CICS

(Customer Information Control System)
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Table of Contents
• • • • • • • • • • • Introduction to CICS Basic Mapping Support Program Control File Processing Error Handling Queues Interval and Task Control Recovery and Restart Program preparation CICS Supplied Transactions Case Study
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Introduction to CICS
• Customer Information Control System -CICS developed in late 1960s as a DB/DC control system • CICS provides an interface between the Operating System and application programs • Macro Level CICS - initial version Assembler macro to request CICS services • Command Level CICS - high level lang.version - commands to request CICS services - Single command can replace series of macros

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6. 2. Programs and files can‟t be shared Programs are scheduled through jobs O/P printed on paper or in sequential of VSAM or Indexed files Response time: Could be scheduled to be Hours or days 1.Batch & Online : Differences 1. 5. is required in case of failure Programs and files can be shared Transaction can be run at any time O/p displayed on Terminal updated files Response Time: Could be in minutes or second. Usually in seconds 4 . 5. ONLINE SYSTEM Data is entered as needed not in sequence (terminal) Since processing sequence is unpredictable. special recovery/restart proc. 3. 4. 2. 6. 4. 3. BATCH SYSTEM Input data is prepared and given in sequence (file) Processing sequence is predictable and hence restarting the process in case of failure is easy.

CICS & Operating System Operating System CICS Enter Code : User’s App. Files & Database 5 .

DB/DC System Terminals Data Base Central System CICS System Environment & API routines. and Application Programs 6 .

CICS System Services • Data-Communication Functions • Data-Handling Functions • Application Program Services • System Services • Monitoring Functions 7 .

transaction is identified by the transaction identifier (Trans-id) 8 .Task & Transaction • Task :. In CICS.A basic unit of work which is scheduled by the operating system or CICS Ex -Read from and write to the terminal • Transaction :.An entity which initiates execution of a task.

Application Programming Concepts • Pseudo-Conversational • Multitasking • Multithreading • Quasi-Reentrancy 9 .

a significant amount of resource will be wasted just waiting • Pseudo-Conversational. A mode of dialogue between program and terminal which appears to the operator as a continuous conversation but which is actually carried by a series of tasks 10 .Terminal Conversation • Conversational : A mode of dialogue between program and terminal based on a combination of sending message and receiving message within the same task – Since human response is slower than the CPU speed.

Terminal Conversation Example PROCEDURE DIVISION.. : process 11 .SECOND PROCESS... : FIRST-PROCESS.. EXEC CICS RECEIVE ---.12345 END-EXEC. * .<= TSK1.Program Waits For Response ... EXEC CICS RECEIVE ----..<= User Enters Data END-EXEC.. : process EXEC CICS SEND ----.<= EMP(12345) Details END-EXEC.

EXEC CICS RETURN END-EXEC. : EXEC CICS RECEIVE END-EXEC. EXEC CICS RETURN TRANSID („TSK2‟) END-EXEC. : EXEC CICS RECEIVE END-EXEC. 12 . Transaction TSK2 Program PROG2 PROCEDURE DIVISION. : EXEC CICS SEND END-EXEC. : EXEC CICS SEND END-EXEC.Pseudo-Conversation Example Transaction TSK1 Program PROG1 PROCEDURE DIVISION.

Eg.CICS Components • Control Programs (or Management Modules) Programs that interface between OS and app. Task Control Area contains information about the task 13 . pgm Handle the general functions that are crucial to operation of CICS • Control Tables Define the CICS environment Functionally associated with the management module • Control Blocks (or Areas) Contain system type information.

Control Table PPT FCT TCT PCT TST DCT 14 . Storage Table Destin.Mangement Pgms & Ctrl Tables • Programs Program Control File control Terminal Control Task Control Temporary Storage Transient Data Storage Control Interval Control Journal Control • Tables PCP FCP TCP KCP TSP TDP SCP ICP JCP Processing Program Table File Control Table Terminal Control Table Program Control Table Temp.

CICS Program Considerations Considerations: • Must eventually return control to CICS • Can‟t modify procedure division instructions because CICS programs may be shared by many tasks • Can modify working storage since a unique copy of working storage is created for each task 15 .

CLOSE. OPEN. I/O SECTION to be specified in the ENVIRONMENT DIVISION. and non-CICS READ & WRITE statements are not permitted because file management is handled by CICS. GOBACK are avoided. STOP RUN. • COBOL commands such as ACCEPT. (STOP RUN & GOBACK are sometimes included in order to eliminate compiler diagnostic but never executed) 16 . DISPLAY. • FILE SECTION. TRACE.CICS Program Restrictions Restrictions: • No CONFIG. SECTION. EXHIBIT.

SAMPLE. 17 . DATA DIVISION. ENVIRONMENT DIVISION. WORKING-STORAGE SECTION. 05 WS-TRANSID PIC X(4).Sample CICS Program IDENTIFICATION DIVISION. 01 WS-INPUT. PROGRAM-ID. 05 WS-IN-EMP-CD PIC X(4) VALUE ALL „X‟. 05 FILLER PIC X(1).

18 . LINKAGE SECTION. PERFORM 200-SEND-OUTPUT.) 01 WS-OUTPUT. 05 WS-OUT-EMP-CD PIC X(4).Sample Program (Contd. PERFORM 100-RECV-INPUT. CAN Include DFHCOMMAREA if data needs to be communicated between two transactions or multiple iterations of the same transaction. PROCEDURE DIVISION.. 000-MAINLINE. EXEC CICS RETURN END-EXEC. 01 WS-LENGTH PIC S9(4) COMP. 05 FILLER PIC X(16) VALUE „EMP CODE : „.

) 100-RECV-INPUT.Sample Program (Contd.. MOVE WS-IN-EMP-CODE TO WS-OUT-EMP-CODE 200-SEND-OUTPUT. MOVE 9 TO WS-LENGTH. EXEC CICS SEND FROM (WS-OUTPUT) LENGTH (20) ERASE END-EXEC. EXEC CICS RECEIVE INTO (WS-INPUT) LENGTH (WS-LENGTH) END-EXEC. 19 .

CICS Translator The CICS translator converts CICS commands into the COBOL code so that it could be compiled by a Standard Cobol compiler CICS program with CICS Commands COBOL Statements CICS Translator 20 .

Translator • When you compile a CICS/VS program the translator will automatically add many lines of code to your program. which can be seen in the compiled listing 21 .

Basic Mapping Support 22 .

Topics in BMS • Introduction to BMS • Map and Mapset • Physical and Symbolic Map • Map Definition Macros • Screen Manipulation/Handling • Screen Design Considerations • Interfacing with Terminal using a Map 23 .

In order to display formatted screen. CICS provides a facility called Basic Mapping Support (BMS). So if NMDS is used. To remove this device and format dependency from application program. 24 . NMDS is designed for a particular terminal and is thus both device dependent and format dependent. re-coding is required whenever there is change in the terminal device or screen format. 3278) must receive a series of data stream called Native Mode Data Stream (NMDS) based on the hardware protocol. this NMDS is a mixture of Buffer Control Characters (BCCs) and text data.g. formatted screens are used. a terminal (e.Introduction to BMS Introductory concepts In online systems.

