CICS

(Customer Information Control System)
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Table of Contents
• • • • • • • • • • • Introduction to CICS Basic Mapping Support Program Control File Processing Error Handling Queues Interval and Task Control Recovery and Restart Program preparation CICS Supplied Transactions Case Study
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Introduction to CICS
• Customer Information Control System -CICS developed in late 1960s as a DB/DC control system • CICS provides an interface between the Operating System and application programs • Macro Level CICS - initial version Assembler macro to request CICS services • Command Level CICS - high level lang.version - commands to request CICS services - Single command can replace series of macros

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3. 5. 4. BATCH SYSTEM Input data is prepared and given in sequence (file) Processing sequence is predictable and hence restarting the process in case of failure is easy. Usually in seconds 4 . 4. ONLINE SYSTEM Data is entered as needed not in sequence (terminal) Since processing sequence is unpredictable. Programs and files can‟t be shared Programs are scheduled through jobs O/P printed on paper or in sequential of VSAM or Indexed files Response time: Could be scheduled to be Hours or days 1. 5. 2. 6. special recovery/restart proc. is required in case of failure Programs and files can be shared Transaction can be run at any time O/p displayed on Terminal updated files Response Time: Could be in minutes or second. 2. 6.Batch & Online : Differences 1. 3.

Files & Database 5 .CICS & Operating System Operating System CICS Enter Code : User’s App.

DB/DC System Terminals Data Base Central System CICS System Environment & API routines. and Application Programs 6 .

CICS System Services • Data-Communication Functions • Data-Handling Functions • Application Program Services • System Services • Monitoring Functions 7 .

An entity which initiates execution of a task.A basic unit of work which is scheduled by the operating system or CICS Ex -Read from and write to the terminal • Transaction :.Task & Transaction • Task :. In CICS. transaction is identified by the transaction identifier (Trans-id) 8 .

Application Programming Concepts • Pseudo-Conversational • Multitasking • Multithreading • Quasi-Reentrancy 9 .

Terminal Conversation • Conversational : A mode of dialogue between program and terminal based on a combination of sending message and receiving message within the same task – Since human response is slower than the CPU speed. a significant amount of resource will be wasted just waiting • Pseudo-Conversational. A mode of dialogue between program and terminal which appears to the operator as a continuous conversation but which is actually carried by a series of tasks 10 .

<= EMP(12345) Details END-EXEC.12345 END-EXEC. * . : process 11 .Program Waits For Response .... EXEC CICS RECEIVE ---.<= TSK1.Terminal Conversation Example PROCEDURE DIVISION.. EXEC CICS RECEIVE ----.SECOND PROCESS.<= User Enters Data END-EXEC.... : FIRST-PROCESS.. : process EXEC CICS SEND ----.

EXEC CICS RETURN TRANSID („TSK2‟) END-EXEC. Transaction TSK2 Program PROG2 PROCEDURE DIVISION. 12 . : EXEC CICS RECEIVE END-EXEC. : EXEC CICS SEND END-EXEC.Pseudo-Conversation Example Transaction TSK1 Program PROG1 PROCEDURE DIVISION. : EXEC CICS SEND END-EXEC. EXEC CICS RETURN END-EXEC. : EXEC CICS RECEIVE END-EXEC.

CICS Components • Control Programs (or Management Modules) Programs that interface between OS and app. Task Control Area contains information about the task 13 . Eg. pgm Handle the general functions that are crucial to operation of CICS • Control Tables Define the CICS environment Functionally associated with the management module • Control Blocks (or Areas) Contain system type information.

Mangement Pgms & Ctrl Tables • Programs Program Control File control Terminal Control Task Control Temporary Storage Transient Data Storage Control Interval Control Journal Control • Tables PCP FCP TCP KCP TSP TDP SCP ICP JCP Processing Program Table File Control Table Terminal Control Table Program Control Table Temp. Storage Table Destin. Control Table PPT FCT TCT PCT TST DCT 14 .

CICS Program Considerations Considerations: • Must eventually return control to CICS • Can‟t modify procedure division instructions because CICS programs may be shared by many tasks • Can modify working storage since a unique copy of working storage is created for each task 15 .

and non-CICS READ & WRITE statements are not permitted because file management is handled by CICS. CLOSE. GOBACK are avoided. EXHIBIT.CICS Program Restrictions Restrictions: • No CONFIG. STOP RUN. DISPLAY. • FILE SECTION. (STOP RUN & GOBACK are sometimes included in order to eliminate compiler diagnostic but never executed) 16 . OPEN. SECTION. I/O SECTION to be specified in the ENVIRONMENT DIVISION. TRACE. • COBOL commands such as ACCEPT.

WORKING-STORAGE SECTION. SAMPLE. 17 .Sample CICS Program IDENTIFICATION DIVISION. 05 WS-TRANSID PIC X(4). 01 WS-INPUT. 05 FILLER PIC X(1). ENVIRONMENT DIVISION. PROGRAM-ID. 05 WS-IN-EMP-CD PIC X(4) VALUE ALL „X‟. DATA DIVISION.

PERFORM 200-SEND-OUTPUT. CAN Include DFHCOMMAREA if data needs to be communicated between two transactions or multiple iterations of the same transaction. 000-MAINLINE. 01 WS-LENGTH PIC S9(4) COMP. PROCEDURE DIVISION. 18 ..) 01 WS-OUTPUT. PERFORM 100-RECV-INPUT.Sample Program (Contd. 05 WS-OUT-EMP-CD PIC X(4). 05 FILLER PIC X(16) VALUE „EMP CODE : „. LINKAGE SECTION. EXEC CICS RETURN END-EXEC.

Sample Program (Contd.) 100-RECV-INPUT. MOVE 9 TO WS-LENGTH.. 19 . MOVE WS-IN-EMP-CODE TO WS-OUT-EMP-CODE 200-SEND-OUTPUT. EXEC CICS SEND FROM (WS-OUTPUT) LENGTH (20) ERASE END-EXEC. EXEC CICS RECEIVE INTO (WS-INPUT) LENGTH (WS-LENGTH) END-EXEC.

CICS Translator The CICS translator converts CICS commands into the COBOL code so that it could be compiled by a Standard Cobol compiler CICS program with CICS Commands COBOL Statements CICS Translator 20 .

which can be seen in the compiled listing 21 .Translator • When you compile a CICS/VS program the translator will automatically add many lines of code to your program.

Basic Mapping Support 22 .

Topics in BMS • Introduction to BMS • Map and Mapset • Physical and Symbolic Map • Map Definition Macros • Screen Manipulation/Handling • Screen Design Considerations • Interfacing with Terminal using a Map 23 .

