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NITYA JAIN A2315808023 MANSI JAIN A2315808015
R.G. SINDHU A2315808034
Acoustics is defined as the science of sound and it discusses the origin, propagation and auditory sensation of sound. A sound is produced due to the vibrations produced and transmitted in the material medium i.e.; air
1bel = 10dB . L1 α log10 I1 L 2 α log10I 2 The Intensity level L is given by difference of the two equations above L=k log10 I1/I2 If k=1.PRESSURE Sound pressure is defined as the difference between the average local pressure of the medium outside of the sound wave in which it is traveling through (at a given point and a given time) and the pressure found within the sound wave itself within that same medium. According to Weber and Fechner’s law. or the sensation stimulated in organs of hearing by such vibrations. INTENSITY AND LOUDNESS Intensity of sound is defined as the amount or flow of wave energy crossing per unit time through a unit area taken perpendicular to the direction of propagation. Shorter practical unit is DECIBEL.SOUND Sound is a travelling wave which is an oscillation of pressure transmitted through a solid.. PROPERTIES OF SOUND 1. OR loudness is directly proportional to the logarithm of intensity. 2. the difference in loudness is expressed in BELS. The magnitude of any sensation is proportional to the logarithm of the physical stimulus that produces it. This unit is rather large. composed of frequencies within the range of hearing and of a level sufficiently strong to be heard. or gas. liquid. Loudness of a sound corresponds to the degree of sensation depending on the intensity of sound and the sensitivity of ear-drums.
The frequency scale covers a wide range varying from 20 cycles per second to 1500 cycles per second. The pitch of a sound is how high or low the sound is. a tight drum skin gives a higher-pitched sound than a loose drum skin. . When plucked. Greater the frequency. A high sound has a high pitch and a low sound has a low pitch.3. When banged.FREQUENCY AND PITCH OF SOUNDFrequency or the pitch is defined as the number of cycles which a sounding body makes in each unit of time. higher is the pitch. a short string gives a higher-pitched sound than a long string.
• The boundary surfaces of the hall should be so designed that there are no echoes. • The sound produced should be evenly spread in the hall so that sound foci and dead spots are avoided.Conditions for good acoustics of a hall • The initial sound from the source should be adequate intensity so that it can be heard throughout the hall. the treatment should be such that the initial sound reaches the audience with the same intensity and frequency. assuming that a person may speak or listen from any corner in the hall. . • In case of music halls. • In case of conference halls. suitable sound amplification system should be installed. For halls of big size. the acoustics of the halls should be designed in such a way that they ensure proper conditions for listening. • The boundary surfaces of the hall should be properly designed so that the unwanted sound is absorbed.
Treatment of interior surfaces --Seats and seating arrangement --Reverberation and sound absorption .GENERAL PRINCIPLES AND FACTORS IN ACOUSTICAL DESIGN: --Site selection and planning. --Dimensions --Shape --Seats and setting arrangement -.
The acoustic properties of the absorbent materials are considerably changed by the their modes of fixing. for better acoustical requirement. . some other materials are to be incorporated on the surfaces of the room. the speech can be heard clearly and music can be fully enjoyed. All the absorbent materials are found to be soft and porous.Most of the common building materials absorb sound to a small extent and hence. Such materials are known as the absorbent materials and they help a great deal in making the room acoustically good. The important facts in connection with absorbent materials are as follows: The noise level of the room provided with absorbent materials is considerably reduced. The absorbing capacity of the absorbent materials depends on the thickness of the material. In the hall treated with absorbent materials. Great care should be exercised while prescribing the covering for an absorbent material so as to improve its appearance. The improper covering destroys the absorbent properties of the material. its density and frequency of sound.
SOUND ABSORBING MATERIALS AND CONSTRUCTIONS Sound Absorbing foams Composite sandwich barrier/foam product Dampening sheet and sound paint are all used in a diverse range of industries. .
It should give pleasing appearance after fixing. It should be efficient available over a wide range of frequencies. Following are some of the common types of absorbent materials: Hairfelt Acoustic plaster Acoustical tiles Strawboard Pulp boards Compressed fiberboard Compressed wood particle board Perforated plywood Wood wool board Quilts and mats . It should be high coefficient of absorption. termites. It should be self-supporting and should be capable of easy fixing. It should be non-hygroscopic and heat insulating. It should be fire-resistant.The requirements of a good acoustical material are as follows: It should be durable and should not be liable to be attacked by insects. It should be easily available at a reasonable cost. It should have sufficient structural strength.