. The BMS Macros are coded in the form of Maps.) • Construct NMDS . • BMS macros are available for Map coding.. and Mapsets to define the screen attributes. Titles. and field characteristics. 25 . • Map is a program written in assembly language. screen field positions.Primary Functions of BMS • Removal of device dependent codes from Application Program • Removal of constant information from Application program (Headers.Native Mode Data Stream • Text handling • Terminal Paging & Message routing • Contents of the screen defined thru‟ BMS is called Map.

• Mapset must have a entry in PPT as given below: DFHPPT DFHPPT TYPE=ENTRY.PROGRAM=name Or 26 .MAPSET=name TYPE=ENTRY. • One or more maps. makes up a Mapset (load module).Map and Mapset • Representation of one screen format is called Map (screen panel). link edited together.

Map and Mapset (Contd. To identify the device type 27 . Used in App. – Generic name – Suffix • Multimap Panel • Dynamically constructing a screen panel with multiple maps at the execution time 1..7 chars. 1 char. Program.) • Mapset name has two parts.

MAPSET1 MAPNUM1 Case 2: A mapset consists of several maps. For e.g..Map and Mapset (Contd. For e. MAPSET2 MAPNUM1 MAPNUM2 28 .g.) The concepts of map and mapset can be utilized in two type of cases as given below: Case 1: A mapset consist of a single map.

Types of MAPS There are 2 types of MAPS • Physical Map Physical Map is a map used by CICS (CSECT) Ensure device independence in the application program BMS macro coding ==> Assembly==> Link edit ==> Load module ==> LOADLIB ===> To be used by CICS • Symbolic Map Ensure device and format independence in the application program Symbolic Map is a map used by Application Program (DSECT) BMS macro coding ==> Assembly ==> Symbolic map definition ==> COPYLIB ==> Copied (COPY) into CICS application program. 29 .

Example – Symbolic Map 01 EMPRECI. 30 . 02 FILLER PIC X(03). 02 FILLER PIC X(12). 02 EMPNAO PIC X(21). 02 EMPNAI PIC X(21). 02 EMPNAL PIC S9(4) COMP. 02 FILLER REDEFINES EMPNAF. 02 EMPNAF PIC X. 03 EMPNAA PIC X. 01 EMPRECO REDEFINES EMPRECI. 02 FILLER PIC X(12).

Physical & Symbolic Map .Logic Flow BMS source Assembler Physical MAP Symbolic MAP Linkage editor Load module (MVS) 31 .

The BMS macros are assembled and link-edited into CICS load library to create the physical map. In case of input operations. In case of output operations. the physical map defines the starting position. length. the physical map defines the maximum length.Physical Map • Physical Map. The mapset like any other CICS program is stored in CICS runtime library the PPT(Program Processing Table). field characteristics and the default data for each field and allows BMS to construct an output NMDS. 32 • • . At the program execution time the physical map is being used by CICS to load the screen image. the starting position for each field to be read and allows BMS to interpret an input NMDS.

and is used by the application program to send and receive information from the terminal. The program issues a COBOL COPY statement to include it in the program. • The symbolic map can be used by the CICS application programs to dynamically to alter the field attributes. and highlight . • The symbolic maps represents the actual data structure of the fields defined in the physical map. assembled separately and catalogued into a copy library.Symbolic Map • The symbolic map is coded using the BMS macro. modify screen cursor position. The symbolic map serves as a DSECT for referencing the Terminal Input/Output Area (TIOA). . protect . in the CICS SEND-MAP & RECEIVE MAP commands. unprotect specific fields on the 33 screen.

Map definition Macros General Format Column Number 1 setname operation Example EMPMAP DFHMSD 16 operands 72 contd. STORAGE=AUTO. MODE=INOUT. LANG=COBOL. TIOAPFX=YES X X X X * * ANY COMMENTS 34 . TYPE=MAP.

It is the load module name. OPERATION OPERANDS CONTD : : : Comments : 35 . Macro identifier. Current line can be continued by leaving this column non-blank (usually X) and the next line have to be started in 16th column. ‘*’ in column 1 makes the line comment. Used in CICS command to read or write one of the maps in the mapset..) Explanations: SETNAME : Name of the mapset.Map definition Macros (Contd. Mapset/Map/Field definition. Optional key words (parameters) separated by comma.

.) INITIAL VALUES Escape Chars : : Always surround initial values by single quote marks ‘ and & 36 .Map definition Macros (Contd.

Order of Macros DFHMSD TYPE=DSECT DFHMDI DFHMDF DFHMDF : DFHMDI DFHMDF DFHMDF : DFHMSD TYPE=FINAL END Mapset Map A field A field Map A field A field Mapset 37 .

Example: TSTMSET X DFHMSD TYPE=&SYSPARM. LANG=COBOL. X X CNTL=(FREEKB. and they're loaded together at execution time. TIOAPFX=YES. Only one mapset is allowed in one assembly run.FRSET. MODE=INOUT.DFHMSD Macro The DFHMSD macro is used to define a mapset (TYPE=MAP) and its characteristics or to end a mapset definition (TYPE=FINAL).PRINT) 38 . All the maps in a map set get assembled together. X X STORAGE=AUTO.

) Options TYPE= DSECT MAP &SYSPARM FINAL MODE= IN OUT INOUT To define the map type For symbolic map For physical map For special assembly procedure To indicate the end of a mapset coding To indicate input/output operations For an input map only For an output map only For maps involving both input and output..DFHMSD Macro (Contd. 39 .

) STORAGE = AUTO To acquire a separate symbolic map area for each mapset BASE To have the same storage base for the symbolic maps of from more than one mapset TIOAPFX= YES To reserve the prefix space (12 bytes) for BMS commands to access TIOA properly.DFHMSD Macro (Contd. 40 .. Required for the CICS command level.

DFHMSD Macro (Contd..)
CNTL=
FREEKB FRSET ALARM PRINT

To define the device control requests To unlock the keyboard To reset MDT to zero status To set an alarm at screen display time To indicate the mapset to be sent to the printer
This ensures device independence, required if other than 3270 terminal is being used To specify the user provided suffix number. This must correspond to the TCT parameter.

TERM=type

SUFFIX=nn

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DFHMDI Macro
Defines a map and its characteristics Example EMPMAP DFHMDI SIZE=(ll,cc), X LINE=nn, X COLUMN=mm, X JUSTIFY=LEFT/RIGHT Options SIZE=(ll,cc) To define the size of the map by the line size (ll) and the column size (cc). Useful when the screen contains. LINE Indicates the starting line number of the map. COLUMN Indicates the starting column number of the map. JUSTIFY To specify the entire map (map fields) is to be left or right justified.
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DFHMDF Macro
The DFHMDF macro is used to define a field in a map and its characteristics. This is the position on the screen where the field should appear. It's the position relative to the beginning of the map. Field starts with its attribute byte, so if POS=(1,1) is coded, then the attribute byte for that field is on line 1 in column 1, and the actual data starts in column 2. The length of the field (not counting the attribute byte) is specified. Literals can be specified within quotes; these character data is for an output field. It is used to define labels and titles for the screen and keep them independent of the program.

