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Reported by: Shane Ann Pedregosa BSN III-A

Cataract surgery is the removal of the natural lens of the eye (also called "crystalline lens") that has developed an opacification, which is referred to as a cataract.

When the lens becomes opaque. A cataract is a clouding of the normally clear lens of the eye. it interferes with the passage of light through the eye resulting in impaired vision. .

o blurred o double vision in one eye. o frequent . need for brighter light when reading. poor night vision eyeglass prescription changes. vision. Cataract symptoms o fading of colors. reduced vision in bright light. halos around lights. cloudiness. particularly the inability to see blues and purples.

using local anesthesia surgery. Generally performed by an ophthalmologist in an ambulatory setting. a patient's cloudy natural lens is removed and replaced with a synthetic lens to restore the lens's transparency  During . in a surgical center or hospital.

It involves the use of a machine with an ultrasonic handpiece equipped with a titanium or steel tip. .TYPES  Phacoemulsification (Phaco) is the preferred method in most cases.

 Conventional extracapsular cataract extraction (ECCE): It involves manual expression of the lens through a large (usually 10–12 mm) incision made in the cornea or sclera. -may be indicated for patients with very hard cataracts or other situations in which phacoemulsification is problematic. .

. Intracapsular cataract extraction (ICCE) involves the removal of the lens and the surrounding lens capsule in one piece. The procedure has a relatively high rate of complications due to the large incision required and pressure placed on the vitreous body.

 Intraocular lens implantation: After the removal of the cataract. or through an enlarged incision. using a PMMA (polymethylmethacrylate) lens. either through a small incision (1.8 mm) using a foldable IOL. an intraocular lens (IOL) is usually implanted into the eye.8 mm to 2. .

at least in large part. to the cataract should be evaluated.  The  The eyes should have a normal pressure pupil should be adequately dilated using eyedrops .PREOPERATIVE EVALUATION  The degree of reduction of vision due.

 Exposure of the eyeball using a lid speculum.  . cortical aspiration of the remanescent lens.  Entry into the eye through a minimal incision (corneal or scleral)  Viscoelastic injection to stabilize the anterior chamber and to help maintain the eye pressurization  Capsulorhexis  Hydrodissection pie  Hydro-delineation  Ultrasonic destruction or emulsification of the cataract after nuclear cracking or chopping (if needed). capsular polishing (if needed)  Implantation of the artificial IOL  Entration of IOL (usually foldable)  Viscoelastic removal  Wound sealing / hydration (if needed).OPERATION PROCEDURES Anaesthesia.

which can damage the eye's optic nerve that transmits visual information to the brain.COMPLICATIONS Glaucoma refers to a category of eye disorders often associated with a dangerous buildup of internal eye pressure (intraocular pressure or IOP).  .

 But with acute angle-closure glaucoma.SIGNS AND SYMPTOMS  Glaucoma often is called the "silent thief of sight. . intense eye pain. nausea and vomiting." because most types typically cause no pain and produce no symptoms until noticeable vision loss occurs. symptoms that occur suddenly can include blurry vision. halos around lights.

. permanent damage already has occurred. This common type of glaucoma gradually reduces your peripheral vision without other symptoms.TYPES  Primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG). By the time you notice it.

 Angle-closure glaucoma. nausea and vomiting. . headaches. Angle-closure or narrow-angle glaucoma produces sudden symptoms such as eye pain. vision loss. halos around lights. dilated pupils. red eyes.

It is a medical emergency. but without rapid treatment the entire retina may detach. Initial detachment may be localized. Retinal detachment is a disorder of the eye in which the retina peels away from its underlying layer of support tissue. leading to vision loss and blindness. .

TYPES  Rhegmatogenous retinal detachment – occurs due to a hole. . or break in the retina that allows fluid to pass from the vitreous space into the subretinal space between the sensory retina and the retinal pigment epithelium. tear.

caused by an injury. injury or vascular abnormalities that results in fluid accumulating underneath the retina without the presence of a hole. inflammation or neovascularization. retinal detachment – A tractional retinal detachment occurs when fibrovascular tissue. Exudative. tear. serous. pulls the sensory retina from the retinal pigment epithelium. or secondary retinal detachment – An exudative retinal detachment occurs due to inflammation. or break.  Tractional .

SIGNS AND SYMPTOMS  flashes of light (photopsia) – very brief in the extreme peripheral (outside of center) part of vision  a sudden dramatic increase in the number of floaters  a ring of floaters or hairs just to the temporal side of the central vision  a slight feeling of heaviness in the eye .

exercising and similar activities that might stress your eye while it is healing. Also.CATARACT SURGERY RECOVERY During at least the first week of your recovery. Keep your eye closed while showering or bathing.  Water that might splash into your eye and cause infection.  Bending. it is essential that you avoid:  Strenuous activity and heavy lifting (nothing over 25 pounds). avoid swimming or hot tubs for at least two weeks.  . grime or other infection-causing contaminants.  Any activity (such as changing cat litter boxes) that would expose your healing eye to dust.