record in TSQ identified by relative position.Created and deleted dynamically .Identified by Queue id .No CICS table entry required if recovery not required . called the item number 148 .

Non-recoverable – Auxiliary .TSQs • Operations – Write and Update data – Read data . VSAM file DFHTEMP 149 .Sequential and random – Delete the queue • Access – Across transactions – Across terminals • Storage – Main .Recoverable – TST entry required.

TSQs .Typical uses • Data passing among transactions • Terminal Paging • Report printing 150 .

ISCINVREQ 151 . QIDERR. Conditions : ITEMERR. NOTAUTH. LENGERR. NOSPACE.WRITEQ TS • Syntax : EXEC CICS WRITEQ TS QUEUE(name) FROM(data-area) [LENGTH(data-value)] [NUMITEMS(data-area) | ITEM(data-area) [REWRITE] ] [MAIN|AUXILIARY] [NOSUSPEND] END-EXEC. INVREQ. IOERR. SYSIDERR.

QIDERR.READQ TS • Syntax : EXEC CICS READQ TS QUEUE(name) {INTO(data-area) | SET(ptr-ref) } LENGTH(data-value) [NUMITEMS(data-area)] [ITEM(data-area) | NEXT ] END-EXEC. SYSIDERR. ISCINVREQ 152 . NOTAUTH. LENGERR. INVREQ. Conditions : ITEMERR. IOERR.

NOTAUTH. SYSIDERR 153 . ISCINVREQ.DELETEQ TS • Deletes all entries in the queue • Syntax : EXEC CICS DELETEQ TS QUEUE(name) END-EXEC. Conditions: INVREQ. QIDERR.

INTERVAL & TASK CONTROL 154 .

ASKTIME • Used to obtain current date and time • Syntax : EXEC CICS ASKTIME[ABSTIME(data-area)] END-EXEC. • EIBDATE and EIBTIME updated with current date and time • ABSTIME returns value of time in packed decimal format 155 .

. Condition: INVREQ 156 .FORMATTIME • Syntax : EXEC CICS FORMATTIME ABSTIME(data-ref) [YYDDD(data-area)] [YYMMDD(data-area)]... [DATE(data-area) [DATEFORM[(data-area)]]] [DATESEP[(data-value)]] [DAYOFMONTH(data-area)] [MONTHOFYEAR(data-area)] [YEAR(data-area)]... etc.. [TIME(data-area) [TIMESEP[(data-value)]]] END-EXEC.

INVREQ 157 .DELAY • Used to DELAY the processing of a task • The issuing task is suspended for a specified interval or Until the specified time • Syntax : EXEC CICS DELAY INTERVAL(hhmmss) | TIME(hhmmss) END-EXEC Conditions: EXPIRED.

START • Used to start a transaction at the specified terminal and at the specified time or interval • Data can be passed to the new transaction • Syntax : EXEC CICS START TRANSID(transid) [TERMID(termid) TIME(hhmmss) | INTERVAL(hhmmss) ] END-EXEC Conditions : INVREQ. TRANSIDERR 158 .TERMIDERR. LENGERR.

to free the exclusive control from the resource gained by ENQ 159 . DELAY.to gain exclusive control over a resource • DNQ . • WAIT EVENT .Used to suspend a task • ENQ .to request notification when the specified time has expired. eg.POST and START identified by REQID. • SUSPEND .Used to retrieve the data passed by the START • CANCEL -Used to cancel the Interval Control requests.to wait for an event to occur.Other Interval Control Commands • POST . • RETRIEVE .

Recovery & Restart 160 .

in case of the above failures to maintain the system & data integrity. 161 .The Need for Recovery/Restart • The possible failures that can occur outside the CICS system are Communication failures (in online systems) Data set or database failures Application or system program failures Processor failures & Power supply failures. • Recovery/Restart facilities are required to minimize or if possible. eliminate the damage done to the online system.

RECOVERY • An attempt to come back to where the CICS system or the transaction was when the failure occurred • Recoverable Resources VSAM files Intrapartition TDQ TSQ in the auxiliary storage DATA tables Resource definitions & System definition files 162 .

RESTART • To resume the operation of the CICS system or the transaction when the recovery is completed 163 .

Facilities for Recovery/Restart Facilities for CICS Recovery/Restart • • • • • • Dynamic Transaction Backout Automatic Transaction Restart Resource Recovery Using System Log Resource Recovery Using Journal System Restart Extended Recovery Facility (XRF) 164 .

the work between the two consecutive SYNC points • When an ABEND occurs. CICS automatically recovers all recoverable resources using the info. in dynamic log (Set DTB=YES in PCT) 165 . backing out the changes made by the transaction while the rest of the CICS system continues normally is called DTB • CICS automatically writes the „before image‟ information of the record into the dynamic log for the duration of one LUW .Dynamic Transaction Backout (DTB) • When the transaction fails.