So if NMDS is used. formatted screens are used.g. this NMDS is a mixture of Buffer Control Characters (BCCs) and text data. In order to display formatted screen. 3278) must receive a series of data stream called Native Mode Data Stream (NMDS) based on the hardware protocol. re-coding is required whenever there is change in the terminal device or screen format. To remove this device and format dependency from application program.Introduction to BMS Introductory concepts In online systems. 24 . NMDS is designed for a particular terminal and is thus both device dependent and format dependent. CICS provides a facility called Basic Mapping Support (BMS). a terminal (e.

and Mapsets to define the screen attributes. 25 .Native Mode Data Stream • Text handling • Terminal Paging & Message routing • Contents of the screen defined thru‟ BMS is called Map. • Map is a program written in assembly language.. The BMS Macros are coded in the form of Maps. Titles. and field characteristics..Primary Functions of BMS • Removal of device dependent codes from Application Program • Removal of constant information from Application program (Headers.) • Construct NMDS . • BMS macros are available for Map coding. screen field positions.

• One or more maps. • Mapset must have a entry in PPT as given below: DFHPPT DFHPPT TYPE=ENTRY.PROGRAM=name Or 26 . link edited together.Map and Mapset • Representation of one screen format is called Map (screen panel). makes up a Mapset (load module).MAPSET=name TYPE=ENTRY.

7 chars. To identify the device type 27 . Program.. Used in App.Map and Mapset (Contd. 1 char.) • Mapset name has two parts. – Generic name – Suffix • Multimap Panel • Dynamically constructing a screen panel with multiple maps at the execution time 1.

For e. For e.) The concepts of map and mapset can be utilized in two type of cases as given below: Case 1: A mapset consist of a single map. MAPSET2 MAPNUM1 MAPNUM2 28 .g.Map and Mapset (Contd.. MAPSET1 MAPNUM1 Case 2: A mapset consists of several maps.g.

Types of MAPS There are 2 types of MAPS • Physical Map Physical Map is a map used by CICS (CSECT) Ensure device independence in the application program BMS macro coding ==> Assembly==> Link edit ==> Load module ==> LOADLIB ===> To be used by CICS • Symbolic Map Ensure device and format independence in the application program Symbolic Map is a map used by Application Program (DSECT) BMS macro coding ==> Assembly ==> Symbolic map definition ==> COPYLIB ==> Copied (COPY) into CICS application program. 29 .

02 FILLER PIC X(12). 01 EMPRECO REDEFINES EMPRECI. 02 EMPNAF PIC X. 02 EMPNAO PIC X(21).Example – Symbolic Map 01 EMPRECI. 02 EMPNAI PIC X(21). 03 EMPNAA PIC X. 02 FILLER REDEFINES EMPNAF. 02 EMPNAL PIC S9(4) COMP. 30 . 02 FILLER PIC X(12). 02 FILLER PIC X(03).

Logic Flow BMS source Assembler Physical MAP Symbolic MAP Linkage editor Load module (MVS) 31 .Physical & Symbolic Map .

field characteristics and the default data for each field and allows BMS to construct an output NMDS. length. In case of output operations. 32 • • .Physical Map • Physical Map. At the program execution time the physical map is being used by CICS to load the screen image. The mapset like any other CICS program is stored in CICS runtime library the PPT(Program Processing Table). In case of input operations. The BMS macros are assembled and link-edited into CICS load library to create the physical map. the physical map defines the starting position. the physical map defines the maximum length. the starting position for each field to be read and allows BMS to interpret an input NMDS.

The symbolic map serves as a DSECT for referencing the Terminal Input/Output Area (TIOA). The program issues a COBOL COPY statement to include it in the program.Symbolic Map • The symbolic map is coded using the BMS macro. unprotect specific fields on the 33 screen. • The symbolic maps represents the actual data structure of the fields defined in the physical map. and highlight . • The symbolic map can be used by the CICS application programs to dynamically to alter the field attributes. in the CICS SEND-MAP & RECEIVE MAP commands. modify screen cursor position. assembled separately and catalogued into a copy library. . and is used by the application program to send and receive information from the terminal. protect .

MODE=INOUT.Map definition Macros General Format Column Number 1 setname operation Example EMPMAP DFHMSD 16 operands 72 contd. TIOAPFX=YES X X X X * * ANY COMMENTS 34 . STORAGE=AUTO. TYPE=MAP. LANG=COBOL.

OPERATION OPERANDS CONTD : : : Comments : 35 . Macro identifier.Map definition Macros (Contd. Used in CICS command to read or write one of the maps in the mapset. Mapset/Map/Field definition. ‘*’ in column 1 makes the line comment. Optional key words (parameters) separated by comma. It is the load module name. Current line can be continued by leaving this column non-blank (usually X) and the next line have to be started in 16th column.) Explanations: SETNAME : Name of the mapset..

.Map definition Macros (Contd.) INITIAL VALUES Escape Chars : : Always surround initial values by single quote marks ‘ and & 36 .

Order of Macros DFHMSD TYPE=DSECT DFHMDI DFHMDF DFHMDF : DFHMDI DFHMDF DFHMDF : DFHMSD TYPE=FINAL END Mapset Map A field A field Map A field A field Mapset 37 .

LANG=COBOL.FRSET. X X STORAGE=AUTO. and they're loaded together at execution time.DFHMSD Macro The DFHMSD macro is used to define a mapset (TYPE=MAP) and its characteristics or to end a mapset definition (TYPE=FINAL).PRINT) 38 . X X CNTL=(FREEKB. MODE=INOUT. All the maps in a map set get assembled together. Only one mapset is allowed in one assembly run. Example: TSTMSET X DFHMSD TYPE=&SYSPARM. TIOAPFX=YES.

39 .) Options TYPE= DSECT MAP &SYSPARM FINAL MODE= IN OUT INOUT To define the map type For symbolic map For physical map For special assembly procedure To indicate the end of a mapset coding To indicate input/output operations For an input map only For an output map only For maps involving both input and output.DFHMSD Macro (Contd..

.DFHMSD Macro (Contd.) STORAGE = AUTO To acquire a separate symbolic map area for each mapset BASE To have the same storage base for the symbolic maps of from more than one mapset TIOAPFX= YES To reserve the prefix space (12 bytes) for BMS commands to access TIOA properly. 40 . Required for the CICS command level.

DFHMSD Macro (Contd..)
CNTL=
FREEKB FRSET ALARM PRINT

To define the device control requests To unlock the keyboard To reset MDT to zero status To set an alarm at screen display time To indicate the mapset to be sent to the printer
This ensures device independence, required if other than 3270 terminal is being used To specify the user provided suffix number. This must correspond to the TCT parameter.

TERM=type

SUFFIX=nn

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DFHMDI Macro
Defines a map and its characteristics Example EMPMAP DFHMDI SIZE=(ll,cc), X LINE=nn, X COLUMN=mm, X JUSTIFY=LEFT/RIGHT Options SIZE=(ll,cc) To define the size of the map by the line size (ll) and the column size (cc). Useful when the screen contains. LINE Indicates the starting line number of the map. COLUMN Indicates the starting column number of the map. JUSTIFY To specify the entire map (map fields) is to be left or right justified.
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DFHMDF Macro
The DFHMDF macro is used to define a field in a map and its characteristics. This is the position on the screen where the field should appear. It's the position relative to the beginning of the map. Field starts with its attribute byte, so if POS=(1,1) is coded, then the attribute byte for that field is on line 1 in column 1, and the actual data starts in column 2. The length of the field (not counting the attribute byte) is specified. Literals can be specified within quotes; these character data is for an output field. It is used to define labels and titles for the screen and keep them independent of the program.