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Sample Screen layout The above defines the screen layout as given below: ITEM NUMBER :&nnnnnnnn Where „&‟ Is the Attribute character „n‟ Is unprotected numeric „_„ Is Cursor 44 .

JUSTIFY=RIGHT. LENGTH=8 X X X X X X X X 45 . ATTRB=(UNPROT. PICOUT=„9(8)‟.NUM. INITIAL=„Customer No.cc). ATTRB=ASKIP.cc).IC). :‟. PICIN=„9(8)‟. LENGTH=14 CUSTNO DFHMDF POS=(ll.FSET.DFHMDF Macro For The Above Layout Define a field and its characteristics Example DFHMDF POS(ll.

Only numbers (0 to 9) and special characters (“.” and “-“) are allowed. ASKIP Autoskip. Data cannot be entered in this field. Data cannot be entered into this field. NUM Numeric field. PROT Protected field. UNPROT Unprotected field. which precedes a screen field and determines the characteristics of a field. If data is entered. The cursor skips to the next field. 46 . Data can be entered and this is used for all input fields. it will cause the input-inhibit status.Attribute character Function: The attribute character is an invisible 1-byte character.

NORM Normal display. In case. Insert cursor. the cursor is placed in the last field. The cursor will be positioned in this field. IC is specified more than once.Attribute character (Contd. FSET Field set. MDT is set on so that the field data is to be sent from the terminal to the host computer regardless of whether the field is actually modified by the user.. 47 .) BRT Bright display of a field (highlight). DRK IC Dark display.

If it is off (0). 1. the data of the field will be sent by the terminal hardware to the host computer. An effective use of MDT drastically reduces the amount of data traffic in the communication line and thus improves performance. Terminal user modifies a field on the screen. it indicates that the terminal operator has not modified the field. it is automatically set to “1” (on) by the terminal hardware. 48 . If it is on (1). Three ways of setting and resetting the MDT.Modified Data Tag Function: Modified Data Tag (MDT) is a one bit of the attribute character. it indicates that the operator has modified this field. Only when MDT is on.

. not modified for all the fields of the mapset or the map. when the mapset or the map is sent to the terminal. If FSET is specified in the ATTRB parameter of the DFHMDF macro for a field. when the map is sent to the terminal. 3. If CNTL=FRSET is specified in the DFHMSD or DFHMDI macro.) 2. MDT will be reset to “0” (off) i.e. 49 . (on i. modified) for the field regardless of whether the field has been modified by the terminal user.Modified Data Tag (Contd. MDT will be set to “1”.e.

LENGTH=1 • To skip the cursor to the next unprotected field after one unprotected field.ATTRB=ASKIP.Skipper Technique • Unlabelled 1-byte field with the autoskip attribute • DFHMDF POS(ll. • Screen Layout : &xxxxx&$ &xx where $ Skipper field & Attribute byte X Unprotected field 50 .cc).

• Screen Layout : &xxxxx&$#&$ where # Stopper field 51 .Stopper Technique • Unlabelled 1-byte field with the protect attribute • DFHMDF POS(ll.cc).LENGTH=1 • To stop the cursor in order to prevent erroneous field overflow by terminal user.ATTRB=PROT.

• Next is the definition of FILLER PIC X(12). the COBOL COPY statement can be used to include it in the application program.Format Of the Symbolic Map Format of Symbolic Map • Once the symbolic map is assembled and is placed in the COPY library. • The symbolic map starts with the 01 level definition of the map name specified in the DFHMDI macro with the suffix ‘I’ for the input map and the suffix ‘O’ for the output map. which is the TIOA prefix created by the TIOAPFX=YES of the DFHMSD macro. 52 . this is required by the BMS under the CICS command level.

. the actual number of characters typed in the field will be placed by the BMS when the map is received. For the output field. 53 . BMS creates three fields for inputs and three fields for outputs. by placing one character suffix to the original field name. this is used for the dynamic cursor positioning. For the input field.) For each field name (1 to 7 characters) specified in the DFHMDF macro.Format Of the Symbolic Map (Contd. The meaning of these fields are given below: • Name + L: The half-word binary (PIC S9(4) COMP) field.

For the input field. it will be X’80’ if the field has been modified but no data is sent (i.. • Name + O: The output data field. the field has been cleared).) • Name + F: Flag Byte. 54 . The Attribute byte for both input and output • Name + I: The input data field. The application program should differentiate X’00’ from space (X’40’). Otherwise this field is X’00’. X’00’ will be placed if no data is entered.Format Of the Symbolic Map (Contd. Note that space X’40’ is data.e. • Name + A: fields.

Example Of Symbolic Map 01 EMPRECI. 02 FILLER PIC X(03). 55 . 02 EMPNAL PIC S9(4) COMP. 02 EMPNAF PIC X. 02 EMPNAI PIC X(21). 03 EMPNAA PIC X. 02 FILLER PIC X(12). 02 FILLER REDEFINES EMPNAF. 02 FILLER PIC X(12). 01 EMPRECO REDEFINES EMPRECI. 02 EMPNAO PIC X(21).

ATTRB=(UNPROT. • Static positioning (Achieved thru Map definition ATTRIB=IC).FSET. Example : DFHMDF POS=(5.8).Cursor Positioning Techniques CICS provides multiple ways of to specify where to position the cursor on the screen.IC). or to point to an error which has occurred during editing the user entries.LENGTH=10 56 . The cursor positioning is important to prompt an user of an entry he has to make.

. fieldname + L) for the field where the cursor is to be placed. The SEND MAP command must be issued with the CURSOR option (without value). Also. the mapset should be coded with MODE=INOUT in the DFHMSD macro. This approach is very useful when the cursor is to be placed at the field where data entry error has been detected by the data edit routine. 57 . The cursor is placed dynamically through an application program by moving -1 to the symbolic map field-length field (i.) • Dynamic/Symbolic Positioning.Cursor Positioning Techniques (Contd.e.

WORKING-STORAGE SECTION. 58 . 05 FIELD1F PIC X. 05 FIELD1L PIC X(5).) Example Of Dynamic Cursor Positioning.Cursor Positioning Techniques (Contd. : COPY MAPSET1 01 MAPSET1I 05 FILLER PIC X(6). 05 FIELD1I PIC X..

