Pressure sensors and

thermistors
-What do they do and how to calibrate them?

E80
Feb 21, 2008
Agenda
(1) Pressure sensors and calibration
(2) Relating pressure to altitude
(3) Thermistors and calibration
(Steinhart-Hart constants)
Pressure sensors
 Barometric pressure changes vs. altitude
and temperature, so we can use pressure
sensor data to indicate the altitude change
in the rockets during their launch.
 Each sensor has slightly different
characteristics, so we need to calibrate
them individually.

Analog
voltage
Computer
LabVIEW
Environment with
varying pressures
Pressure sensors
on R-DAS or IMU
Signal
conditioning
Analog
0-5V
Raw
data
0-1024
on R-DAS
Voltage
Pressure sensors
 Barometric pressure changes vs. altitude
and temperature, so we can use pressure
sensor data to indicate the altitude change
in the rockets during their launch.
 Each sensor has slightly different
characteristics, so we need to calibrate
them individually.

Analog
voltage
Computer
LabVIEW
Environment with
varying pressures
Pressure sensors
on R-DAS or IMU
Signal
conditioning
Analog
0-5V
Raw
data
0-1024
on R-DAS
Voltage
Pressure sensors-altimeter
MPX4115A(IMU) / MPXA6115A (R-DAS)
http://www.freescale.com/files/sensors/doc/data_sheet/MPX4115A.pdf?pspll=
1
http://www.eng.hmc.edu/NewE80/PDFs/MPXA6115A.pdf

Pressure sensors-MPX4115A
http://www.freescale.com/files/sensors/doc/data_sheet/MPX4115A.pdf?pspll=
1

 Pressure units
 Pascal (Pa)=N/m
2
: standard atmosphere P
0
=101325 Pa=101.325kPa
 Bar: 1 bar=100 kPa
 Psi= (Force) pound per square inch: 1 Psi=6.89465 KPa

 MPX4115A measures pressure in the range: 15-115 kPa
 Sensitivity: 45.9mV/kPa (pressure range 100kPa
voltage range 4.59V)
 Typical supply voltage 5.1V
 Output analog voltage
 Offset voltage (V
off
) is the output voltage measured at minimum
rated pressure (Typical@ 0.204V)
 Full scale output (Vfso) measured at maximum rated pressure
(Typical@ 4.794 V)

How does voltage correlate to pressure
Nice it’s linear!!!
http://www.freescale.com/files/sensors/doc/data_sheet/MPX4115A.pdf?pspll=
1

0.204 V
4.794 V
y=ax+b
Calibration!
Signal Conditioning Circuitry
- From sensor voltage to ADC on R-DAS
• 0.2-4.8V (close to 0-5V in ADC), so no scaling/shifting
circuitry is added for easy data processing.
• The input impedance of R-DAS is 1kΩ, so a unity gain
• Low pass filter before ADC.
• All power supplies should be bypassed to reduce noises.
1/4
+
-
MPXA4115A
Pressure
Sensor
1
2
3
4
+5V
470uF
0.01uF
1uF
buffer
Measure voltage and pressure in the lab

analog voltage
 Pressure reading is in the units of Psi.
 Since everything is linearly scaled, you can choose
your calibration curve or units freely.

Pressure
chamber
Hand
pump
Precision
pressure
gauge
R-DAS
IMU

Laptop
LabView
data
Sensors &
signal conditioning
Calibration curve options
Pressure (Psi)
D
i
g
i
t
a
l

r
e
a
d
i
n
g

kPa 89465 . 6 Psi 1
sensor from voltage Analog 5
1024
Digital
=
= ×
If you want to compare with
Manufacture specifications
If you want to use you calibration
curve to find pressure in field test
In case you care about error.
http://www.freescale.com/files/sensors/doc/data_sheet/MPX4115A.pdf?pspll=
1

 Voltage Error=Pressure Error x
Temperature Error Factor x0.009 x Vs
 Temperature Error Factor=1 (0
o
C-85
o
C),
otherwise higher
 Pressure Error: +/- 1.5KPa

Find a and b in calibration curve
y=ax+b
 Collect data sets (x
1
,y
1
) (x
2
, y
2
)……(x
n
, y
n
), n>2
 Best fit (regression or least square) line
 Excel, Matlab or KlaidaGraph, of course LabView……