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Sample Screen layout The above defines the screen layout as given below: ITEM NUMBER :&nnnnnnnn Where „&‟ Is the Attribute character „n‟ Is unprotected numeric „_„ Is Cursor 44 .

DFHMDF Macro For The Above Layout Define a field and its characteristics Example DFHMDF POS(ll.NUM. :‟. ATTRB=ASKIP.FSET.cc). JUSTIFY=RIGHT. PICIN=„9(8)‟.cc). ATTRB=(UNPROT. LENGTH=8 X X X X X X X X 45 .IC). PICOUT=„9(8)‟. LENGTH=14 CUSTNO DFHMDF POS=(ll. INITIAL=„Customer No.

it will cause the input-inhibit status. ASKIP Autoskip.” and “-“) are allowed. Data can be entered and this is used for all input fields. If data is entered. PROT Protected field. 46 .Attribute character Function: The attribute character is an invisible 1-byte character. NUM Numeric field. Data cannot be entered in this field. Data cannot be entered into this field. The cursor skips to the next field. UNPROT Unprotected field. Only numbers (0 to 9) and special characters (“. which precedes a screen field and determines the characteristics of a field.

NORM Normal display.) BRT Bright display of a field (highlight). FSET Field set. DRK IC Dark display. the cursor is placed in the last field. MDT is set on so that the field data is to be sent from the terminal to the host computer regardless of whether the field is actually modified by the user.Attribute character (Contd. 47 . Insert cursor. The cursor will be positioned in this field.. In case. IC is specified more than once.

1. it indicates that the operator has modified this field. Three ways of setting and resetting the MDT. Only when MDT is on. If it is off (0). If it is on (1). the data of the field will be sent by the terminal hardware to the host computer.Modified Data Tag Function: Modified Data Tag (MDT) is a one bit of the attribute character. An effective use of MDT drastically reduces the amount of data traffic in the communication line and thus improves performance. it indicates that the terminal operator has not modified the field. Terminal user modifies a field on the screen. it is automatically set to “1” (on) by the terminal hardware. 48 .

not modified for all the fields of the mapset or the map.Modified Data Tag (Contd.e. when the mapset or the map is sent to the terminal. MDT will be reset to “0” (off) i. (on i. 49 . If FSET is specified in the ATTRB parameter of the DFHMDF macro for a field.e. modified) for the field regardless of whether the field has been modified by the terminal user. If CNTL=FRSET is specified in the DFHMSD or DFHMDI macro. 3. MDT will be set to “1”. when the map is sent to the terminal.) 2..

cc).Skipper Technique • Unlabelled 1-byte field with the autoskip attribute • DFHMDF POS(ll.LENGTH=1 • To skip the cursor to the next unprotected field after one unprotected field. • Screen Layout : &xxxxx&$ &xx where $ Skipper field & Attribute byte X Unprotected field 50 .ATTRB=ASKIP.

LENGTH=1 • To stop the cursor in order to prevent erroneous field overflow by terminal user.ATTRB=PROT.Stopper Technique • Unlabelled 1-byte field with the protect attribute • DFHMDF POS(ll. • Screen Layout : &xxxxx&$#&$ where # Stopper field 51 .cc).

which is the TIOA prefix created by the TIOAPFX=YES of the DFHMSD macro.Format Of the Symbolic Map Format of Symbolic Map • Once the symbolic map is assembled and is placed in the COPY library. 52 . this is required by the BMS under the CICS command level. • The symbolic map starts with the 01 level definition of the map name specified in the DFHMDI macro with the suffix ‘I’ for the input map and the suffix ‘O’ for the output map. the COBOL COPY statement can be used to include it in the application program. • Next is the definition of FILLER PIC X(12).

by placing one character suffix to the original field name. this is used for the dynamic cursor positioning.. For the output field. 53 . For the input field.) For each field name (1 to 7 characters) specified in the DFHMDF macro. BMS creates three fields for inputs and three fields for outputs. the actual number of characters typed in the field will be placed by the BMS when the map is received.Format Of the Symbolic Map (Contd. The meaning of these fields are given below: • Name + L: The half-word binary (PIC S9(4) COMP) field.

54 .) • Name + F: Flag Byte. • Name + O: The output data field.. it will be X’80’ if the field has been modified but no data is sent (i. The application program should differentiate X’00’ from space (X’40’).e. the field has been cleared). The Attribute byte for both input and output • Name + I: The input data field.Format Of the Symbolic Map (Contd. • Name + A: fields. Otherwise this field is X’00’. X’00’ will be placed if no data is entered. Note that space X’40’ is data. For the input field.

55 . 02 EMPNAF PIC X.Example Of Symbolic Map 01 EMPRECI. 02 EMPNAI PIC X(21). 02 EMPNAL PIC S9(4) COMP. 02 EMPNAO PIC X(21). 02 FILLER PIC X(12). 02 FILLER REDEFINES EMPNAF. 01 EMPRECO REDEFINES EMPRECI. 03 EMPNAA PIC X. 02 FILLER PIC X(03). 02 FILLER PIC X(12).

8). Example : DFHMDF POS=(5.LENGTH=10 56 .ATTRB=(UNPROT. • Static positioning (Achieved thru Map definition ATTRIB=IC).IC). The cursor positioning is important to prompt an user of an entry he has to make. or to point to an error which has occurred during editing the user entries.Cursor Positioning Techniques CICS provides multiple ways of to specify where to position the cursor on the screen.FSET.

The SEND MAP command must be issued with the CURSOR option (without value). This approach is very useful when the cursor is to be placed at the field where data entry error has been detected by the data edit routine. the mapset should be coded with MODE=INOUT in the DFHMSD macro. The cursor is placed dynamically through an application program by moving -1 to the symbolic map field-length field (i.. 57 . fieldname + L) for the field where the cursor is to be placed.) • Dynamic/Symbolic Positioning.e. Also.Cursor Positioning Techniques (Contd.

05 FIELD1L PIC X(5). 05 FIELD1F PIC X. : COPY MAPSET1 01 MAPSET1I 05 FILLER PIC X(6). WORKING-STORAGE SECTION. 58 .) Example Of Dynamic Cursor Positioning.. 05 FIELD1I PIC X.Cursor Positioning Techniques (Contd.

. : MOVE –1 TO FIELDL.) PROCEDURE DIVISION. 59 . The cursor will be placed at FIELD1 field of the map during execution.Cursor Positioning Techniques (Contd. EXEC CICS SEND MAP(‘MAP1’) MAPSET(‘MAPSET1’) CURSOR ERASE END-EXEC.