: MOVE –1 TO FIELDL. EXEC CICS SEND MAP(‘MAP1’) MAPSET(‘MAPSET1’) CURSOR ERASE END-EXEC. The cursor will be placed at FIELD1 field of the map during execution.Cursor Positioning Techniques (Contd. 59 ..) PROCEDURE DIVISION.

overriding the static cursor position defined at the map definition time. the map will be displayed with the cursor placed at the specified position. At the completion of the SEND MAP command.. 60 .Cursor Positioning Techniques (Contd.) Dynamic/Relative Positioning (application program) The cursor is placed dynamically through an application program using the CURSOR(data-value) option in the SEND MAP command with the value of the relative position (starting from zero) of the terminal.

.) Example EXEC CICS SEND MAP(„MAP1‟) MAPSET(„MAPSET1‟) CURSOR(100) ERASE END-EXEC.Cursor Positioning Techniques (Contd. The cursor will be placed at FIELD1 field of the map MAP1 during execution. 61 .

and sends to the terminal. Map Receiving Function – using the input NDMS from the terminal. These operations are performed by a set of CICS commands for BMS. the corresponding physical map. 2. Text Handling Function – BMS prepares text without using a map and sends to the terminal. . 3. BMS prepares data in the symbolic map through the corresponding physical map. 62 1.Interfacing with a Terminal using a Map The BMS maps are used in the application programs for the actual terminal input/output operation. The following are the three basic functions performed by CICS commands: Map Sending function – using the data in the symbolic map. BMS prepares the output NMDS.

.) Flow of Information from 3270 Terminal and the Application Program. Application Program Send Map Command Symbolic Map BMS Output NDMS Terminal Physical Map Data Entry Application Program Receive Map Command Symbolic Map BMS Input NDMS Terminal 63 .Interfacing with a Terminal using a Map (Contd.

) The following are the available commands: • RECEIVE MAP • SEND MAP • SEND CONTROL • SEND TEXT • SEND PAGE : : : : : To receive a map To send a map To send a control function to the terminal To send a text To send the accumulated text or maps as a logical message 64 ..Interfacing with a Terminal using a Map (Contd.

Receive Map Command RECEIVE MAP Command is used to receive input from a terminal. typed in the screen field. the symbolic map will contain valid data from the terminal in the following three fields as per each field defined by the DFHMDF macro: Field name + L : The length field. At the completion of the command. : The Flag Byte which is normally X‟00‟. : The actual input data field. It will be X‟80‟ if the field has been modified but cleared. X‟00‟ will be placed if no data is entered. Field name + F Field name + I 65 . which contains the actual number of characters.

) Syntax: EXEC CICS RECEIVE MAP (MAPNAME) MAPSET(MAPSETNAME) [ SET(POINTER)| INTO(DATANAME) ] [ LENGTH(MSG-LEN)] [ HANDLE | NOHANDLE ] [ RESP() ] END-EXEC.. MAPFAIL 66 . • Conditions: INVREQ.Receive Map Command (Contd.

. MAPSET specified the name of the MAPSET defined thru DFHMSD command which includes the MAP. INTO is used to specify the area in the working storage section to which the data from the terminal is to be placed.Receive Map Command (Contd. which describes the screen details.) MAP specified the name of the MAP defined thru DFHMDI command . SET is used when the address pointer is to be set to the address of the symbolic map (by CICS) so that the application program can directly refer to the record without moving the record content into the working storage area defined in the program. 67 .

68 . HANDLE is used to transfer control to the procedure label specified if the exceptional condition specified occurs. It occurs when the following keys are pressed in response to the RECEIVE MAP command: CLEAR or Attention Keys & ENTER or PF keys without entering data. Conditions : INVMPSZ . INVREQR .) RESP will be used by CICS to place a response code at a completion of the command.. LENGERR. MAPFAIL MAPFAIL is set when the data being mapped has a length of zero.Receive Map Command (Contd. NOHANDLE will cause no action to be taken for any exceptional condition occurring during execution of the CICS command.

Name + O: The actual output data field. Before issuing this command. where the application program places the data. which has the following three fields per each field defined by the DFHMDF macro: Name + L: The length field.SEND MAP Command The SEND MAP command is used to send formatted output to a terminal. Application program will use it for dynamic cursor positioning. for which the application program need not prepare except when used for the dynamic cursor positioning. the application program must prepare the data in the symbolic map of the map to be sent. 69 . Name + A: The Attribute byte for output fields.

[ FRSET ] .LENGERR 70 . [ CURSOR(VALUE) ]. [DATAONLY] | MAPONLY]. • Conditions : INVREQ.SEND MAP Command (Contd. [ FREEKB ] . [ RESP (DATANAME) ] END-EXEC..) EXEC CICS SEND MAP(MAP1) MAPSET(MAPSET1) ] [FROM(DATANAME) ]. [ ERASE ] . [ HANDLE | NOHANDLE ] .

which describes the screen details. MAPSET specified the name of the MAPSET defined thru DFHMSD command which includes the MAP.. The constants in the map are not sent. DATAONLY is used when only the data from the program is to be sent to the screen.SEND MAP Command (Contd. 71 . MAPONLY is used when no data from your program is to be merged into the map.) MAP specified the name of the MAP defined thru DFHMDI command .

72 ..SEND MAP Command (Contd.) FROM is used to specify the area in the working storage section from which the data is to be sent to the terminal.

73 . Once the screen appears. CICS application program needs to trap the attention identifier keys and process various functions related to the AID keys. Salient Points • PF keys. the AID (Attention Identifier ) Keys are being used to send the information back from the terminal to CICS to application program. recently used AID key.AID KEYS First time when a transaction is initiated the application program throws the screen image on the terminal thru SEND MAP command. ENTER & CLEAR key • EIBAID in the CICS Executive Interface Block contains. PA keys.

AID KEYS (Contd.) • DFHAID – CICS System copybook which stores the values of the EIBAID field for the various AID keys. Program compares EIBAID to the DFHAID field and performs processing logic as per the AID key pressed. Flow : User hits AID key – Control goes to CICS – To Application program.. EIBAID contains information about the last AID key pressed. Syntax : EXEC CICS HANDLE AID Option (label) END-EXEC Conditions : INVREQ 74 . • HANDLE AID establish the routines that are to be invoked when the aid is detected by a RECEIVE MAP command.

75 . • Screen title and field descriptions should be self-explanatory. Instructions should be concise. • Screen id should be placed at the top right corner of a screen. This helps at problem determination time.Screen Design Considerations Functional Screen Design • Screen layout should be similar to source where terminal users enter data.

. sequence numbers helps. Preferably the last few lines can be used for the error messages. the field contact information can be split into contact numbers. • Error messages should be provided. email ids and postal address.Screen Design Considerations (Contd.g. 76 .) • Large fields can be broken into a number of small fields. E. • In case of repeated fields or group of fields.

defaults values are assigned according to the field. • Default values in fields helps in reducing keystrokes by the users. Also. in case the user forgets to enter a field data. This enables users to identify the erroneous field easily. • Calculations should be done by program and not by users.Screen Design Considerations User-Friendly Screen Design • Screens should be simple and friendly. • The cursors should be placed in the appropriate fields. Using a different colour or blinking the error field can achieve this. 77 . • Highlight the error field.

