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# Basic Concepts

Chapter 1

Chapter 1: Basic Concepts
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Introduction Systems of Units Charge and Current Voltage Power and Energy Circuit Elements

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Introduction
An electric circuit is an interconnection of circuit elements

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Complicated Circuits

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System of Units Ch01_Basic Concepts 5 .

Units in Circuit Physic Term Charge Voltage Current Power Energy (Work) Resistance Inductance Capacitance Unit Coulomb Volt( 伏特 ) Ampere( 安培 ) Watt Joule Ohm( 歐姆 ) Henry( 亨利 ) Fara( 法拉 ) Symbol C V(v) A W J Ω H F Ch01_Basic Concepts 6 .

Andre-Maria Ampere (1775-1836) Ch01_Basic Concepts 7 .

Alessandro Antonio Volta (1745-1827) Ch01_Basic Concepts 8 .

1öA = 10à 6A 1nA = 10à 9A 1pA = 10à 12A Ch01_Basic Concepts 9 .

• The charges occurring in nature are integral multiples of the electron charge • The law of conservation of charge: the charge can neither be created nor destroyed.Charge and Current • Atoms contain electrons • An electron carries a negative charge of magnitude 1e = 1:602 â 10à 19C • The charge is measured in Coulombs (C). but only transferred 1C has6:24 â 1018 e le ctr o ns Ch01_Basic Concepts 10 .

– Electrical effects are attributed to both the separation of charge and charges in motion.• Characteristics of electric charge are: – It is bipolar. Ch01_Basic Concepts 11 . – It exists in discrete quantities.

1 ampere = 1 coulomb/second Ch01_Basic Concepts 12 t . i= q = charge in coulombs (C) dt t = time in seconds (s) • So q (t ) =∫∞i (τ) dτ − • Also.Current • Definition: Electric current is the time rate of change of charge. measured in amperes and expressed as ∆ dq i = current in amperes (A).

Electric current due to flow of electronic charge in a conductor. Ch01_Basic Concepts 13 .

• Although current is made up of discrete moving electrons. Ch01_Basic Concepts 14 . • Thus. we consider i to be a continuous variable as there are so many of them. current is defined as the rate of flow of positive charge.

• A direct current (dc) is a current that remains constant with time. • An alternating current (ac) is a current that varies sinusoidally with time. Ch01_Basic Concepts 15 .

Ch01_Basic Concepts 16 .Two Common types of current: (a) Direct current (dc). (b) Alternating current (ac).

Conventional current flow: (a) Positive current flow. (b) Negative current flow. Ch01_Basic Concepts 17 .

1 • Each electron has -1.Example 1. • 4600 electrons will have -1.369×10-16 C Ch01_Basic Concepts 18 .602×10-19 C.602×10-19 × 4600 = -7.

Example 1.41 mA Ch01_Basic Concepts 19 .5.2 q = 5t sin 4πt mC dq d i= = (5t sin 4πt ) mC/s dt dt = (5 sin 4πt + 20πt cos 4πt ) mA At t = 0. i = 5 sin 2π + 10π cos 2π = 0 + 10π = 31.

5 C =  t −  = (8 − 2) −   2 1  2  2 2 2 2 Ch01_Basic Concepts 20 .3 Q = ∫t =1 idt = ∫1 (3t 2 − t )dt  3 t  1 − 1  = 5.Example 1.

Voltage • Definition: The voltage (potential difference) between two points a and b is the energy (work) required to move a unit charge from a to b. v = voltage in volts (V). ∆ dw vab = w = energy in joules (J) dq q = charge in coulombs (C) • 1 V=1 Joule/Coulomb. Ch01_Basic Concepts 21 .

Polarity of voltage vab. vab = −vba Ch01_Basic Concepts 22 .

Two equivalent representations of the same voltage vab: (a) point a is 9 V above point b. (b) Point b is -9 V above point a. Ch01_Basic Concepts 23 .

Power and Energy • Definition of power: Power is the time rate of expending or absorbing energy. expressed as: p = power in watts (W). ∆ dw p= w = energy in joules (J) dt t = time in seconds (s) Ch01_Basic Concepts 24 .

• Power is associated with the flow of charge: follows from the definition of voltage and current  dw   dw  dq  p= =  dq  dt  = vi   dt     p = power in watts (W). v = voltage in volts (V) t = current in amperes (A) Ch01_Basic Concepts 25 .