. overriding the static cursor position defined at the map definition time.) Dynamic/Relative Positioning (application program) The cursor is placed dynamically through an application program using the CURSOR(data-value) option in the SEND MAP command with the value of the relative position (starting from zero) of the terminal. the map will be displayed with the cursor placed at the specified position. 60 .Cursor Positioning Techniques (Contd. At the completion of the SEND MAP command.

Cursor Positioning Techniques (Contd. The cursor will be placed at FIELD1 field of the map MAP1 during execution.) Example EXEC CICS SEND MAP(„MAP1‟) MAPSET(„MAPSET1‟) CURSOR(100) ERASE END-EXEC. 61 ..

BMS prepares data in the symbolic map through the corresponding physical map. BMS prepares the output NMDS. 2. Map Receiving Function – using the input NDMS from the terminal. 3. The following are the three basic functions performed by CICS commands: Map Sending function – using the data in the symbolic map. and sends to the terminal. the corresponding physical map. 62 1. . Text Handling Function – BMS prepares text without using a map and sends to the terminal. These operations are performed by a set of CICS commands for BMS.Interfacing with a Terminal using a Map The BMS maps are used in the application programs for the actual terminal input/output operation.

Interfacing with a Terminal using a Map (Contd. Application Program Send Map Command Symbolic Map BMS Output NDMS Terminal Physical Map Data Entry Application Program Receive Map Command Symbolic Map BMS Input NDMS Terminal 63 ..) Flow of Information from 3270 Terminal and the Application Program.

Interfacing with a Terminal using a Map (Contd.) The following are the available commands: • RECEIVE MAP • SEND MAP • SEND CONTROL • SEND TEXT • SEND PAGE : : : : : To receive a map To send a map To send a control function to the terminal To send a text To send the accumulated text or maps as a logical message 64 ..

the symbolic map will contain valid data from the terminal in the following three fields as per each field defined by the DFHMDF macro: Field name + L : The length field. : The actual input data field. Field name + F Field name + I 65 . X‟00‟ will be placed if no data is entered.Receive Map Command RECEIVE MAP Command is used to receive input from a terminal. typed in the screen field. At the completion of the command. which contains the actual number of characters. It will be X‟80‟ if the field has been modified but cleared. : The Flag Byte which is normally X‟00‟.

) Syntax: EXEC CICS RECEIVE MAP (MAPNAME) MAPSET(MAPSETNAME) [ SET(POINTER)| INTO(DATANAME) ] [ LENGTH(MSG-LEN)] [ HANDLE | NOHANDLE ] [ RESP() ] END-EXEC.. • Conditions: INVREQ. MAPFAIL 66 .Receive Map Command (Contd.

Receive Map Command (Contd. SET is used when the address pointer is to be set to the address of the symbolic map (by CICS) so that the application program can directly refer to the record without moving the record content into the working storage area defined in the program. 67 . INTO is used to specify the area in the working storage section to which the data from the terminal is to be placed. MAPSET specified the name of the MAPSET defined thru DFHMSD command which includes the MAP.) MAP specified the name of the MAP defined thru DFHMDI command . which describes the screen details..

INVREQR .. NOHANDLE will cause no action to be taken for any exceptional condition occurring during execution of the CICS command. HANDLE is used to transfer control to the procedure label specified if the exceptional condition specified occurs. 68 .Receive Map Command (Contd. LENGERR. Conditions : INVMPSZ . It occurs when the following keys are pressed in response to the RECEIVE MAP command: CLEAR or Attention Keys & ENTER or PF keys without entering data. MAPFAIL MAPFAIL is set when the data being mapped has a length of zero.) RESP will be used by CICS to place a response code at a completion of the command.

where the application program places the data. which has the following three fields per each field defined by the DFHMDF macro: Name + L: The length field. Application program will use it for dynamic cursor positioning. Before issuing this command. Name + A: The Attribute byte for output fields. for which the application program need not prepare except when used for the dynamic cursor positioning. 69 . Name + O: The actual output data field.SEND MAP Command The SEND MAP command is used to send formatted output to a terminal. the application program must prepare the data in the symbolic map of the map to be sent.

SEND MAP Command (Contd. [ FREEKB ] . [DATAONLY] | MAPONLY]. [ RESP (DATANAME) ] END-EXEC. [ HANDLE | NOHANDLE ] .LENGERR 70 . [ ERASE ] . [ FRSET ] .. [ CURSOR(VALUE) ].) EXEC CICS SEND MAP(MAP1) MAPSET(MAPSET1) ] [FROM(DATANAME) ]. • Conditions : INVREQ.

MAPONLY is used when no data from your program is to be merged into the map. The constants in the map are not sent. 71 .) MAP specified the name of the MAP defined thru DFHMDI command .. MAPSET specified the name of the MAPSET defined thru DFHMSD command which includes the MAP. which describes the screen details.SEND MAP Command (Contd. DATAONLY is used when only the data from the program is to be sent to the screen.

.) FROM is used to specify the area in the working storage section from which the data is to be sent to the terminal.SEND MAP Command (Contd. 72 .

AID KEYS First time when a transaction is initiated the application program throws the screen image on the terminal thru SEND MAP command. Once the screen appears. CICS application program needs to trap the attention identifier keys and process various functions related to the AID keys. PA keys. the AID (Attention Identifier ) Keys are being used to send the information back from the terminal to CICS to application program. Salient Points • PF keys. 73 . ENTER & CLEAR key • EIBAID in the CICS Executive Interface Block contains. recently used AID key.

) • DFHAID – CICS System copybook which stores the values of the EIBAID field for the various AID keys. Flow : User hits AID key – Control goes to CICS – To Application program. Syntax : EXEC CICS HANDLE AID Option (label) END-EXEC Conditions : INVREQ 74 . EIBAID contains information about the last AID key pressed. Program compares EIBAID to the DFHAID field and performs processing logic as per the AID key pressed.AID KEYS (Contd.. • HANDLE AID establish the routines that are to be invoked when the aid is detected by a RECEIVE MAP command.

This helps at problem determination time. • Screen title and field descriptions should be self-explanatory. 75 . Instructions should be concise. • Screen id should be placed at the top right corner of a screen.Screen Design Considerations Functional Screen Design • Screen layout should be similar to source where terminal users enter data.

) • Large fields can be broken into a number of small fields. E. • In case of repeated fields or group of fields. sequence numbers helps. • Error messages should be provided. email ids and postal address..Screen Design Considerations (Contd.g. 76 . the field contact information can be split into contact numbers. Preferably the last few lines can be used for the error messages.

• The cursors should be placed in the appropriate fields. This enables users to identify the erroneous field easily. Using a different colour or blinking the error field can achieve this. defaults values are assigned according to the field. • Calculations should be done by program and not by users. in case the user forgets to enter a field data.Screen Design Considerations User-Friendly Screen Design • Screens should be simple and friendly. Also. 77 . • Default values in fields helps in reducing keystrokes by the users. • Highlight the error field.

