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Engr. Lina D. dela Cruz Chemical Engineering Department Technological Institute of the Philippines

Biogeochemical cycle
The major part of the biosphere are connected by the flow of chemical elements and compounds. In many of these cycles, biota plays an important role. Matter from earths interior is released by volcanoes. The atmosphere exchanges some compounds and elements rapidly with the biota and the oceans. Exchange of material between rocks, soils and oceans are slower by comparison.

Biogeochemical cycle is the movement (or cycling) of matter through a system. As earth is essentially a closed system with respect to matter, all matters on earth cycles. Matter can be elements (carbon, nitrogen, oxygen), or molecules (water); so the movement of matter, for example carbon between the parts of the system is a biogeochemical cycle.

Carbon Cycle
Carbon cycle is one of the most important to humans and important to our existence due to the following: -one of the primary elements forming human tissues -necessary to plants, the basis of human food And because it is important to the climate system, which sets the background of our environment; carbon dioxide and methane are greenhouse gasses, which help global temperature

Gaseous Cycle
Carbon Cycle

Carbon cycle
Carbon in the Atmosphere Carbon is taken from the atmosphere in two ways: -when the sun is shining, plants perform photosynthesis to convert carbon dioxide into carbohydrates, releasing oxygen in the process. -At surface of oceans near poles, where water becomes cooler and able to dissolve more carbon dioxide.

Carbon cycle
Carbon can be released back to the atmosphere in many different ways: -through the respiration performed by plants and animals -through decay of animals and plant matter -through combustion of organic materials -through reactions of limestone -at the surface of the ocean where water becomes warmer, dissolved carbon dioxide is released back to atmosphere -volcanic eruption release gas in atmosphere

Carbon Cycle
Carbon in the Biosphere Autotrophs are organisms that produce their own organic compounds using carbon dioxide from air or water in which they live. They require external source of energy and they use solar radiation to produce this. Their production is called photosynthesis

Carbon in the biosphere

-burning of biomass ( forest firewood use for heating) can transfer substantial amount of carbon to the atmosphere

-carbon also leave the biosphere when dead organic matter becomes incorporated in the geosphere

Nitrogen Cycle
The nitrogen cycle is the biogeochemical cycle that describes the transformation of nitrogen and nitrogen containing compounds in nature. The basic earths atmosphere is about 78% nitrogen, making it the largest pool of nitrogen. Nitrogen is essential for many biological processes, it is in all amino acids, incorporated in proteins that make up nucleic acid such as DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid) and RNA (ribonucleic acid).

Nitrogen Cycle

Processes of the Nitrogen Cycle

A. Nitrogen Fixation three ways to convert atmospheric nitrogen gas into more reactive form: 1. Biological fixation symbiotic bacteria most often associated with leguminous plants and some free living bacteria are able to fix nitrogen and assimilate it as organic nitrogen 2. Industrial fixation- in the HABER BOSCH process, nitrogen is converted together with hydrogen gas into ammonia fertilizer 3. Combustion of fossil fuels automobile engines and thermal power plants

B. Assimilation- in plants which have a mutualistic relationship with RHIZOBIUM. Some nitrogen is assimilated in the form of ammonium ions from the nodules; All plants can absorb nitrate from the soil via root hairs; These are then reduced to nitrate ions for incorporation into amino acids and protein which forms part of the plants or animals that they eat.

C. Ammonification nitrates are the form of nitrogen most commonly assimilated by plant species, which in turn are consumed by heterotrophs for use in compounds such as amino and nucleic acid. The remains of the heterotrophs will then be decomposed into nutrient rich organic material and bacteria or in some cases fungi will convert the nitrates within the remain back to ammonia.

D. Nitrification the conversion of ammonia to nitrates is performed primarily by soil living bacteria. The primary stage of nitrification, the oxidation of ammonia is performed by bacteria such as NITROSOMONAS species which converts ammonia to nitrites. Other bacteria such as the NITROBACTER are responsible for the oxidation of the nitrites into nitrates.

E. Anaerobic Ammonium Oxidation in this biological process, nitrite and ammonium are converted directly into di nitrogen gas. This process makes up a major proportion of di nitrogen conversion in the oceans. F. Denitrification is the reduction of nitrate back into the largely inert nitrogen gas completing the nitrogen cycle. The process is performed by the bacteria species such as PSEUDOMONAS

It is the movement of water in the earths atmosphere, on the surface and below the surface a process powered by suns energy. In this cycle, the suns radiant energy supplies the power to evaporate water from lakes, rivers and plants. Since the sun also supplies the energy to move the winds, it is responsible for the transport of moisture in the atmosphere. Much water vapor is returned to the ocean by precipitation before reaching land.

Hydrologic Cycle
Sun supplies power to evaporate water from lakes, oceans, rivers Wind transport moisture to atmosphere Water vapor is returned to ocean and land by precipitation

Hydrologic Cycle

Winds moves part of the water vapor to land where it is deposited as precipitation. Of the water that falls overland, a portion infiltrates to the ground. Part intercepted by vegetation and directly returned to the atmosphere through transpiration. Part of the precipitation flows overland to lakes and rivers. When fresh water is returned to sea, cycle is completed

Hydrologic Cycle
Evaporation conversion of liquid water to water vapor. It occurs in the surface of water bodies such as lakes and rivers and immediately after precipitation events in small depression and other storage areas. Transpiration then loss of water from plants through leaves and other parts. This loss can be a significant amount of water during very dry periods.

Hydrologic cycle
Precipitation falling to earth of condensed water vapor in the form of rain, snow, sleet or hail. Run-off water that flows overland to lakes or streams during and shortly after precipitation events Infiltration the movement of water from the surface of the land and through the unsaturated zone and into the ground water.This occurs during and immediately after precipitation events. It can also occur at the bottom of lakes and rivers.