. Dead spots 5. sound foci 4. various strata of air. Common acoustical defects 1.ACOUSTICAL DEFECTS The acoustical design of an enclosed space is preliminary governed by the behavior of the reflected sound. Formation of echoes 3. etc. an echo is produced and it thus indicates the repetition of a sound by reflection of sound waves from a surface. Exterior noise When the reflected sound wave reaches the ear just when the original sound from the same source has been already reached. mountains. Reverberation 2. Insufficient loudness 6. The heavy rolling sound of a thunder is due to successive reflections from a number of reflecting surfaces like clouds.
50 1.00 Excellent Good 2. Thus the combined loudness of the direct sound and the reflected sound will be greater than the direct sound alone.50 to 2.The immediate effect of multiple reflections is an increase in the sound intensity caused by the reflections.00 Above 5.50 to 1. REVERBERATION TIME AND ACOUSTICS Reverberation time in seconds Acoustics 0. A listener will hear the direct sound arriving at the ear along with all of the multiple reflections.00 3.00 to 3.00 Fairly Good Bad Very bad .00 to 5.
Through air b. (thickness. transmitted and absorbed in varying amounts depending upon the characteristics of the wall of the room. the sound waves are reflected. nature of its surface) Noise is transmitted in the following ways: a. material of wall. . weight.SOUND INSULATION It is the measure by which transmission of sound from inside to outside or from one room to another is prevented TRANSMISSION OF SOUND ♫ When sound is produced in a room it proceeds outward in spherical waves until it strikes the boundary of the room . ♪Transmission loss is numerically equivalent to the loss in the intensity of the sound expressed in decibels. that takes place during its transmission from the source to the recipient. By vibrations of structural members c. ♫ Thereafter. Through structural members TRANSMISSION LOSSES ♪The reduction in the intensity of air-borne sound.
well plastered on one or both sides. Wall construction used for sound insulation is of 3 types: 1. Wait of the wall is the governing factor in wall insulation. Sound insulation thus increases with the increase in the thickness of the wall. A solid one brick thick wall plastered on both sides. Rigid homogenous wall ♦ ♦ ♦ Rigid wall consists of stone . proves quiet effective as a sound insulating partition wall has an average reduction of 50db.METHODS OF SOUND INSULATION BUILDINGS Good planning in respect of the location of building as well as the placement of quiet and noisy areas in the building itself play an important role in noise transmission. • WALLS The sound insulation rating of a wall is generally governed by the net sound transmission loss it provides and also the efficiency with which it serves as a barrier for speech sound. . Highly uneconomical and bulky after certain limit. brick or concrete masonry construction.
4. Non-rigid porous materials offer low sound insulation but can be used in combination with the rigid materials 3. Partition walls of porous materials ♦ ♦ Rigid porous materials insulation increases about 10% higher than the non-porous. The cavity should be at least 5cm in width and the two wall leaves should be tied by use of only light butterfly wall ties Partition walls having the value of transmission loss of 45db or less are considered adequate for separating critical areas of adjacent dwellings. with sound absorbing blanket in between Staggered wooden studs are provided as support. . Double wall partition ♦ ♦ Consists of plaster boards or fibre boards on both the faces. Cavity wall construction ♦ ♦ ♦ This can be made to have increased insulation value by filling the cavity with some resilient material.2.
.• FLOORS AND ROOFS Transmission of sound takes place more easily through floors.C. lower the insulation. Skirting.C. Concrete floor floating construction. insulation board. ♦No appreciable effect on air-borne sound. cork. Timber floor. 2. floor or roof. The larger the contact area it provides between floor and wall. 3. asphalt mastic. Material like quilted mineral or glass wool is laid over the R. Employing mineral or glass wool quilt. 4. Sound proofing can be achieved by: 1.Use of resilient surface materials on floors ♦Providing thin concrete and then providing soft floor finish or covering with linoleum. Lower edge is chamfered to reduce the contact area.
Superior Soundproofing Insulated engineered floor truss system to reduce floor squeaks and vertical sound transmission.There is 22 inches of space in between that is filled with cellufibre that blocks and shield sound transfer! Double staggered stud party walls between suites. including insulation and sound bar technology to minimize horizontal sound transfer.the flooring has gaps in between suites so sound is not carried from one suite to the other from the walls! Cast iron plumbing stacks to reduce plumbing noise-because cast iron is so much heavier than other materials the steel holds in the noise! .