• Provide help on fields and their meanings. • Proper use of indentations. Using an attention key for a help menu.Screen Design Considerations (Contd. spaces. and lines makes a screen look good. The help message should be instructive and kind and should not be rude. Artistic Screen Design • A simple screen layout is always preferred.) • Alarm sound can be used for error entries. which has details on each field. 78 .. • Provide suitable help messages for erroneous entries. makes a screen user-friendly.

• Related fields can be grouped together. This reduces manual skipping and is preferred. 79 . Considerations for Human Errors • Important and useful fields can be placed at the top part of the screen. however the colour used should be in accordance with the norms and standards followed. • Protected fields should be skipped automatically.Screen Design Considerations (Contd.. • Skipper/Stopper techniques can be used at appropriate places.) • Colour can help in improving the screen design.

Exercise .1 80 .

CICS File Processing Techniques 81 .

Reading and Updating a record Deleting a Record. Handle any errors that occur during file processing • • • • • • • 82 . File Specific functions to be performed are the following. Reading a file sequentially Reading a Key Sequenced file randomly Reading a file sequentially starting from a specific point. Defining a specific file to the CICS system.CICS VS FILE PROCESSING File handling in CICS is achieved thru a set of file handling commands. It is essential to know the various file handling commands for application programming.

When CICS/VS is closed down it closes all the files. 83 . Application program directly Refer to filenames in EXEC CICS Command. before being used in the program. and the Input – Output Section. Files do not need to exclusively defined in Application programs. This list is called the FILE CONTROL TABLE (FCT) and is maintained by the systems programmers When CICS/VS is started up. CICS has a list of all the files it is allowed To access.CICS VS FILE PROCESSING Instead. It goes through the FCT and makes all the files available. Application programs do not need The FD Section. The files do not need to opened and closed in a CICS application program .

CICS COBOL V/S COBOL BATCH COBOL CICS COBOL EXEC CICS READ DATASET (‘FILE IDENTIFIER) INTO (RECORD NAME) RID-FLD (record-key) END-EXEC.key) END-EXEC. 84 . READ DATAFILE INTO REC-AREA AT END MOVE ‘Y’ TO EOF-FLAG Replaced by WRITE RECORD-NAME FROM RECORD-AREA Replaced by EXEC CICS WRITE DATASET (‘File identifier’) FROM (Record-Name) RID-FLD (Record.

VSAM Different types of VSAM Datasets used in CICS are : • ESDS • KSDS • RRDS Entry Sequenced Dataset Key Sequenced Dataset Relative Record Dataset 85 .

Deleting an Existing Record. Journaling. Data Independence. 86 . Opening and closing Files. • In Addition. CICS Provides Exclusive Control.Services Provided By CICS • Basic Operations required for a file are Adding a Record. (Record Level Locking). Browsing One or Selected or All Records. Modifying an Existing Record.

• FCT will contain all the Information about a file (like dataset name. access methods. 88 .Defining A File in CICS • Files should be defined in FCT (File Control Table).) • Defining files can be done either by CEDA Transaction or DFHFCT Macro. permissible file service request. etc.

FILSTAT=(ENABLED. DATASETNAME=NAME. SERVRQ=(ADD.Syntax of DFHFCT Macro DFHFCT TYPE=FILE.DELETE.READ.OPENED) 89 .ACCMETH=VSAM.BROWSE.UPDATE).

A number of records can be added at a time.File Handling in Programs • Files should not be defined in the Program. updated or deleted. • Records can be inserted. 90 . • Program should not open or close a File. • Records can be written in any order.

Name in the FCT.Contains the Record Key.Important Key-Words • Dataset/File :. • LENGTH :.Length of the Record to be Retrieved or Written. • RESP :.Contains the return code of the executed command.Working-Storage Area defined in the program where the CICS Puts/Gets the Data. • Into/From (WS-Rec) :. • RIDFLD :. 91 .

Condition: DISABLED.Random READ EXEC CICS READ File(filename) [SET() | Into()] RIdfld(Rec-Key) END-EXEC. 92 . NOTOPEN. LENGERR. IOERR. NOTFND. DUPKEY.

Example for Random Read EXEC CICS READ File( 'INVMAS ') Into(WS-INVMAS-REC) Length(WS-INVMAS-LEN) RIdfld('7135950602') | RIdfld(WS-INVMAS-KEY) END-EXEC. 93 .

• End the Browse Operation at last. • During Browse Operation. • Establish the pointer to the First Record to be Read Using StartBr. 94 . • Browse can be re-positioned. • Next and Previous Records can be Read as required Using ReadNext and ReadPrev. Records cannot be Updated.Sequential Read • Sequential Read is done by Browse Oper.

NOTOPEN.Syntax for STARTBR EXEC CICS STARTBR FILE(filename) RIDFLD(data-area) END-EXEC. Condition : DISABLED. 95 . NOTFND. IOERR.

96 .Reading the Record after STARTBR • Sequentially the Next or Previous Record can be read by a READNEXT or READPREV. • The first READNEXT or READPREV will read the Record where the STARTBR has positioned the File Pointer.

LENGERR.Syntax of READNext/READPrev EXEC CICS READNext | READPrev FILE(name) INTO(data-area)|SET(ptr-ref) RIDFLD(data-area) END-EXEC. ENDFILE. NOTFND. 97 . Condition : DUPKEY. IOERR.

• SYNTAX : EXEC CICS ENDBR FILE(filename) END-EXEC. Condition: INVREQ 98 .ENDBRowse • ENDBRowse terminates a Previously issued STARTBR.

NOTFND. Condition: IOERR. • Syntax : EXEC CICS RESETBR FILE(filename) RIDFLD(data-area) END-EXEC. 99 .RESETBR • Its effect is the same as ENDBR and then giving another STARTBR.

RIDFLD is not used but after write execution. RIDFLD should be the Record Key. 100 . RBA value is returned and Record will be written at the end of the File. • MASSINSERTion must be done in ascending order of the Key. • For ESDS.WRITE Command • Adds a new record into the File. • For KSDS. The record will be written depending on the Key.

IOERR. 101 . DUPREC. NOTOPEN.Syntax for WRITE EXEC CICS WRITE FILE(filename) FROM(data-area) RIDFLD(data-area) END-EXEC. LENGERR. Condition: DISABLED. NOSPACE.

• REWRITE automatically UNLOCKs the Record after execution. 102 .REWRITE Command • Updates a Record which is Previously Read with UPDATE Option.

NOSPACE. 103 . IOERR. Condition: DUPREC. LENGERR.Syntax for REWRITE EXEC CICS REWRITE FILE(filename) FROM(data-area) END-EXEC.

1. • Multiple Records Delete is possible using Generic Option.DELETE Command • Deletes a Record from a dataset. • Record can be deleted in two ways. The record read with READ with UPDATE will be deleted. 104 . RIDFLD with the full key in it 2.

