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Weather: The atmospheric conditions of a particular

place for a particular time. e.g. the atmospheric conditions of Bahawalpur at 7:30 am Atmosphere : The gaseous cover that surrounds us including dust particles, water vapours, lead particles, smoke particles etc. Climate: The average weather conditions of a particular place for about 30-35 years.

Comparison of weather and climate

Weather changes time to time like it maybe cool in the

morning and hot at noon while climate remains same throughout the day -it takes long time to changemostly consider as a permanent factor (Temporary and permanent) Both changes from place to place Weather is situation of 24 hours while the climate is the situation of 30-35 years

Elements Of Weather and climate

Temperature Air Pressure(low and high)

Wind Direction
Wind Speed/Wind Strength Cloud Cover

Precipitation: Fall of water from clouds in any form

like Snowfall, Rainfall , Sleet-mixture of snow and rain-, Hailing Humidity in the atmosphere

May, June. July

Oct, Sep, Aug Apr, Mar, Feb

Tropic Of Cancer
23 N


S Tropic of Capricorn

23 1/2 S

Nov, Dec, Jan

Distance from the Tropics.

At Tropic of Cancer: Summer At Tropic of Capricorn: Winter Middle: Moderate

When Sunshine's at the Tropic of Cancer extensive heat is received by most parts of the country. This part of the year is known as summer. When sunshines at the Tropic of Capricorn low angle sun rays reach different parts of the country. And during the transitional moderate temperature is experienced.

Altitude (Height from the sea level)

In the lower atmosphere there is a greater concentration of heat capturing agents such as dust particles, smoke particles, lead particles, green house gases etc. These capture more heat as they move upwards there is lesser concentration of these particles less heat is captured so low temperature conditions are experienced.

Maritime Influence
Under the influence of sea:

The temperature of coastal areas remain moderate in most part of the area. In the daytime larger number of water vapours with the sea breeze are added into the atmosphere of the coastal areas while at night by the process of diffusion larger number of water vapours diffuse into the coastal atmosphere. Due to the higher humidity level in the coastal atmosphere the atmosphere takes long time to heat up and cool down. As a result the temperature of coastal areas remain moderate in most part of the year.

Continental effect: Continental effect is that area under the influence of land that take less time to heat up and cool down. As a atmosphere above the land is heated up very quickly along with the land and also cools down very quickly along with the land so temperature of continental areas become very high during summer and very low during winters.

Wind Direction
During the summer monsoonal winds carry moisture / cloud cover to the Indus Plain. Monsoonal winds from Bay of Bengal bring cloud cover to the upper Indus Plain and monsoonal winds from Arabian Sea bring cloud cover in the Lower Indus Plain. These clouds block the sunrays and lower down the temperature of influenced areas. The rainfall caused by these, further lowers the temperature.

Western Depression
During winter from December to March western depression from central Asia bring cold waves to the western areas of Pakistan like Quetta which lowers down the temperature to very cold conditions. During summer hot winds from South eastern desert (Thar) approaches the Sindh coast and increases the temperature up to hot conditions.

Presence of Vegetation Cover

When ever the vegetation cover is present they release water vapours into the atmosphere by transpiration so atmosphere take long time to heat up and cool down and temperature remain moderate.

Condition of Rock Particles

The areas with higher concentration of Rock particles such as desert experience higher temperature during the summers and daytime as compared to the areas with lesser concentration of Rock particles. The areas with atmospheric pollutants capture more heat as compared to the areas with lesser concentration of pollutants such as CO2, lead particles, smoke particles etc.

Monsoon winds and Monsoon rain

The word monsoon is derived from the Arabic word masum mean season. The winds that move from specific area toward another specific area in a specific season. Winter monsoon During the winter land loses its heat very quickly so higher air pressure is produced over land. This forces the winds from land to move towards the water bodies that is sea. As they are coming from drier parts so do not have sufficient moisture and are not able to cause sufficient rainfall.



Western Depression Timing: Dec-March

Q: Describe the distribution of Western depression. Answer: Western depression influence mainly the Western areas of Pakistan. The most influenced area is the western part of Balochistan where in the north from Quetta up to the Makran coast in the south. FATA is also influenced by western depression where main influenced area is Parachinar. KPK is also influenced by western depressions where Peshawar is the main area. A smaller part of Punjab in the north like Murree and Islamabad are also influenced by these winds.

Q: Why do Western Depressions Cause Lighter Rainfall?

When sunshine at the tropic of Capricorn low angle sun rays reach the area of Mediterranean Sea due to low temperature condition gaseous cover above the Mediterranean Sea come close to each other and less intermolecular spaces are produced over the Mediterranean Sea. During the season due to low temperature less evaporation occurs so less number of water vapours are adjusted in between smaller intermolecular spaces. This is the reason when these winds reach the land cause lighter rain.

Effectiveness of Western Depressions

As western depression occurs during the winter so lesser water is lost due to very low rate of evaporation. Western depressions cause lighter rainfall so do not change the tender / smaller plants. These depressions cause rainfall for longer time from hours to days and facilitates the vegetation cover & crops like coniferous trees near Quetta. These are responsible for the existence of drainage system in Balochistan such as Hamuns (seasonal lakesHamun-i-Mashkal) and rivers. These also help to recharge the underground water which help in the working of irrigational water system such as Karez system, tube wells etc.

Negative Points
The timing of the rain is not reliable,
The amount is not reliable. These do not cause rainfall on the

same amount of rain through out the country.