Excel Example
Find a and b in calibration curve
y=ax+b

Believe it or not you can actually do it by hand:

n
x a y
b
x x n
y x y x n
a
n
i
i
n
i
i
n
i
i
n
i
i
n
i
i
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n
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=
¿ ¿
¿ ¿
¿ ¿ ¿
= =
= =
= = =
1 1
2
1 1
2
1 1 1
Intercept
Slope
How does pressure (P) relate to altitude (h)?
Assume constant temperature gradient dT/dh, the altitude h is
a function of pressure P given by:

where
 h = altitude (above sea level) (Units in feet)
 P
0
= standard atmosphere pressure= 101325Pa
 T
0
= 288.15K (+15ºC)
 dT/dh=-0.0065 K/m: thermal gradient or standard temperature lapse
rate
 R = for air 287.052 m
2
/s
2
/K
 g = (9.80665 m/s²)
( )
( )
(
(
(
¸
(

¸

|
|
.
|

\
|
÷ ·
÷
=
· ÷
g
R
dh
dT
P
P
dh
dT
T
h
0
0
1
Reference: (1976 US standard atmosphere)
How to relate pressure to altitude?
Plug in all the constants

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|

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|
÷ × × =
1902 . 0
5
kPa 325 . 101
kPa) (
1 10 4544 . 1
P
h
• h is measured in feet.
• This equation is calibrated up to 36,090 feet (11,000m).
• Reference: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Atmospheric_pressure
• A more general equation can be used to calculate the
relationship for different layers of atmosphere

(1)
It is finally rocket time!

Time (second)
Voltage

Time (second)
Altitude
Time (second)
Pressure

Calibration curve
Equation (1)
Thermistors
 Thermistors are widely used for temperature
sensing purposes (sensitivity, accuracy, reliability)
 Thermistors are temperature dependent resistors
 Most common: Negative-Temperature Coefficient
(NTC) thermistors
 NTC themistors have nonlinear R-T characteristics
 Steinhart-Hart equation is widely used to model
the R-T relationship.
More background: http://www.thermometrics.com/assets/images/ntcnotes.pdf

 Air conditioning and seat temperature controls.
 Electronic fuel injection, in which air-inlet, air/fuel
mixture and cooling water temperatures are
monitored to help determine the fuel concentration
for optimum injection.
 Warning indicators such as oil and fluid temperatures,
oil level and turbo-charger switch off.
 Fan motor control, based on cooling water
temperature
 Frost sensors, for outside temperature measurement
Basic characteristics of thermistors
(1) Operating temperature range
(2) Zero power resistance of thermistor
R=R
0
expB(1/T-1/T
0
), T, T
0
are ambient
temperatures, R, R
0
are corresponding resistances
and B is the B-constant (or β constant ) of the
thermistor
Or B=ln(R/R
0
)/(1/T-1/T
0
)
(3) Since thermistor is a resistor, power dissipation
P=C(T
2
-T
1
), where C is the thermal dissipation
constant (mW/ºC). This causes self-heating.
(4) Thermal time constant

R-T characteristics of thermistor
A common 10kOhm NTC thermistor
• It is nonlinear!!
• Temperature goes up more
charges in semiconductor
resistance goes down! (NTC)
Relating T to R:
Steinhart-Hart (S-H) Equations
 3 term form:

 2 term form:

 T is measured in Kevin.
 Measure 3 resistances and 3 temperatures, you can
solve three unknowns C
1
, C
2
and C
3.
 Matrix inversion (linear algebra)
 Minimize (least square) error in curve fitting
 Once C
1
, C
2
and C
3
are known, S-H equation (for your
sensor) can be used to predict T based on R
measurement.

3
3 2 1
) ln( ) ln(
1
R C R C C
T
· + · + =
2 2 1 1
2 1
' , ' Note
) ln( ' '
1
C C C C
R C C
T
= =
· + =
Solve C
1
, C
2
and C
3

3
3 2 1
) ln( ) ln(
1
R C R C C
T
· + · + =
( )
( )
( )
( )
( )
( )
X) solve known, are B (A,
ln ln 1
ln ln 1
ln ln 1
ln ln
ln ln
ln ln
1
1
1
3
2
1
3
3 3
3
2 2
3
1 1
3
3 3 3 2 1
3
2 3 2 2 1
3
1 3 1 2 1
3
2
1
X B A
C
C
C
R R
R R
R R
R C R C C
R C R C C
R C R C C
T
T
T
· =
(
(
(
¸
(