DUPKEY. Optional Condition: DISABLED. 105 .Syntax of DELETE EXEC CICS DELETE FILE(filename) RIDFLD(data-area) END-EXEC. IOERR. NOTFND. NOTOPEN.

UNLOCK • To Release the Record which has been locked by READ with UPDATE Command. Condition: DISABLED. 106 . • Syntax : EXEC CICS UNLOCK FILE(filename) : [other options] END-EXEC. NOTOPEN. IOERR.

FILENOTFOUND. INVREQ 107 . SYSIDERR. NOTAUTH.General Exceptions • The following exceptions usually will occur for ALL CICS file handling commands.

CICS Error Handling Procedures 108 .

• Conditions caused by user errors and input data errors. 109 . • Errors caused by mismatches between applications and CICS tables. • Conditions caused by omissions or errors in the application code.Error Handling in CICS Possible Errors: • Conditions that aren't normal from CICS's point of view but that are expected in the program. generation parameters and JCL • Errors related to hardware or other system conditions beyond the control of an application program.

System will terminate or suspend the task depends on the exceptional condition occurred 110 . the program can do any of the following • Take no action & let the program continue .Control goes to a label in the program defined earlier by a HANDLE CONDITION command. A return code is set in EIBRESP and EIBRCODE.Error Handling methods When the error (exceptional conditions) occur.Control returns to the next inst. following the command that has failed to execute. • Rely on the system default action . This state occurs „cause of NO HANDLE /RESP/IGNORE conditions • Pass control to a specified label .

LENGERR will be handled by system 111 .. 'condition' specifies the name of the condition..Error Handling methods (Contd. and 'label' specifies the location within the program to be branched • Remains active while the program is executing or until it encounters IGNORE/another HANDLE condition. all the other Errors together.) • HANDLE CONDITION condition[(label)].. • Syntax : EXEC CICS HANDLE CONDITION ERROR(ERRHANDL) LENGERR(LENGRTN) END-EXEC This example handles DUPREC condition separately.

HANDLE Condition Example of Handle condition: EXEC CICS HANDLE CONDITION NOTFND(RECORD-NOT-FOUND) END-EXEC This condition catches the NOTFND condition and transfers control to the REC-NOT.FOUND paragraph in the program. 112 . The error handling logic can be coded in the REC-NOT-FND paragraph.

. On return from the command.. it can be tested by means of DFHRESP as follows. 113 . it contains a return code.. or If xxx=DFHRESP(NORMAL) . Later. If xxx=DFHRESP(NOSPACE) .Alternative to Handle condition • NOHANDLE to specify “no action to be taken for any condition or attention identifier (AID) “ • RESP(xxx) "xxx" is a user-defined full word binary data area..

. • „condition‟ specifies the name of the condition that is to be ignored( no action will be taken) • Syntax : EXEC CICS IGNORE CONDITION ITEMERR LENGERR END-EXEC • This command will not take any actions if the given two error occurs and will pass the control to the next instruction 114 ..IGNORE Condition • IGNORE CONDITION condition .

EXEC CICS HANDLE CONDITION NOT-FND(REC-NOT-FOUND) END EXEC. : EXEC CICS READ DATASET(SAMPLE) RIDFLD(EMP-NO) INTO (EMP-REC) END-EXEC : GO TO LAST-PART 115 .COBOL code with proper handling of errors Procedure Division.Sample program to use Handle condition Here is an example of the CICS.

) REC-NOT-FOUND MOVE „NOT-ON-FILE‟ TO NAMEO ( SYMBOLIC MAP PARAMETER) LAST-PART. EXEC CICS SEND MAP („TC0BM31‟) MAPSET(„TC0BM30‟) FROM („TC0BM310‟) DATA-ONLY END-EXEC 116 ..Sample program to use Handle condition (Contd.

it can restore the Handle command using POP HANDLE. while calling sub-pgms (CALL).PUSH & POP • To suspend all current HANDLE CONDITION. • While returning the control. • Used for eg. HANDLE AID and HANDLE ABEND commands. a sub-program can suspend Handle commands of the called program using PUSH HANDLE. IGNORE CONDITION. 117 . • While receiving the control.

118 . • Syntax of Pop : EXEC CICS Pop Handle END-EXEC.Syntax of Push & Pop • Syntax of Push : EXEC CICS Push Handle END-EXEC.

Id (1 Byte) EIBCALEN Length of DFHCOMMAREA (S9(4) comp) EIBDATE Date when this task started (S9(7) comp-3) EIBFN Function Code of the last command ( 2 Bytes) EIBRCODE Response Code of the last command (6 Bytes) EIBTASKN Task number of this task (S9(7) comp-3) EIBTIME Time when this task started (S9(7) comp-3) EIBTRMID Terminal-Id (1 to 4 chars) EIBTRNID Transaction-Id (1 to 4 chars) 119 .EXEC Interface Block (EIB) • CICS provides some system-related information to each task as EXEC Interface Block (EIB) • Unique to the CICS command level EIBAID Attention.

PGMLANG=COBOL 120 .Processing Program Table .PROGRAM=TEST. DFHPPT TYPE=ENTRY.PPT DFHPPT TYPE=ENTRY PROGRAM |MAPSET= name [PGMLANG= ASM|COBOL|PLI] [RES= NO|FIX|YES] : : other options : Eg.

PCT Entry
DFHPCT TYPE=ENTRY TRANSID= name PROGRAM=name TASKREQ=pf6 RESTART=yes/no ( TRANSEC = 1 to 64) RSLKEY= 1 to 24 resource level key SCTYKEY= 1 to 64 security key : : other options

121

PROGRAM CONTROL
122

Program Control Commands
• LINK • XCTL • RETURN • LOAD • RELEASE

123

LINK • Used to pass control from one application program to another • The calling program expects control to be returned to it • Data can be passed to the called program using COMMAREA • If the called program is not already in main storage it is loaded 124 .

LENGERR 125 . NOTAUTH.LINK Syntax EXEC CICS LINK PROGRAM(name) [COMMAREA(data-area) [LENGTH(data-value)]] END-EXEC. Conditions : PGMIDERR.

XCTL • To transfer control from one application program to another in the same logical level • The program from which control is transferred is released • Data can be passed to the called program using COMMAREA • If the called program is not already in main storage it is loaded 126 .

NOTAUTH. Conditions : PGMIDERR. LENGERR 127 .XCTL Syntax EXEC CICS XCTL PROGRAM(name) [COMMAREA(data-area) [LENGTH(data-value)]] END-EXEC.

RETURN • To return control from one application program to another at a higher logical level or to CICS • Data can be passed using COMMAREA when returning to CICS to the next task 128 .

RETURN Syntax EXEC CICS RETURN [TRANSID(name) [COMMAREA(data-area) [LENGTH(data-value)]]] END-EXEC. LENGERR 129 . Conditions : INVREQ.

CICS PROG A LINK RETURN PROG C LINK RETURN Level 0 Level 1 PROG B XCTL Level 2 Level 3 Application Program Logic Levels PROG D XCTL PROG E RETURN 130 .