Using an attention key for a help menu. • Provide help on fields and their meanings. • Provide suitable help messages for erroneous entries..) • Alarm sound can be used for error entries. • Proper use of indentations. The help message should be instructive and kind and should not be rude. and lines makes a screen look good. makes a screen user-friendly. which has details on each field. spaces. Artistic Screen Design • A simple screen layout is always preferred. 78 .Screen Design Considerations (Contd.

• Skipper/Stopper techniques can be used at appropriate places. Considerations for Human Errors • Important and useful fields can be placed at the top part of the screen..Screen Design Considerations (Contd. • Protected fields should be skipped automatically.) • Colour can help in improving the screen design. This reduces manual skipping and is preferred. however the colour used should be in accordance with the norms and standards followed. • Related fields can be grouped together. 79 .

1 80 .Exercise .

CICS File Processing Techniques 81 .

Reading a file sequentially Reading a Key Sequenced file randomly Reading a file sequentially starting from a specific point.CICS VS FILE PROCESSING File handling in CICS is achieved thru a set of file handling commands. File Specific functions to be performed are the following. Defining a specific file to the CICS system. It is essential to know the various file handling commands for application programming. Reading and Updating a record Deleting a Record. Handle any errors that occur during file processing • • • • • • • 82 .

83 . and the Input – Output Section. Application programs do not need The FD Section. CICS has a list of all the files it is allowed To access.CICS VS FILE PROCESSING Instead. Files do not need to exclusively defined in Application programs. It goes through the FCT and makes all the files available. When CICS/VS is closed down it closes all the files. before being used in the program. Application program directly Refer to filenames in EXEC CICS Command. The files do not need to opened and closed in a CICS application program . This list is called the FILE CONTROL TABLE (FCT) and is maintained by the systems programmers When CICS/VS is started up.

84 .key) END-EXEC.CICS COBOL V/S COBOL BATCH COBOL CICS COBOL EXEC CICS READ DATASET (‘FILE IDENTIFIER) INTO (RECORD NAME) RID-FLD (record-key) END-EXEC. READ DATAFILE INTO REC-AREA AT END MOVE ‘Y’ TO EOF-FLAG Replaced by WRITE RECORD-NAME FROM RECORD-AREA Replaced by EXEC CICS WRITE DATASET (‘File identifier’) FROM (Record-Name) RID-FLD (Record.

VSAM Different types of VSAM Datasets used in CICS are : • ESDS • KSDS • RRDS Entry Sequenced Dataset Key Sequenced Dataset Relative Record Dataset 85 .

Modifying an Existing Record.Services Provided By CICS • Basic Operations required for a file are Adding a Record. • In Addition. (Record Level Locking). CICS Provides Exclusive Control. Opening and closing Files. Data Independence. Deleting an Existing Record. Browsing One or Selected or All Records. Journaling. 86 .

88 . etc. permissible file service request. • FCT will contain all the Information about a file (like dataset name.) • Defining files can be done either by CEDA Transaction or DFHFCT Macro. access methods.Defining A File in CICS • Files should be defined in FCT (File Control Table).

DELETE. SERVRQ=(ADD.READ.BROWSE. DATASETNAME=NAME.UPDATE).ACCMETH=VSAM.OPENED) 89 .Syntax of DFHFCT Macro DFHFCT TYPE=FILE. FILSTAT=(ENABLED.

• Program should not open or close a File. updated or deleted. • Records can be inserted. • Records can be written in any order. A number of records can be added at a time.File Handling in Programs • Files should not be defined in the Program. 90 .

Working-Storage Area defined in the program where the CICS Puts/Gets the Data.Contains the return code of the executed command. • LENGTH :.Contains the Record Key.Important Key-Words • Dataset/File :.Name in the FCT. • RESP :.Length of the Record to be Retrieved or Written. • Into/From (WS-Rec) :. • RIDFLD :. 91 .

IOERR.Random READ EXEC CICS READ File(filename) [SET() | Into()] RIdfld(Rec-Key) END-EXEC. NOTOPEN. NOTFND. 92 . DUPKEY. Condition: DISABLED. LENGERR.

93 .Example for Random Read EXEC CICS READ File( 'INVMAS ') Into(WS-INVMAS-REC) Length(WS-INVMAS-LEN) RIdfld('7135950602') | RIdfld(WS-INVMAS-KEY) END-EXEC.

• Next and Previous Records can be Read as required Using ReadNext and ReadPrev.Sequential Read • Sequential Read is done by Browse Oper. Records cannot be Updated. • During Browse Operation. • Establish the pointer to the First Record to be Read Using StartBr. 94 . • End the Browse Operation at last. • Browse can be re-positioned.

95 . IOERR.Syntax for STARTBR EXEC CICS STARTBR FILE(filename) RIDFLD(data-area) END-EXEC. NOTOPEN. NOTFND. Condition : DISABLED.

96 .Reading the Record after STARTBR • Sequentially the Next or Previous Record can be read by a READNEXT or READPREV. • The first READNEXT or READPREV will read the Record where the STARTBR has positioned the File Pointer.

Condition : DUPKEY. IOERR. NOTFND.Syntax of READNext/READPrev EXEC CICS READNext | READPrev FILE(name) INTO(data-area)|SET(ptr-ref) RIDFLD(data-area) END-EXEC. ENDFILE. 97 . LENGERR.

Condition: INVREQ 98 .ENDBRowse • ENDBRowse terminates a Previously issued STARTBR. • SYNTAX : EXEC CICS ENDBR FILE(filename) END-EXEC.

• Syntax : EXEC CICS RESETBR FILE(filename) RIDFLD(data-area) END-EXEC. NOTFND. Condition: IOERR.RESETBR • Its effect is the same as ENDBR and then giving another STARTBR. 99 .

• For KSDS. The record will be written depending on the Key.WRITE Command • Adds a new record into the File. 100 . RBA value is returned and Record will be written at the end of the File. RIDFLD should be the Record Key. RIDFLD is not used but after write execution. • MASSINSERTion must be done in ascending order of the Key. • For ESDS.

Condition: DISABLED. DUPREC. IOERR.Syntax for WRITE EXEC CICS WRITE FILE(filename) FROM(data-area) RIDFLD(data-area) END-EXEC. NOTOPEN. NOSPACE. 101 . LENGERR.

102 .REWRITE Command • Updates a Record which is Previously Read with UPDATE Option. • REWRITE automatically UNLOCKs the Record after execution.

LENGERR. IOERR. Condition: DUPREC.Syntax for REWRITE EXEC CICS REWRITE FILE(filename) FROM(data-area) END-EXEC. NOSPACE. 103 .

RIDFLD with the full key in it 2. 104 . • Multiple Records Delete is possible using Generic Option. The record read with READ with UPDATE will be deleted.DELETE Command • Deletes a Record from a dataset. • Record can be deleted in two ways. 1.