¸

·
(
(
(
¸
(

¸

=
(
(
(
¸
(

¸

+ +
+ +
+ +
=
(
(
(
(
(
(
(
¸
(

¸

Solve C
1
, C
2
and C
3

3
3 2 1
) ln( ) ln(
1
R C R C C
T
· + · + =
( )
( )
( )
( )
( )
( )
| | | |
ji
T
ij
b
B
b
B
B
X B B A B
X B A
C
C
C
R R
R R
R R
R C R C C
R C R C C
R C R C C
T
T
T
1 1
where

X) solve known, are B (A,
ln ln 1
ln ln 1
ln ln 1
ln ln
ln ln
ln ln
1
1
1
1
1 1
3
2
1
3
3 3
3
2 2
3
1 1
3
3 3 3 2 1
3
2 3 2 2 1
3
1 3 1 2 1
3
2
1
= =
· · = ·
· =
(
(
(
¸
(

¸

·
(
(
(
¸
(

¸

=
(
(
(
¸
(

¸

+ +
+ +
+ +
=
(
(
(
(
(
(
(
¸
(

¸

÷
÷ ÷
Matrix inversion
Matrix determinant
Matrix transpose
Measure thermistor resistance
with R
T
embedded?
(1) Voltage divider circuit
 Relating Vout to R
T
(2) Wheatstone bridge circuit*
 Balancing the Bridge circuit
 Relating Vout to R
T

Embed a thermistor in voltage divider

Design considerations:
 V
out
voltage range (signal conditioning in order
 V
out
sensitivity varies at different temperature
range (R-T characteristics curve)

+
÷
Vs
R1
RT
Vout
1
R R
R
V V
T
T
S out
+
=
Recall BEM Lab #3:
Where R
T
varies with T
Bridge circuit to embed a thermistor*
Design considerations:
 More sensitive to small changes
 V
out
voltage range (to interface with ADC)
Reference:
849058268369033Fsect2.PDF
|
|
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|

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|
+
÷
=
~ =
=
=
|
|
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|

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|
+
÷
+
=
out S
out S
T
T
out
T
T
S out
V V
V V
R R
R R R R
V
R
R
R
R
R R
R
R R
R
V V
2
2
: Then
& if
0
balanced) is (bridge if
1
1 3 2
3
2
1
3 2
3
1
1
+
÷
Vs
R1
RT
Vout
R2
R3
+ -
Thermistor signal conditioning circuits
REF195
1/4
+
-
10k
Thermistor
buffer
+5 V
reference
Voltage divider and a unity gain buffer is required!
nominal at 10k
Vout
Thermistor on rocket!
Voltage
Resistance
R
T
Temperature
on rocket
S-H equation
(with calibration constants
C
1
, C
2
and C
3
)
Just a voltage divider
In summary
calibrate sensors in the lab
Analog
voltage
Computer
LabVIEW
Pressures chamber
Signal
conditioning
Analog
0-5V
Environment with
different temperatures
Analog
voltage
Signal
conditioning
Analog
0-5V

Measurement
circuitry
Thermistor
on rocket

Measurement
circuitry
Pressure sensor
on rocket

Agenda
(1) (2) (3)

Pressure sensors and calibration Relating pressure to altitude Thermistors and calibration (Steinhart-Hart constants)

Pressure sensors   Barometric pressure changes vs. Each sensor has slightly different characteristics. altitude and temperature. so we need to calibrate them individually. Voltage Pressure sensors on R-DAS or IMU Analog Signal conditioning voltage Environment with varying pressures Analog 0-5V ADC on R-DAS Raw data 0-1024 Computer LabVIEW . so we can use pressure sensor data to indicate the altitude change in the rockets during their launch.

Voltage Pressure sensors on R-DAS or IMU Analog Signal conditioning voltage Environment with varying pressures Analog 0-5V ADC on R-DAS Raw data 0-1024 Computer LabVIEW . so we need to calibrate them individually.Pressure sensors   Barometric pressure changes vs. Each sensor has slightly different characteristics. so we can use pressure sensor data to indicate the altitude change in the rockets during their launch. altitude and temperature.

com/files/sensors/doc/data_sheet/MPX4115A.freescale.Pressure sensors-altimeter MPX4115A(IMU) / MPXA6115A (R-DAS) http://www.pdf?pspll= 1 .

