The miracle of reproduction and life giving

PHYSIOLOGY OF REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM

Female Reproductive physiology
Puberty -is defined as transitional period of rapid growth. φ Physical φ Psychological φ Sexual maturity φ Capacity to reproduce

Physiological mechanism of puberty
Brain Cortex

Hypothalamus

F S H

L H
PITUITARY PORTAL SYSTEM ANTERIOR PITUITARY GLAND
FSH,LH , LTH

L T H

OVARIES E P SECONDARY SEX CHARACTERISTIC

Factors affecting onset of puberty
Heredity Race Nutritional status Presence or absence of illness 5. Environment: Ω light- blind girls menarche earlier. Ω stress- may delay onset of puberty Ωclimate- extreme heat/cold
1. 2. 3. 4.

Male & Female secondary characteristic
Female
Body configuration Fat deposition in breast, hips and buttocks . Breast budding-nipples & areola (thelarche) Growth of axillary and pubic hair (pubarche). F-inverted triangle with less hair. Stay high pitch glycogen content and configuration of vaginal mucosa. Cervical glands are active. Uterus becomes enlarge.

Male
Shoulder broaden, muscles enlarge

Hair Growth and distribution Voice Genitalia a. Internal b. External

Beard, axillary, chest and pubic hair appear(Pubarche). M-upright triangular pattern with increase body hair and less scalp hair. Voice deepens size of penis and scrotum. They become pigmented and rugose. Seminal vessicles, prostate and bulbourethral glands enlarge and secretes.

Psychological
Skin

Attracted to opposite sex

Attracted to opposite sex Becomes more aggressive and active.

Sebaceous gland secretion thickens and increase predisposing to acne in 7590 % of individuals.

Progression of Puberty
Age/Years Growth Characteristic 9-10 Growth of the bony pelvis, beginning of female contour. Fat deposition Nipple budding 10-11 Breast budding – 2-3 years before menarche Appearance of pubic hair (Pubarche). Glycogen of vaginal mucosa increases (cernification). 12-13 13-14 oPigmentation of nipples Axillary hair increase

REPRODUCTIVE AND SEXUAL HEALTH
Secondary sex characteristic of boys occurs in order: 1. increase in weight 2. growth of testes 3. growth of face, axillary, and pubic hair 4. voice changes 5. penile growth 6. increase in height 7. spermatogenesis Secondary sex characteristic of girls occurs in order: 1. growth spurt 2. increase in the traverse diameter of the pelvis 3. breast development (thelarche) 4. growth of pubic hair (adrenarche) 5. onset of menstruation (menarche 12.5 y/o ave.) 6. Ovulation occurs 1 – 2 years after menarche 7. growth of axillary hair (adrenarche) 8. vaginal secretion

Physiology of:

MENSTRUATION

Menstruation
 Is the periodic, physiologic discharge of blood, mucus and epithelial cells from the uterine mucosa, every 28-30 days from menarch to menopause except during pregnancy and lactation.  Physiology of menstruation:

1. The ovarian cycle
2. Endometrial cycle  

Objective of the ovarian cycle: to provide an ovum fertilization. Objective of the endometrial cycle: to provide a suitable bed in which fertilized ovum may implant and development.

Ovarian cycle
 In the cortex of the ovary are several primodial follicles:

a. Oocyte- a single large, more or less round cell with large centrally located nucleous and a well defined nucleus.
b. Layer of granulosa

Phases of ovarian cycle
1. 

 1. 2.

3.
4. 5.

Pre ovulatory/ follicular phase The first half of the ovarian cycle characterized by development of graafian follicle. Mature graafian follicle: Theca externa Theca interna Membrane granulose Antrum Discuss progligerous

 In 28 day cycle, this phase

last for 14 dayof menstruation.  Ovulation and rupture of graafian follicle occurs before the onset onset of the next menses.

6. The mature ovum

2. Post ovulatory or luteal phase  This is the second half of the ovarian cycle during which the corpus luteum at the site of the rupture follicle.  Last 14 days regardless of the average length of the cycle.  Corpus luteum take charge in hormaonal regulation and begins to degenerate 1 week after ovulation.

SUMMARY OF OVARIAN CYCLE

Hormonal Regulation of Ovarian & Menstrual Cycles
1. Hypothalamus releases GnRH.

2. GnRH stimulates anterior pituitary to release FSH.
Estroge n

FSH

3. FSH stimulates a follicle to grow & produce estrogen.

Hormonal Regulation of Menstrual & Ovarian Cycles

LH

4. Rising levels of estrogen cause anterior pituitary to increase production & storage of LH.

Estrogen
FSH

Estroge n

Hormonal Regulation of Menstrual & Ovarian Cycles
5. High estrogen causes LH to be released in a burst & the endometrium to thicken (proliferative phase).
FSH

Estrogen
Estroge n

6. High LH stimulates first meiotic division of primary oocyte.

LH

Hormonal Regulation of Menstrual & Ovarian Cycles

7. High LH triggers ovulation. Estrogen 8. High LH causes ruptured follicle to become a corpus luteum.
FSH LH

Estroge n

Hormonal Regulation of Menstrual & Ovarian Cycles
9. Corpus luteum produces progesterone. Estrogen

10. Progesterone inhibits the production of FHS & LH by the anterior pituitary & stimulates secretory phase . LH

FSH

X

Estroge n

Progesterone

X

Hormonal Regulation of Ovarian & Menstrual Cycles
11. Diminishing levels of FSH & LH cause corpus luteum to deteriorate & produce less progesterone.

12. Dimishing levels of estrogen & progesterone cause inhibition of FSH & LH to end & thickened endometrium to slough (menses).

Estrogen Progesterone
FSH LH

X

X

X

Hormonal Regulation of Ovarian & Menstrual Cycles

13. Increasing levels of FSH cause a new cycle to begin.
FSH

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