• Intermediate SYNC pt.LUW • The end of a logical unit of work is indicated to CICS by a synchronization point (sync pt).LUW & SYNC point • The period between the start of a particular set of changes and the point at which they are complete is called a logical unit of work . can be done by • Syntax : EXEC CICS SYNCPOINT [ROLLBACK] END-EXEC 166 .

...| Task A|---------------------------------------------| SOT EOT-SP |........LUW . 167 ...-LUW...|..LUW.. changes made within the abending LUW will be backed out......LUW.......LUWs & SYNC pts |.| Task B|---------------->--------------->--------------| SOT SP SP EOT-SP When the failure occurs.|.

set RESTART=YES in PCT • Care should be taken in order to restart the task at the point where DTB completes in the case of intermediate SYNC point 168 .Automatic Transaction Restart • CICS capability to automatically restart a transaction after all resources are recovered through DTB • If the transaction requires automatic restart facility.

Program Preparation 169 .

• Executing the Program.Introduction • Preparing a Program to run in CICS Environment. • Defining the Program in the CICS Region. 170 .

Program preparation IF DB2 : SOURCE DB2 PRECOMPILER CICS COMPILER COBOL COMPILER LOAD MODULE LINK EDIT 171 .

Preparing a Program CICS requires the following steps to prepare a program • Translating the Program. 172 . • Assemble or Compile the Translator Output. & • Link the Program.

• The Translator gives two outputs.Translation • Translates the „EXEC CICS‟ Statements into the Statements your Language (COBOL) Compiler can Understand. • If any Copy Books are used in the Program. a Program Listing as SYSPRINT and a Translated Source in SYSPUNCH. 173 . • The SYSPUNCH is given as the input to the Program Compiler. there should not be any CICS Statements in the Copy Book.

the compilation of the CICS program is the same as language program. 174 . • Hence. the compiler options can be specified as required.Compiling or Linking • As the CICS Commands have been translated.

175 .Defining the Program • The Application should be defined and installed into the PPT. • This can be done either by using CEDA trans or DFHPPT.

CICS Supplied Transactions 176 .

the previous operator will be signed off 177 .PS=password] [.LANGUAGE=l] • Userid & password values can be from 1-8 chars. • In RACF.NEWPS=newpassword][.CESN/CESF Transactions • To sign on to CICS system • CESN [USERID=userid] [. • NEWPS to change the password and LANGUAGE to choose national language • Sign off by CESF which breaks the connection between the user and CICS • If the Sign on is done twice for the same userid at the terminal. the Userid given in CESN is verified.

• Before using the maps in programs..sysid. terminal id. application id etc. it can be tested using CECI to check how it appears on the screen. • CECI gives the complete command syntax of the specified command.CECI . • CECI READQ TD QUEUE(TESTL001) will read the current record of the given TDQ 178 .Command Level Interpreter • To build and test the effect of EXEC CICS commands • CECI ASSIGN is used to get the current userid.

CEMT-Master Terminal Transaction CEMT provides the following services • • • • Displays the status of CICS & system resources Alter the status of CICS & system resources Remove the installed resource definitions Perform few functions that are not related to resources 179 .

ON/.CEDF-Execution Diagnostic Facility • To test command level application programs interactively • CEDF [termid/sysid/sessionid] [.OFF] • Termid .the identifier of the terminal on which the transaction to be tested is being run • Sessionid .To test/monitor a transaction attached across an MRO/ISC session • Sysid .To test a transaction across an APPC session 180 .

..) The points at which EDF interrupts execution of the program and sends a display to the terminal • At transaction initialization. after EIB has been initialized and before the app. pgm given control • Start of execution of each CICS command (auguement values can be changed at this point) • End of execution of each CICS command and before the Handle condition mechanism is invoked (response code values can be changed) • At program termination & at normal task termination • When an ABEND occurs & at abnormal task termination.CEDF (Contd. • EIB values can be changed.& CEBR can be invoked 181 .

current • PUT to copy the current queue contents into TDQ • GET to fetch TDQ for browsing • PURGE erases the contents of the current queue 182 .CEBR-Temporary Storage Browse • To browse the contents of CICS temporary storage queues (TSQ) • CEBR by default will show the queue associated with the current terminal „CEBRL001‟ which can be overridden to view any other queue • TERM to browse TSQ for another terminal • QUEUE to make the named queue.

2 183 .Exercise .

Thank You 184 .

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