DUPKEY. 105 . NOTOPEN. IOERR. Optional Condition: DISABLED.Syntax of DELETE EXEC CICS DELETE FILE(filename) RIDFLD(data-area) END-EXEC. NOTFND.

• Syntax : EXEC CICS UNLOCK FILE(filename) : [other options] END-EXEC. 106 . NOTOPEN. IOERR.UNLOCK • To Release the Record which has been locked by READ with UPDATE Command. Condition: DISABLED.

General Exceptions • The following exceptions usually will occur for ALL CICS file handling commands. SYSIDERR. INVREQ 107 . FILENOTFOUND. NOTAUTH.

CICS Error Handling Procedures 108 .

generation parameters and JCL • Errors related to hardware or other system conditions beyond the control of an application program. • Conditions caused by user errors and input data errors. • Conditions caused by omissions or errors in the application code. 109 . • Errors caused by mismatches between applications and CICS tables.Error Handling in CICS Possible Errors: • Conditions that aren't normal from CICS's point of view but that are expected in the program.

System will terminate or suspend the task depends on the exceptional condition occurred 110 .Error Handling methods When the error (exceptional conditions) occur. the program can do any of the following • Take no action & let the program continue . following the command that has failed to execute. • Rely on the system default action . A return code is set in EIBRESP and EIBRCODE.Control goes to a label in the program defined earlier by a HANDLE CONDITION command. This state occurs „cause of NO HANDLE /RESP/IGNORE conditions • Pass control to a specified label .Control returns to the next inst.

.Error Handling methods (Contd. 'condition' specifies the name of the condition.) • HANDLE CONDITION condition[(label)]. and 'label' specifies the location within the program to be branched • Remains active while the program is executing or until it encounters IGNORE/another HANDLE condition. all the other Errors together... • Syntax : EXEC CICS HANDLE CONDITION ERROR(ERRHANDL) LENGERR(LENGRTN) END-EXEC This example handles DUPREC condition separately. LENGERR will be handled by system 111 .

HANDLE Condition Example of Handle condition: EXEC CICS HANDLE CONDITION NOTFND(RECORD-NOT-FOUND) END-EXEC This condition catches the NOTFND condition and transfers control to the REC-NOT.FOUND paragraph in the program. The error handling logic can be coded in the REC-NOT-FND paragraph. 112 .

Later.... it can be tested by means of DFHRESP as follows. If xxx=DFHRESP(NOSPACE) . or If xxx=DFHRESP(NORMAL) .. On return from the command. 113 .Alternative to Handle condition • NOHANDLE to specify “no action to be taken for any condition or attention identifier (AID) “ • RESP(xxx) "xxx" is a user-defined full word binary data area. it contains a return code.

• „condition‟ specifies the name of the condition that is to be ignored( no action will be taken) • Syntax : EXEC CICS IGNORE CONDITION ITEMERR LENGERR END-EXEC • This command will not take any actions if the given two error occurs and will pass the control to the next instruction 114 .IGNORE Condition • IGNORE CONDITION condition ...

EXEC CICS HANDLE CONDITION NOT-FND(REC-NOT-FOUND) END EXEC.Sample program to use Handle condition Here is an example of the CICS.COBOL code with proper handling of errors Procedure Division. : EXEC CICS READ DATASET(SAMPLE) RIDFLD(EMP-NO) INTO (EMP-REC) END-EXEC : GO TO LAST-PART 115 .

. EXEC CICS SEND MAP („TC0BM31‟) MAPSET(„TC0BM30‟) FROM („TC0BM310‟) DATA-ONLY END-EXEC 116 .Sample program to use Handle condition (Contd.) REC-NOT-FOUND MOVE „NOT-ON-FILE‟ TO NAMEO ( SYMBOLIC MAP PARAMETER) LAST-PART.

PUSH & POP • To suspend all current HANDLE CONDITION. 117 . it can restore the Handle command using POP HANDLE. • While receiving the control. a sub-program can suspend Handle commands of the called program using PUSH HANDLE. • Used for eg. while calling sub-pgms (CALL). IGNORE CONDITION. • While returning the control. HANDLE AID and HANDLE ABEND commands.

118 .Syntax of Push & Pop • Syntax of Push : EXEC CICS Push Handle END-EXEC. • Syntax of Pop : EXEC CICS Pop Handle END-EXEC.

EXEC Interface Block (EIB) • CICS provides some system-related information to each task as EXEC Interface Block (EIB) • Unique to the CICS command level EIBAID Attention.Id (1 Byte) EIBCALEN Length of DFHCOMMAREA (S9(4) comp) EIBDATE Date when this task started (S9(7) comp-3) EIBFN Function Code of the last command ( 2 Bytes) EIBRCODE Response Code of the last command (6 Bytes) EIBTASKN Task number of this task (S9(7) comp-3) EIBTIME Time when this task started (S9(7) comp-3) EIBTRMID Terminal-Id (1 to 4 chars) EIBTRNID Transaction-Id (1 to 4 chars) 119 .

PGMLANG=COBOL 120 .Processing Program Table .PPT DFHPPT TYPE=ENTRY PROGRAM |MAPSET= name [PGMLANG= ASM|COBOL|PLI] [RES= NO|FIX|YES] : : other options : Eg. DFHPPT TYPE=ENTRY.PROGRAM=TEST.

PCT Entry
DFHPCT TYPE=ENTRY TRANSID= name PROGRAM=name TASKREQ=pf6 RESTART=yes/no ( TRANSEC = 1 to 64) RSLKEY= 1 to 24 resource level key SCTYKEY= 1 to 64 security key : : other options

121

PROGRAM CONTROL
122

Program Control Commands
• LINK • XCTL • RETURN • LOAD • RELEASE

123

LINK • Used to pass control from one application program to another • The calling program expects control to be returned to it • Data can be passed to the called program using COMMAREA • If the called program is not already in main storage it is loaded 124 .

LINK Syntax EXEC CICS LINK PROGRAM(name) [COMMAREA(data-area) [LENGTH(data-value)]] END-EXEC. NOTAUTH. LENGERR 125 . Conditions : PGMIDERR.

XCTL • To transfer control from one application program to another in the same logical level • The program from which control is transferred is released • Data can be passed to the called program using COMMAREA • If the called program is not already in main storage it is loaded 126 .

LENGERR 127 .XCTL Syntax EXEC CICS XCTL PROGRAM(name) [COMMAREA(data-area) [LENGTH(data-value)]] END-EXEC. Conditions : PGMIDERR. NOTAUTH.

RETURN • To return control from one application program to another at a higher logical level or to CICS • Data can be passed using COMMAREA when returning to CICS to the next task 128 .

Conditions : INVREQ. LENGERR 129 .RETURN Syntax EXEC CICS RETURN [TRANSID(name) [COMMAREA(data-area) [LENGTH(data-value)]]] END-EXEC.

CICS PROG A LINK RETURN PROG C LINK RETURN Level 0 Level 1 PROG B XCTL Level 2 Level 3 Application Program Logic Levels PROG D XCTL PROG E RETURN 130 .