LOAD • To load program/table/map from the CICS DFHRPL concatenation library into the main storage • Using load reduces system overhead • Syntax : EXEC CICS Load Program(name) [SET (pointer-ref)] [LENGTH (data-area)] END-EXEC. PGMIDER 131 . Condition : NOTAUTH.

NOTAUTH. INVREQ 132 .RELEASE • To RELEASE a loaded program/table/map • Syntax : EXEC CICS RELEASE PROGRAM(name) END-EXEC. Conditions : PGMIDERR.

COMMAREA • Data passed to called program using COMMAREA in LINK and XCTL • Calling program .Linkage section definition under DFHCOMMAREA • Called program can alter data and this will automatically available in calling program after the RETURN command ( need not use COMMAREA option in the return for this purpose ) • EIBCALEN is set when COMMAREA is passed 133 .Working Storage definition • Called program .

Communication With Databases
134

CICS - DB2
• CICS provides interface to DB2. • DB2 requires “CICS Attachment Facility” to connect itself to CICS • CICS programs can issue commands for SQL services in order to access the DB2 database.
EXEC SQL function [options] END-EXEC

135

Operating system

CICS REGION

DB2

REGION

App. Pgm. EXEC SQL..

CICS Attachment Facility

DB2 Database

DB2 Database access by CICS
136

RCT Entry • The CICS-to-DB2 connection is defined by creating and assembling the resource control table (RCT) • The information in RCT is used to control the interactions between CICS & DB2 resources • DB2 attachment facility provides a macro (DSNCRCT) to generate the RCT. • The RCT must be link-edited into a library that is accessible to MVS 137 .

DB2 - Precompiler
Source Program (EXEC SQL...
| EXEC CICS...) DB2 Precompiler | CICS command translator | Compile By COBOL | Linkedit by Linkage editor | Load Module
138

QUEUES
139

Transient data Control
• Provides application programmer with a queuing facility • Data can be stored/queued for subsequent internal or external processing • Stored data can be routed to symbolic destinations • TDQs require a DCT entry • Identified by Destination id - 1 to 4 bytes

140

Message switching . 141 .TDQs • Intra-partitioned .Create files for subsequent processing by Non-CICS / Batch programs.Broadcasting etc • Extra-partitioned . DASD.Tape.association external to the CICS subsystem. statistics.Logging data.ATI (Automatic Task Initiation) associated with trigger level . transaction error messages . Can associate with any sequential device . Printer etc Typical uses are .association within the same CICS subsystem Typical uses are .

142 .TDQs • Operations Write data to a transient data queue (WRITEQ TD) Read data from a transient data queue (READQ TD) Delete an intra partition transient data queue (DELETEQ TD).

LENGERR. SYSIDERR 143 . NOTAUTH. IOERR. INVREQ. QIDERR. NOTOPEN. NOSPACE.WRITEQ TD • Syntax : EXEC CICS WRITEQ TD QUEUE(name) FROM(data-area) [LENGTH(data-value)] [SYSID(systemname)] END-EXEC. ISCINVREQ. Conditions: DISABLED.

NOTAUTH. IOERR.Data record not available in the queue after the read. QBUSY. NOTOPEN. QZERO. QIDERR. INVREQ. • Syntax : EXEC CICS READQ TD QUEUE(name) {INTO(data-area) | SET(ptr-ref) } [LENGTH(data-value)] [NOSUSPEND] END-EXEC. LENGERR. SYSIDERR 144 . ISCINVREQ. Conditions : DISABLED.READQ TD • Reads the queue destructively .

NOTAUTH. SYSIDERR 145 . QIDERR.DELETEQ TD • Deletes all entries in the queue • Syntax : EXEC CICS DELETEQ TD QUEUE(name) END-EXEC. ISCINVREQ. Conditions: INVREQ.

146 . • DFHDCT is a macro to define intra & extra partition TDQs TYPE=INTRA/EXTRA • REUSE option specified along with intra partition TDQ tells whether the space used by TDQ record will be removed & reused after it has been read.Destination Control Table • DCT is to register the information of all TDQs • Destination Control Program (DCP) uses DCT to identify all TDQs and perform all I/O operations.

Automatic Task Initiation • Facility through which a CICS transaction can be initiated automatically DFHDCT TYPE=INTRA DESTID=MSGS TRANSID=MSW1 TRIGLEV=500 When the number of TDQ records reaches 500. the transaction MSW1 will be initiated automatically • Applications Message switching & Report printing 147 .

1 to 8 bytes .Created and deleted dynamically .No CICS table entry required if recovery not required .Temporary Storage Control • Provides application programmer the ability to store and retrieve data in a TSQ • Application can use the TSQ like a scratch pad • TSQs are .Identified by Queue id .Typically a combination of termid/tranid/operid • Each record in TSQ identified by relative position. called the item number 148 .

Non-recoverable – Auxiliary .Recoverable – TST entry required.TSQs • Operations – Write and Update data – Read data . VSAM file DFHTEMP 149 .Sequential and random – Delete the queue • Access – Across transactions – Across terminals • Storage – Main .

Typical uses • Data passing among transactions • Terminal Paging • Report printing 150 .TSQs .

Conditions : ITEMERR. LENGERR. SYSIDERR. IOERR.WRITEQ TS • Syntax : EXEC CICS WRITEQ TS QUEUE(name) FROM(data-area) [LENGTH(data-value)] [NUMITEMS(data-area) | ITEM(data-area) [REWRITE] ] [MAIN|AUXILIARY] [NOSUSPEND] END-EXEC. NOSPACE. INVREQ. NOTAUTH. ISCINVREQ 151 . QIDERR.

READQ TS • Syntax : EXEC CICS READQ TS QUEUE(name) {INTO(data-area) | SET(ptr-ref) } LENGTH(data-value) [NUMITEMS(data-area)] [ITEM(data-area) | NEXT ] END-EXEC. Conditions : ITEMERR. NOTAUTH. QIDERR. SYSIDERR. IOERR. ISCINVREQ 152 . INVREQ. LENGERR.

SYSIDERR 153 . Conditions: INVREQ.DELETEQ TS • Deletes all entries in the queue • Syntax : EXEC CICS DELETEQ TS QUEUE(name) END-EXEC. ISCINVREQ. NOTAUTH. QIDERR.

INTERVAL & TASK CONTROL 154 .

ASKTIME • Used to obtain current date and time • Syntax : EXEC CICS ASKTIME[ABSTIME(data-area)] END-EXEC. • EIBDATE and EIBTIME updated with current date and time • ABSTIME returns value of time in packed decimal format 155 .

etc..FORMATTIME • Syntax : EXEC CICS FORMATTIME ABSTIME(data-ref) [YYDDD(data-area)] [YYMMDD(data-area)]. Condition: INVREQ 156 ... [TIME(data-area) [TIMESEP[(data-value)]]] END-EXEC... [DATE(data-area) [DATEFORM[(data-area)]]] [DATESEP[(data-value)]] [DAYOFMONTH(data-area)] [MONTHOFYEAR(data-area)] [YEAR(data-area)]..