794 V) http://www.325kPa Bar: 1 bar=100 kPa Psi= (Force) pound per square inch: 1 Psi=6.204V) Full scale output (Vfso) measured at maximum rated pressure (Typical@ 4.9mV/kPa (pressure range 100kPa voltage range 4.59V) Typical supply voltage 5.com/files/sensors/doc/data_sheet/MPX4115A.pdf?pspll= 1 .89465 KPa     MPX4115A measures pressure in the range: 15-115 kPa Sensitivity: 45.freescale.Pressure sensors-MPX4115A  Pressure units    Pascal (Pa)=N/m2: standard atmosphere P0=101325 Pa=101.1V Output analog voltage   Offset voltage (Voff) is the output voltage measured at minimum rated pressure (Typical@ 0.

pdf?pspll= .freescale.794 V y=ax+b Calibration! 0.com/files/sensors/doc/data_sheet/MPX4115A.How does voltage correlate to pressure Nice it’s linear!!! 4.204 V http://www.

Signal Conditioning Circuitry .From sensor voltage to ADC on R-DAS +5V 1 2 MPXA4115A Pressure Sensor 3 4 + 470uF 1/4 AD8606 (AD8605) buffer 0.01uF 1uF To ADC • 0. so no scaling/shifting circuitry is added for easy data processing.2-4. • The input impedance of R-DAS is 1kΩ. . so a unity gain buffer is required for loading. • Low pass filter before ADC.8V (close to 0-5V in ADC). • All power supplies should be bypassed to reduce noises.

you can choose your calibration curve or units freely. Since everything is linearly scaled. the digital readings (0-1024)(0-5V) analog voltage Pressure reading is in the units of Psi.Measure voltage and pressure in the lab Sensors & signal conditioning Precision pressure gauge R-DAS IMU data Laptop LabView Hand pump    Pressure chamber After ADC. .

89465 kPa If you want to use you calibration curve to find pressure in field test Pressure (Psi) .Calibration curve options If you want to compare with Manufacture specifications Digital reading Digital  5  Analog voltage from sensor 1024 1 Psi  6.

In case you care about error. otherwise higher Pressure Error: +/.1.freescale.    Voltage Error=Pressure Error x Temperature Error Factor x0.009 x Vs Temperature Error Factor=1 (0oC-85oC).pdf?pspll= 1 .5KPa http://www.com/files/sensors/doc/data_sheet/MPX4115A.

yn). of course LabView…… Excel Example . n>2 Best fit (regression or least square) line Excel.y1) (x2. Matlab or KlaidaGraph.Find a and b in calibration curve y=ax+b    Collect data sets (x1. y2)……(xn.

Find a and b in calibration curve y=ax+b Believe it or not you can actually do it by hand:  n   n  n  n    xi yi     xi   yi    i 1  i 1  Slope a   i 1 2 n n   2  n    xi     xi   i 1   i 1   n   yi  a  xi   i 1  Intercept b  i 1 n n .

the altitude h is a function of pressure P given by:  dT  R   dh  P g  T0 h  1     P  dT   dh   0      where     h = altitude (above sea level) (Units in feet) P0 = standard atmosphere pressure= 101325Pa T0 = 288.15K (+15ºC)   dT/dh=-0.How does pressure (P) relate to altitude (h)? Assume constant temperature gradient dT/dh.0065 K/m: thermal gradient or standard temperature lapse rate R = for air 287.052 m2/s2/K g = (9.80665 m/s²) Reference: (1976 US standard atmosphere) .

000m). • Reference: http://en.1902  5   h  1. • This equation is calibrated up to 36.org/wiki/Atmospheric_pressure • A more general equation can be used to calculate the relationship for different layers of atmosphere (1) .090 feet (11.325 kPa     • h is measured in feet.wikipedia.How to relate pressure to altitude? Plug in all the constants   P(kPa)  0.4544 10  1      101 .

It is finally rocket time! Pressure Voltage Calibration curve Time (second) Time (second) Altitude Equation (1) Time (second) .

reliability) Thermistors are temperature dependent resistors Most common: Negative-Temperature Coefficient (NTC) thermistors NTC themistors have nonlinear R-T characteristics Steinhart-Hart equation is widely used to model the R-T relationship.pdf .Thermistors      Thermistors are widely used for temperature sensing purposes (sensitivity.thermometrics. More background: http://www.com/assets/images/ntcnotes. accuracy.