PGMIDER 131 .LOAD • To load program/table/map from the CICS DFHRPL concatenation library into the main storage • Using load reduces system overhead • Syntax : EXEC CICS Load Program(name) [SET (pointer-ref)] [LENGTH (data-area)] END-EXEC. Condition : NOTAUTH.

NOTAUTH. INVREQ 132 .RELEASE • To RELEASE a loaded program/table/map • Syntax : EXEC CICS RELEASE PROGRAM(name) END-EXEC. Conditions : PGMIDERR.

Working Storage definition • Called program .COMMAREA • Data passed to called program using COMMAREA in LINK and XCTL • Calling program .Linkage section definition under DFHCOMMAREA • Called program can alter data and this will automatically available in calling program after the RETURN command ( need not use COMMAREA option in the return for this purpose ) • EIBCALEN is set when COMMAREA is passed 133 .

Communication With Databases
134

CICS - DB2
• CICS provides interface to DB2. • DB2 requires “CICS Attachment Facility” to connect itself to CICS • CICS programs can issue commands for SQL services in order to access the DB2 database.
EXEC SQL function [options] END-EXEC

135

Operating system

CICS REGION

DB2

REGION

App. Pgm. EXEC SQL..

CICS Attachment Facility

DB2 Database

DB2 Database access by CICS
136

• The RCT must be link-edited into a library that is accessible to MVS 137 .RCT Entry • The CICS-to-DB2 connection is defined by creating and assembling the resource control table (RCT) • The information in RCT is used to control the interactions between CICS & DB2 resources • DB2 attachment facility provides a macro (DSNCRCT) to generate the RCT.

DB2 - Precompiler
Source Program (EXEC SQL...
| EXEC CICS...) DB2 Precompiler | CICS command translator | Compile By COBOL | Linkedit by Linkage editor | Load Module
138

QUEUES
139

Transient data Control
• Provides application programmer with a queuing facility • Data can be stored/queued for subsequent internal or external processing • Stored data can be routed to symbolic destinations • TDQs require a DCT entry • Identified by Destination id - 1 to 4 bytes

140

association within the same CICS subsystem Typical uses are . statistics. Printer etc Typical uses are . transaction error messages .association external to the CICS subsystem. 141 .Tape.ATI (Automatic Task Initiation) associated with trigger level .Message switching .Create files for subsequent processing by Non-CICS / Batch programs.Logging data. Can associate with any sequential device .Broadcasting etc • Extra-partitioned .TDQs • Intra-partitioned . DASD.

142 .TDQs • Operations Write data to a transient data queue (WRITEQ TD) Read data from a transient data queue (READQ TD) Delete an intra partition transient data queue (DELETEQ TD).

SYSIDERR 143 . LENGERR. INVREQ. NOTOPEN. ISCINVREQ. NOTAUTH.WRITEQ TD • Syntax : EXEC CICS WRITEQ TD QUEUE(name) FROM(data-area) [LENGTH(data-value)] [SYSID(systemname)] END-EXEC. NOSPACE. Conditions: DISABLED. IOERR. QIDERR.

• Syntax : EXEC CICS READQ TD QUEUE(name) {INTO(data-area) | SET(ptr-ref) } [LENGTH(data-value)] [NOSUSPEND] END-EXEC. LENGERR. ISCINVREQ. NOTOPEN. SYSIDERR 144 .Data record not available in the queue after the read. QBUSY. IOERR. QZERO.READQ TD • Reads the queue destructively . INVREQ. QIDERR. Conditions : DISABLED. NOTAUTH.

NOTAUTH. Conditions: INVREQ.DELETEQ TD • Deletes all entries in the queue • Syntax : EXEC CICS DELETEQ TD QUEUE(name) END-EXEC. SYSIDERR 145 . ISCINVREQ. QIDERR.

146 . • DFHDCT is a macro to define intra & extra partition TDQs TYPE=INTRA/EXTRA • REUSE option specified along with intra partition TDQ tells whether the space used by TDQ record will be removed & reused after it has been read.Destination Control Table • DCT is to register the information of all TDQs • Destination Control Program (DCP) uses DCT to identify all TDQs and perform all I/O operations.

the transaction MSW1 will be initiated automatically • Applications Message switching & Report printing 147 .Automatic Task Initiation • Facility through which a CICS transaction can be initiated automatically DFHDCT TYPE=INTRA DESTID=MSGS TRANSID=MSW1 TRIGLEV=500 When the number of TDQ records reaches 500.

No CICS table entry required if recovery not required .Temporary Storage Control • Provides application programmer the ability to store and retrieve data in a TSQ • Application can use the TSQ like a scratch pad • TSQs are .Typically a combination of termid/tranid/operid • Each record in TSQ identified by relative position.Identified by Queue id .Created and deleted dynamically .1 to 8 bytes . called the item number 148 .

TSQs • Operations – Write and Update data – Read data .Non-recoverable – Auxiliary . VSAM file DFHTEMP 149 .Sequential and random – Delete the queue • Access – Across transactions – Across terminals • Storage – Main .Recoverable – TST entry required.

Typical uses • Data passing among transactions • Terminal Paging • Report printing 150 .TSQs .

Conditions : ITEMERR. NOSPACE. IOERR.WRITEQ TS • Syntax : EXEC CICS WRITEQ TS QUEUE(name) FROM(data-area) [LENGTH(data-value)] [NUMITEMS(data-area) | ITEM(data-area) [REWRITE] ] [MAIN|AUXILIARY] [NOSUSPEND] END-EXEC. NOTAUTH. LENGERR. QIDERR. ISCINVREQ 151 . SYSIDERR. INVREQ.

Conditions : ITEMERR. NOTAUTH. IOERR.READQ TS • Syntax : EXEC CICS READQ TS QUEUE(name) {INTO(data-area) | SET(ptr-ref) } LENGTH(data-value) [NUMITEMS(data-area)] [ITEM(data-area) | NEXT ] END-EXEC. ISCINVREQ 152 . SYSIDERR. QIDERR. LENGERR. INVREQ.

NOTAUTH.DELETEQ TS • Deletes all entries in the queue • Syntax : EXEC CICS DELETEQ TS QUEUE(name) END-EXEC. ISCINVREQ. Conditions: INVREQ. QIDERR. SYSIDERR 153 .

INTERVAL & TASK CONTROL 154 .

• EIBDATE and EIBTIME updated with current date and time • ABSTIME returns value of time in packed decimal format 155 .ASKTIME • Used to obtain current date and time • Syntax : EXEC CICS ASKTIME[ABSTIME(data-area)] END-EXEC.

... Condition: INVREQ 156 .. [DATE(data-area) [DATEFORM[(data-area)]]] [DATESEP[(data-value)]] [DAYOFMONTH(data-area)] [MONTHOFYEAR(data-area)] [YEAR(data-area)].FORMATTIME • Syntax : EXEC CICS FORMATTIME ABSTIME(data-ref) [YYDDD(data-area)] [YYMMDD(data-area)]. [TIME(data-area) [TIMESEP[(data-value)]]] END-EXEC. etc...