DELAY • Used to DELAY the processing of a task • The issuing task is suspended for a specified interval or Until the specified time • Syntax : EXEC CICS DELAY INTERVAL(hhmmss) | TIME(hhmmss) END-EXEC Conditions: EXPIRED. INVREQ 157 .

LENGERR.TERMIDERR.START • Used to start a transaction at the specified terminal and at the specified time or interval • Data can be passed to the new transaction • Syntax : EXEC CICS START TRANSID(transid) [TERMID(termid) TIME(hhmmss) | INTERVAL(hhmmss) ] END-EXEC Conditions : INVREQ. TRANSIDERR 158 .

to gain exclusive control over a resource • DNQ .Used to suspend a task • ENQ .Other Interval Control Commands • POST . • SUSPEND . eg.to free the exclusive control from the resource gained by ENQ 159 .to request notification when the specified time has expired.POST and START identified by REQID. • WAIT EVENT .to wait for an event to occur.Used to retrieve the data passed by the START • CANCEL -Used to cancel the Interval Control requests. • RETRIEVE . DELAY.

Recovery & Restart 160 .

in case of the above failures to maintain the system & data integrity. 161 .The Need for Recovery/Restart • The possible failures that can occur outside the CICS system are Communication failures (in online systems) Data set or database failures Application or system program failures Processor failures & Power supply failures. eliminate the damage done to the online system. • Recovery/Restart facilities are required to minimize or if possible.

RECOVERY • An attempt to come back to where the CICS system or the transaction was when the failure occurred • Recoverable Resources VSAM files Intrapartition TDQ TSQ in the auxiliary storage DATA tables Resource definitions & System definition files 162 .

RESTART • To resume the operation of the CICS system or the transaction when the recovery is completed 163 .

Facilities for Recovery/Restart Facilities for CICS Recovery/Restart • • • • • • Dynamic Transaction Backout Automatic Transaction Restart Resource Recovery Using System Log Resource Recovery Using Journal System Restart Extended Recovery Facility (XRF) 164 .

in dynamic log (Set DTB=YES in PCT) 165 . CICS automatically recovers all recoverable resources using the info. backing out the changes made by the transaction while the rest of the CICS system continues normally is called DTB • CICS automatically writes the „before image‟ information of the record into the dynamic log for the duration of one LUW .the work between the two consecutive SYNC points • When an ABEND occurs.Dynamic Transaction Backout (DTB) • When the transaction fails.

LUW & SYNC point • The period between the start of a particular set of changes and the point at which they are complete is called a logical unit of work . • Intermediate SYNC pt.LUW • The end of a logical unit of work is indicated to CICS by a synchronization point (sync pt). can be done by • Syntax : EXEC CICS SYNCPOINT [ROLLBACK] END-EXEC 166 .

LUW .| Task A|---------------------------------------------| SOT EOT-SP |...|.. changes made within the abending LUW will be backed out.LUW....... 167 ..|...| Task B|---------------->--------------->--------------| SOT SP SP EOT-SP When the failure occurs......-LUW.LUWs & SYNC pts |...LUW.........

Automatic Transaction Restart • CICS capability to automatically restart a transaction after all resources are recovered through DTB • If the transaction requires automatic restart facility. set RESTART=YES in PCT • Care should be taken in order to restart the task at the point where DTB completes in the case of intermediate SYNC point 168 .

Program Preparation 169 .

170 .Introduction • Preparing a Program to run in CICS Environment. • Defining the Program in the CICS Region. • Executing the Program.

Program preparation IF DB2 : SOURCE DB2 PRECOMPILER CICS COMPILER COBOL COMPILER LOAD MODULE LINK EDIT 171 .

Preparing a Program CICS requires the following steps to prepare a program • Translating the Program. & • Link the Program. 172 . • Assemble or Compile the Translator Output.

173 .Translation • Translates the „EXEC CICS‟ Statements into the Statements your Language (COBOL) Compiler can Understand. a Program Listing as SYSPRINT and a Translated Source in SYSPUNCH. • The Translator gives two outputs. • If any Copy Books are used in the Program. • The SYSPUNCH is given as the input to the Program Compiler. there should not be any CICS Statements in the Copy Book.

the compiler options can be specified as required. the compilation of the CICS program is the same as language program. 174 .Compiling or Linking • As the CICS Commands have been translated. • Hence.

175 . • This can be done either by using CEDA trans or DFHPPT.Defining the Program • The Application should be defined and installed into the PPT.

CICS Supplied Transactions 176 .

the Userid given in CESN is verified.CESN/CESF Transactions • To sign on to CICS system • CESN [USERID=userid] [.PS=password] [. the previous operator will be signed off 177 . • In RACF.NEWPS=newpassword][. • NEWPS to change the password and LANGUAGE to choose national language • Sign off by CESF which breaks the connection between the user and CICS • If the Sign on is done twice for the same userid at the terminal.LANGUAGE=l] • Userid & password values can be from 1-8 chars.

• Before using the maps in programs. • CECI gives the complete command syntax of the specified command..Command Level Interpreter • To build and test the effect of EXEC CICS commands • CECI ASSIGN is used to get the current userid. terminal id.CECI . • CECI READQ TD QUEUE(TESTL001) will read the current record of the given TDQ 178 . application id etc.sysid. it can be tested using CECI to check how it appears on the screen.

CEMT-Master Terminal Transaction CEMT provides the following services • • • • Displays the status of CICS & system resources Alter the status of CICS & system resources Remove the installed resource definitions Perform few functions that are not related to resources 179 .

CEDF-Execution Diagnostic Facility • To test command level application programs interactively • CEDF [termid/sysid/sessionid] [.OFF] • Termid .To test a transaction across an APPC session 180 .ON/.To test/monitor a transaction attached across an MRO/ISC session • Sysid .the identifier of the terminal on which the transaction to be tested is being run • Sessionid .

pgm given control • Start of execution of each CICS command (auguement values can be changed at this point) • End of execution of each CICS command and before the Handle condition mechanism is invoked (response code values can be changed) • At program termination & at normal task termination • When an ABEND occurs & at abnormal task termination.. after EIB has been initialized and before the app.. • EIB values can be changed.CEDF (Contd.& CEBR can be invoked 181 .) The points at which EDF interrupts execution of the program and sends a display to the terminal • At transaction initialization.

current • PUT to copy the current queue contents into TDQ • GET to fetch TDQ for browsing • PURGE erases the contents of the current queue 182 .CEBR-Temporary Storage Browse • To browse the contents of CICS temporary storage queues (TSQ) • CEBR by default will show the queue associated with the current terminal „CEBRL001‟ which can be overridden to view any other queue • TERM to browse TSQ for another terminal • QUEUE to make the named queue.

Exercise .2 183 .

Thank You 184 .

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