• p(t)=v(t)i(t). only under a large power with a duration a large energy can be obtained W (t ) = −∞ p (τ )dτ ∫ t Ch01_Basic Concepts 26 . power is usually time-varying and p(t) is called the instantaneous power • A large power does not mean a large energy.

Reference Polarity and Reference Direction • Polarity reference for voltage (v) • Reference direction for current (i) • Assignment of reference polarity for v and reference direction for i is entirely arbitrary Ch01_Basic Concepts 27 .

Ch01_Basic Concepts 28 .Reference polarities for power using the positive sign convention: (a) absorbing power. (b) supplying power.

use a positive sign in any expression that relates the voltage to the current. use a negative sign. Otherwise. Ch01_Basic Concepts 29 .Passive Sign Convention • Definition: Whenever the reference direction for the current in an element is in the direction of the reference voltage drop across the element.

Two cases of an element with an absorbing power of 12 W: (a) P = 4×3 = 12 W. Ch01_Basic Concepts 30 . (b) p = 4×3 = 12 W.

conversely an element with a negative power means that it supplies (provides) energy. Ch01_Basic Concepts 31 .• A positive power p=vi means that the element is absorbing (consuming) energy.

Ch01_Basic Concepts 32 .10 Two cases of an element with a supplying power of 12 W: (a) P = － 4×3 = － 12 W. (b) p = － 4×3 = － 12 W.Figure 1.

Power and Energy (II) • Law of conservation of energy: The algebraic sum of power in a circuit. at any time instant. must be zero: ∑p=0 • Total power supplied to a circuit must balance the total power absorbed. Ch01_Basic Concepts 33 .

• The energy obtained in the interval [t0. measured in joules (J). t] is given by • 0 0 • The electric power utility companies measures energy in watt-hours (Wh).• Definition of energy: Energy is the capacity to do work. where: 1Wh = 3600J Ch01_Basic Concepts 34 w = ∫t pdt = ∫t vidt t t .

1884 Exhibition Ch01_Basic Concepts 35 .

• The elements can be divided into the passive and the active elements • An active element is capable of generating energy while a passive element is not Ch01_Basic Concepts 36 .Ideal Basic Circuit Element • Attributes: – Has only 2 terminals.

Circuit Elements • Three passive circuit elements are considered: – Resistors (R) – Inductors (L) – Capacitors (C) • Two active circuit elements are considered: – Voltage source (V) – Current source (I) Ch01_Basic Concepts 37 .

• Each source (voltage or current source) is divided into the independent and the dependent source. • An independent voltage (current) source is an active element that provides a specified voltage (current) which is completely independent of other circuit variables. Ch01_Basic Concepts 38 .

(b) used for constant voltage (dc).Symbols for independent voltage sources: (a) used for constant or time-varying voltage. Ch01_Basic Concepts 39 .

Ch01_Basic Concepts 40 .Symbol for independent current source.

Ch01_Basic Concepts 41 .Dependent Sources • A dependent (or controlled) source is an active element in which the source (voltage or current) quantity is controlled by another voltage or current in the circuit.

Symbol for: (a) dependent voltage source. (b) dependent current source. Ch01_Basic Concepts 42 .

• Four types of ideal dependent sources: – – – – Voltage-controlled voltage source (VCVS) Current-controlled voltage source (CCVS) Voltage-controlled current source (VCCS) Current-controlled current source (CCCS) Ch01_Basic Concepts 43 .

The source on the right-hand side is a current-controlled Voltage source. Ch01_Basic Concepts 44 .

7 Ch01_Basic Concepts 45 .Example 1.

Example 1.7 p1 = 20(−5) = −100 W p2 = 12(5) = 60 W p3 = 8(6) = 48 W p4 = 8(−0.2 I ) = 8(−0.2 × 5) = −8 W p1 + p2 + p3 + p4 = −100 + 60 + 48 − 8 = 0 Ch01_Basic Concepts 46 .

Homework 1: Due Feb 8.18 Problem 1. 5. Problem 1.20 Problem 1. 4.15 Problem 1.7 Problem 1.9 Problem 1. 2010 1.35 Ch01_Basic Concepts 47 . 3. 2. 7. 6.26 Problem 1.