DELAY • Used to DELAY the processing of a task • The issuing task is suspended for a specified interval or Until the specified time • Syntax : EXEC CICS DELAY INTERVAL(hhmmss) | TIME(hhmmss) END-EXEC Conditions: EXPIRED. INVREQ 157 .

TRANSIDERR 158 .TERMIDERR.START • Used to start a transaction at the specified terminal and at the specified time or interval • Data can be passed to the new transaction • Syntax : EXEC CICS START TRANSID(transid) [TERMID(termid) TIME(hhmmss) | INTERVAL(hhmmss) ] END-EXEC Conditions : INVREQ. LENGERR.

POST and START identified by REQID. eg. • WAIT EVENT . • SUSPEND .to wait for an event to occur.to request notification when the specified time has expired.to gain exclusive control over a resource • DNQ .Used to retrieve the data passed by the START • CANCEL -Used to cancel the Interval Control requests.Other Interval Control Commands • POST .Used to suspend a task • ENQ . • RETRIEVE . DELAY.to free the exclusive control from the resource gained by ENQ 159 .

Recovery & Restart 160 .

in case of the above failures to maintain the system & data integrity. 161 . eliminate the damage done to the online system.The Need for Recovery/Restart • The possible failures that can occur outside the CICS system are Communication failures (in online systems) Data set or database failures Application or system program failures Processor failures & Power supply failures. • Recovery/Restart facilities are required to minimize or if possible.

RECOVERY • An attempt to come back to where the CICS system or the transaction was when the failure occurred • Recoverable Resources VSAM files Intrapartition TDQ TSQ in the auxiliary storage DATA tables Resource definitions & System definition files 162 .

RESTART • To resume the operation of the CICS system or the transaction when the recovery is completed 163 .

Facilities for Recovery/Restart Facilities for CICS Recovery/Restart • • • • • • Dynamic Transaction Backout Automatic Transaction Restart Resource Recovery Using System Log Resource Recovery Using Journal System Restart Extended Recovery Facility (XRF) 164 .

in dynamic log (Set DTB=YES in PCT) 165 .Dynamic Transaction Backout (DTB) • When the transaction fails. backing out the changes made by the transaction while the rest of the CICS system continues normally is called DTB • CICS automatically writes the „before image‟ information of the record into the dynamic log for the duration of one LUW . CICS automatically recovers all recoverable resources using the info.the work between the two consecutive SYNC points • When an ABEND occurs.

LUW • The end of a logical unit of work is indicated to CICS by a synchronization point (sync pt). can be done by • Syntax : EXEC CICS SYNCPOINT [ROLLBACK] END-EXEC 166 .LUW & SYNC point • The period between the start of a particular set of changes and the point at which they are complete is called a logical unit of work . • Intermediate SYNC pt.

. 167 ..| Task A|---------------------------------------------| SOT EOT-SP |..LUW..LUW ........-LUW..LUW......|.|..LUWs & SYNC pts |...... changes made within the abending LUW will be backed out.....| Task B|---------------->--------------->--------------| SOT SP SP EOT-SP When the failure occurs.

Automatic Transaction Restart • CICS capability to automatically restart a transaction after all resources are recovered through DTB • If the transaction requires automatic restart facility. set RESTART=YES in PCT • Care should be taken in order to restart the task at the point where DTB completes in the case of intermediate SYNC point 168 .

Program Preparation 169 .

170 . • Defining the Program in the CICS Region. • Executing the Program.Introduction • Preparing a Program to run in CICS Environment.

Program preparation IF DB2 : SOURCE DB2 PRECOMPILER CICS COMPILER COBOL COMPILER LOAD MODULE LINK EDIT 171 .

Preparing a Program CICS requires the following steps to prepare a program • Translating the Program. & • Link the Program. 172 . • Assemble or Compile the Translator Output.

Translation • Translates the „EXEC CICS‟ Statements into the Statements your Language (COBOL) Compiler can Understand. • If any Copy Books are used in the Program. 173 . there should not be any CICS Statements in the Copy Book. • The SYSPUNCH is given as the input to the Program Compiler. a Program Listing as SYSPRINT and a Translated Source in SYSPUNCH. • The Translator gives two outputs.

• Hence. 174 .Compiling or Linking • As the CICS Commands have been translated. the compilation of the CICS program is the same as language program. the compiler options can be specified as required.

175 .Defining the Program • The Application should be defined and installed into the PPT. • This can be done either by using CEDA trans or DFHPPT.

CICS Supplied Transactions 176 .

LANGUAGE=l] • Userid & password values can be from 1-8 chars.PS=password] [. the previous operator will be signed off 177 . the Userid given in CESN is verified.NEWPS=newpassword][. • In RACF.CESN/CESF Transactions • To sign on to CICS system • CESN [USERID=userid] [. • NEWPS to change the password and LANGUAGE to choose national language • Sign off by CESF which breaks the connection between the user and CICS • If the Sign on is done twice for the same userid at the terminal.

• CECI gives the complete command syntax of the specified command.CECI . • CECI READQ TD QUEUE(TESTL001) will read the current record of the given TDQ 178 . it can be tested using CECI to check how it appears on the screen.Command Level Interpreter • To build and test the effect of EXEC CICS commands • CECI ASSIGN is used to get the current userid.. terminal id. • Before using the maps in programs.sysid. application id etc.

CEMT-Master Terminal Transaction CEMT provides the following services • • • • Displays the status of CICS & system resources Alter the status of CICS & system resources Remove the installed resource definitions Perform few functions that are not related to resources 179 .

To test a transaction across an APPC session 180 .OFF] • Termid .the identifier of the terminal on which the transaction to be tested is being run • Sessionid .CEDF-Execution Diagnostic Facility • To test command level application programs interactively • CEDF [termid/sysid/sessionid] [.ON/.To test/monitor a transaction attached across an MRO/ISC session • Sysid .

.& CEBR can be invoked 181 .CEDF (Contd.. pgm given control • Start of execution of each CICS command (auguement values can be changed at this point) • End of execution of each CICS command and before the Handle condition mechanism is invoked (response code values can be changed) • At program termination & at normal task termination • When an ABEND occurs & at abnormal task termination. after EIB has been initialized and before the app.) The points at which EDF interrupts execution of the program and sends a display to the terminal • At transaction initialization. • EIB values can be changed.

CEBR-Temporary Storage Browse • To browse the contents of CICS temporary storage queues (TSQ) • CEBR by default will show the queue associated with the current terminal „CEBRL001‟ which can be overridden to view any other queue • TERM to browse TSQ for another terminal • QUEUE to make the named queue. current • PUT to copy the current queue contents into TDQ • GET to fetch TDQ for browsing • PURGE erases the contents of the current queue 182 .

Exercise .2 183 .

Thank You 184 .

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