Examples: thermistors in your car      Air conditioning and seat temperature controls. for outside temperature measurement . Warning indicators such as oil and fluid temperatures. based on cooling water temperature Frost sensors. Fan motor control. in which air-inlet. air/fuel mixture and cooling water temperatures are monitored to help determine the fuel concentration for optimum injection. Electronic fuel injection. oil level and turbo-charger switch off.

power dissipation P=C(T2-T1). (4) Thermal time constant . T. R.Basic characteristics of thermistors (1) Operating temperature range (2) Zero power resistance of thermistor R=R0expB(1/T-1/T0). where C is the thermal dissipation constant (mW/ºC). R0 are corresponding resistances and B is the B-constant (or β constant ) of the thermistor Or B=ln(R/R0)/(1/T-1/T0) (3) Since thermistor is a resistor. T0 are ambient temperatures. This causes self-heating.

R-T characteristics of thermistor A common 10kOhm NTC thermistor • It is nonlinear!! • Temperature goes up more charges in semiconductor resistance goes down! (NTC) .

  Matrix inversion (linear algebra) Minimize (least square) error in curve fitting  Once C1. you can solve three unknowns C1. C2 and C3 are known. Measure 3 resistances and 3 temperatures. C2 '  C2   T is measured in Kevin.Relating T to R: Steinhart-Hart (S-H) Equations  3 term form: 1  C1  C2  ln( R)  C3  ln( R)3 T  2 term form: 1  C1 'C2 ' ln( R ) T Note C1 '  C1 . S-H equation (for your sensor) can be used to predict T based on R measurement. C2 and C3. .

Solve C1. C2 and C3 1  C1  C2  ln( R)  C3  ln( R)3 T 1   3  T1   C1  C2 ln R1  C3 ln R1   1 ln R1  1   C  C ln R  C ln R 3   1 ln R 2 2 3 2  2   T2   1 3  1  C1  C2 ln R3  C3 ln R3   1 ln R3       T3    ln R1 3   C1   ln R2 3   C2    3 ln R3   C3    A  B  X (A. B are known.solve X) .

Solve C1.solve X)   T  1 b ji B   Matrix inversion Matrix determinant Matrix transpose . C2 and C3 1  C1  C2  ln( R)  C3  ln( R)3 T 1   3  T1   C1  C2 ln R1  C3 ln R1   1 ln R1  1   C  C ln R  C ln R 3   1 ln R 2 2 3 2  2   T2   1 3  1  C1  C2 ln R3  C3 ln R3   1 ln R3      T3    B 1  A  B 1  B  X 1 where B 1  bij B ln R1 3   C1   ln R2 3   C2    3 ln R3   C3    A  B  X (A. B are known.

Measure thermistor resistance with RT embedded? (1) Voltage divider circuit  Relating Vout to RT (2) Wheatstone bridge circuit*  Balancing the Bridge circuit  Relating Vout to RT .

Embed a thermistor in voltage divider Recall BEM Lab #3: Vs   R1 Vout RT Vout RT  VS RT  R1 Where RT varies with T Design considerations:  Vout voltage range (signal conditioning in order to interface with ADC)  Vout sensitivity varies at different temperature range (R-T characteristics curve) .

Bridge circuit to embed a thermistor*   RT + R1 Vout R2 R3 Vs  R1 R3  Vout  VS   R R R R   1 2 3   T R R if T  2 (bridge is balanced) R1 R3 Vout  0 if R2  R3 & R1  RT      V  2Vout Then : RT  R1  S  V  2V out  S Design considerations:   More sensitive to small changes Vout voltage range (to interface with ADC) Reference: http://www.PDF .com/UploadedFiles/Associated_Docs/324555617048500532024843352497435735317 849058268369033Fsect2.analog.

Thermistor signal conditioning circuits buffer REF195 +5 V reference 10k + Thermistor 1/4 AD8606 (AD8605) To ADC Vout nominal at 10k Voltage divider and a unity gain buffer is required! .

C2 and C3) Temperature on rocket .Thermistor on rocket! Voltage Reading Just a voltage divider Resistance RT S-H equation (with calibration constants C1.

In summary calibrate sensors in the lab Pressure sensor on rocket Measurement circuitry Pressures chamber Computer LabVIEW Signal Analog Analog voltage conditioning 0-5V Signal Analog Analog voltage conditioning 0-5V ADC Thermistor on rocket Measurement circuitry Environment with different temperatures ADC .