Effectiveness of Summer monsoon

Summer monsoon rainfall recharge the water table. They help in the smooth flow of rivers and also irrigational system like perennial canal system. These rainfalls also cause flooding due to which the extra water is stored in dams and later can be used. They are also the cause of the production of Alluvial soil which is best for the crop production. These floods also help in the formation of different features like doabs, active flood plain etc.

Relief Rainfall

Parts of Gilgit and Chitral Murree and Kakul

Timing: throughout the year. Areas: Murree, Kakul (Abbottabad). When moist winds move towards the mountains like lesser Himalayas these uplift along the slope when these reach a specific height condense from clouds and cause rainfall. These side of the mountain is called wind ward side. When these winds cross the mountain and reach the other side start descending in the low atmosphere due to higher temperature these winds expand and even pick the moisture and cause desertification like in the areas of Gilgit and Chitral.

Conventional Rain or Thunderstorm Timing: Oct-Nov & April-June Areas: Northern areas of Pakistan Q: There are ideal condition s for convectional rain in Southern part of Pakistan but rainfall occurs mainly in Northern part of Pakistan. Why? Explain. Answer: During the summer sunshines on the tropic of Cancer and that is directly above the Arabian Sea so the rate evaporation reaches its peak. When these water vapours reach in the upper atmosphere temperature inversion layer present over the coast of Pakistan do not let the water vapours to condense and form clouds & are not able to cause rainfall. If some of the water vapours enter the temperature inversion layer due to higher temperature disperse and are not able to form clouds while most of the water vapours are backed by this layer towards the ground.

Convectional Rain Q: How convectional rain occurs?

In the northern part of Pakistan evapo-transpiration from water bodies and vegetation cover such as river. When it reaches the upper atmosphere due to low temperature it condenses and form clouds. When these water vapours become a burden on the upper atmosphere start falling towards the ground and cause rainfall. In the daytime sunshines brightly which result in low air pressure in low altitude areas like in valleys due to higher concentration of heat capturing agents. A lot of heat is captured that rises the temperature of lower atmosphere. As a result the rate of evapo-transpiration reaches its peak and number of other gases also heat up and produce extreme low

air pressure in the area. The winds from high altitude rush towards the area of low air pressure and result in stormy conditions. In the meanwhile water vapours in the upper atmosphere condense and cause rainfall along with lighting and thunder. This lighting number of times causes death and injury of human beings and also damages non-living structures like houses, schools etc.

Tropical Cyclones Timings: Summer Areas: Coastal areas Sindh coast, Makran coast.
During the summer when sunshines brightly over the Tropic of Cancer extreme low air pressure is produced over the land due to low altitude and higher concentration of heat capturing agents while over the Arabian Sea due to the shine of the sun greater inter-molecular spaces are produced and large number of water vapours are filled into these gaps. This produces a greater difference of air pressure in between land and sea so the heavily moist winds rush towards the land and when these reach the area of low air pressure start resolving around at and produce stormy conditions. These winds also carry huge waves of water onto the land and cause coastal flooding. As these were heavily moist winds so also cause heavy winds.

Droughts: Long period with little or no rain. Permanent droughts: The area like deserts where there is little or no rainfall like Thar or Kharan. Seasonal droughts: When during a specific season there is little or no rain like in Balochistan during summer. Unpredictable droughts: When during rainy season for a longer time rainfall decreases or no rainfall is there. Invisible droughts: When in an area there is already lesser rainfall and unknowingly that becomes more lesser.

Causes of Droughts.
Deforestation. Talents of winds entering Pakistan from summer monsoon

and western depressions. Unreliability of winds. Weak winds from Arabian Sea. Gradient. Temperature inversion layer.

High land Climatic Zone

Areas: Mountains and Plateaus. In summer season sunshines at the Tropic of Cancer. Moist winds from Bay of Bengal enter Pakistan from north eastern side where the pressure is high due to high altitude which they start moving towards the southern side where pressure is low but rainfall decreases as the weak winds from Arabian Sea have lost some of their moisture cause little rainfall in some parts of Sindh.

Effects of Droughts
Surface water is not available.
Underground water lowers down and in some areas is

converted into salty water. That is not fit for different activities like domestic, agriculture disappearance of vegetation cover, grazing grounds, no water, meat, milk, wind erosion of soil, no wind breakers. The area is converted into barren land.

Advantages of Floods
Underground water is recharged.
Help to control salinity by washing away salts at places. Floods are responsible for formation of different features like

active flood plain, old flood plain and Alluvial terrace. They also facilitates different methods of irrigation like tank irrigation as tankers are filled during floods and used in periods of dryness for cultivation of crops. Flood is stored in the reservoirs of dams like Terbela which help to generate electricity and also for cultivation of crops throughout the year. Flood provide alluvium that is the best suited soil for agriculture.

Desert Belt / Zone

Extreme hot condition summer Low in pressure. Dust storms.

In Thal, Cholistan the rainfall is mostly from the Bay of

Bengal while in Tharpahkar rain is mostly from Arabian sea. Overall hot and dry condition prevail in most part of summer. Day and night temperature conditions are quite different as in day time land is heated up very quickly along with dust particle in atmosphere at night it loses its heat very quickly and the dust particles also cool down very quickly. During winter as sunshines on tropic of Capricorn low temperature condition prevail over deserts of Pakistan and this becomes further low in Khara.

Desert due to western depressions and in the remaining deserts due to continental effect Kharan desert also receive rainfall from western depressions but receives scanty rainfall from summer monsoons.