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Hypersensitivity/Allergy

Generally, the effector molecules induce inflammatory response that eliminates antigen without extensively damaging the hosts tissue. Under certain circumstances, however, the inflammatory response can have deleterious effects, resulting in significant tissue injury, serious disease or even death. Such an inappropriate and damaging immune response is termed hypersensitivity.

Classification of Hypersensitivity
Hypersensitivity reactions are divided

into four types:-

1. IgE-Mediated Hypersensitivity (type-I)

2. Antibody-Mediated Hypersensitivity

(type-II) 3. Immune Complex-Mediated Hypersensitivity (type-III) 4. Cell-Mediated Hypersensitivity (typeIV)

History
The concept of "allergy" was originally

introduced in 1906 by the Austrian Pediatrician von Pirquet , after he noted that some of his patients were hypersensitive to entities such as dust, pollen, or certain foods. He called this phenomenon "allergy" from the Greek word 'alol', meaning, 'change in the original state, an allergic reaction is the result of the body's change when it adversely responds to a harmless substance.

Allergy
Allergy is a hypersensitivity disorder of the immune system. Allergic reactions occur to normally harmless environmental substances known as allergens. The term allergy is used to describe a response, within the body, to a substance, which is not necessarily harmful in itself, but results in an immune response and a reaction that causes symptoms and disease in a predisposed person, which in turn can cause inconvenience, or a great deal of misery.

Allergy Types
Allergic rhinitis Asthma Atopic eczema Anaphylaxis

Insect venom
Drug allergies Food allergies

Multiple allergies (Asthma, eczema and

allergic rhinitis together)

Allergic reactions are caused by substances in

the environment known as allergens. Almost anything can be an allergen for someone. Allergens contain protein, which is often regarded as a constituent of the food we eat. In fact it is an organic compound, containing hydrogen, oxygen and nitrogen, which form an important part of living organisms. The most common allergens are: pollen from trees and grasses, house dust mite, moulds, pets such as cats and dogs, insects like wasps and bees, industrial and household chemicals, medicines, and foods such as milk and eggs. Less common allergens include nuts, fruit and latex.

Mechanism of immediate type I Hypersensitivity.


Exposure to an allergen activates TH2 cells that

stimulate b cells to form IgE-secreting plasma cells. The secreted IgE molecules bind to IgE-specific Fc receptors on mast cells and blood basophils. Second exposure to the allergen leads to cross-linking of the bound IgE,triggering the release of pharmacologically active mediators cause smooth muscle contraction,increased vascular permeability and vasodilation.

Causes
Common allergens associated with type I hypersensitivity.
protein Plant Pollens Drugs Foods Insect Products Bee venom Mold spores Animal hair and dander Latex

Foreign Serum

Ray grass Penicillin Nuts, Eggs

Vaccines

Ragweed

Sulfona mides

Milk, Dust Seafood mites

Common symptoms of allergy


Affected organ
Nose
Sinuses Eyes Airways Ears

Symptoms
swelling of the nasal mucosa
allergic sinusitis redness and itching of the conjunctiva Sneezing, coughing, wheezing, sometimes outright attacks of asthma feeling of fullness, possibly pain, and impaired hearing

Skin
Gastrointestinal

rashes, such as hives


Abdominal pain, bloating, vomiting, diarrhea

Diagnosis
A variety of tests now exist to diagnose

allergic conditions; these include testing the skin for responses to known allergens or analyzing the blood for the presence and levels of allergen-specific IgE.

Treatments
Treatments for allergies include allergen

avoidance, use of anti-histamines, steroids or other oral medications, immunotherapy to desensitize the response to allergen, and targeted therapy. New technology approaches to decreasing IgE overproduction, and regulating histamine release in allergic individuals

Celebrity Allergies

Actress Priyanka Chopra is Allergic To dust.

Hollywood actress Jessica Alba Is allergic to cats.

Referances
www.wikipedia.org