…. To say ..… a simple question it may seem…….

Why use face?

Every one has got a “fairly unique” face Can be captured Without User Co operation….????
.....a question leading to the most efficient software.....

 facial expressions.Features of 2-D and its challenges…  Obstacles that must be overcome are  differences in appearance due to variations in illumination.  occlusion and changes over time.  viewing angle. .  Recognition rates for unfamiliar faces drop significantly when there are different viewpoints for the training and test set .  Difference between 2 images of the same subject photographed from different angles is greater than the differences between 2 images of different subjects photographed from the same angle.

From 2D to 3D face recognition It is a much older research area than 3D face recognition research and broadly speaking. Information available in 3D face data means that 3D face recognition techniques might in the near future overtake 2D techniques. Let us now look over 2-D and 3-D in detail… .

Disadvantages of 2-D face recognition face recognition using 2D images is sensitive to illumination changes. It is difficult to develop models that take all these variations into account. Hence 3-D face recognition was introduced……. The databases used for 2-D recognition are in bulk and thus lead to lot of data mismatches at times even blunders. the properties of the light source and the properties of the camera. the albedo of the face. The light collected from a face is a function of the geometry of the face. In 2D this task is nearly impossible due to the projective nature of 2D images.. .

Requires cooperation from a subject.Advantages of 3-D face recognition. 3D sensor technology is currently not as mature as 2D sensors. the current computational cost of processing 3D data is higher than for 2D data. Better at capturing the surface geometry of the face. yet the captured facial shape remains intact.  Variations in illumination only affect the texture of the face. The physical dimensions of the face are known and are inherently encoded in the data. . oily parts of the face with high reflectance may introduce artifacts under certain lighting on the surface. Disadvantages of 3-D face recognition.

3D Disadvantages >Cameras are still expensive. 3D (contd.Face Representation –2D vs. >Takes time to reconstruct models >Unavailability of large collection of 3-D data . variations shadows etc.) 2D Disadvantages >Cannot handle pose variation >Sensitive to lighting.

TECHNIQUES Arena Algorithm Eigen face .

Procedure: Skin Print: Picture Of Patch Of Skin Broken Into Smaller Blocks Differentiation On The Basis Of :.Pores :-Actual Skin Texture  Templates Used: Vector Template Local Feature Template Surface Texture Analysis .Any Lines :.

smiling  Ability to compensate for mustache or beard growth & appearance of eye glasses Disadvantages:  significant glare on the eye glasses  Long hair obscuring the cetral part of face  Poor lighting  Lack of resolution .frowning . blinking .Advantages:  Help to find difference in identical twins  increases accuracy by 20-25%  Insensitive to changes in expression .

Arena Algorithm Memory Based Technique For View Based Frontal Face Recognition  Uses Principal Component Analysis And Neural Networks Closely Related To Correlation Templates Aim:.To Find Exact Match Of An Image From Given Datasets Reduced resolutions to 16x16. Reduces The Resolution Of 32x32 and 256x256 Image .

arntst.m .Implementation  implementation of Arena algorithm  implementation of neural networks depending upon outputs of Arena The programming language :.arntrn.MATLAB Program for training :.m Program for testing :.

) and relative distance between these objects  These characteristic features are EIGENFACES  They can be extracted out of original image data by means of a mathematical tool called Principal Component Analysis (PCA) . etc. nose..Eigenfaces.  The task of facial recognition is discriminating input signals (image data) into several classes (persons)  There are patterns in input signals such as presence of objects (eyes.

 The idea of principle component analysis to represent human faces was developed by Sirovich and Kirby (1987) and used by Mathew Turk and Alex Pentland for face detection & recognition  Original face image can be reconstructed from eigenfaces if one adds up all the eigenfaces (features) in the right proportion  In order to reconstruct the original image from the eigenfaces.. one has to build a kind of weighted sum of all eigenfaces  WEIGHT specifies to what degree a feature is present in the original face.  Use of weights to determine two important things *If the image in question is a face at all? *Similar faces can be grouped to clusters .

Overview over the algorithm .

Eigenfaces :.Still often used as a baseline comparison method to demonstrate the minimum expected performance of such a system .The first successful example of facial recognition technology :.Many extensions in the original method and many developments in automatic face recognition system :.




whereas others find out more excellent ways to avoid them test in Ybor city test at Boston Airport accuracy rate----61.LIMITATIONS : scientist discover any protection software. .4%.

.Dependence on 2-D due to under development of 3-D effective and accurate only when image captured needed to be of a face that was looking almost directly at camera Face the Facts Facial recognition technology? troubled past -.and troubling future.

train stations and metros. is key to our protection . such as air port passport control.Future of Face Recognition need of software for future generation. the ability to recognize a face at every transit point.

 Wearable Recognition system  wearable computing  software---recently tested by us army  Face Recognition for Smart Environments  machines---.  for------any type of lightning. .functioning naturally.  the combination of 3D facial recognition and high speed database .

 some of the future facial recognition technique  Paul Ekman---------facial action encoding system.feature find.  plan of three package-----.  company -----------Intelligent faces. smart face pro.  John Ghent---------a professor at National university Ireland. . smart find. RIYA----replaced by Neven vision. future of google----------Neven vision.

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