The Urinary System

Sheryll Joy L. Calayan, R.N.

The Urinary System

carries urine from the urinary bladder to the outside of the body The ureters and Urinary bladder are lined with transitional epithelium and have smooth muscles in their walls.Ureters. Urinary Bladder and Urethra • Ureters. The internal and external urinary sphincter muscles regulate the flow of urine through the urethra • • .carry urine from the renal pelvis to the • urinary bladder Urethra.

The Urinary System .

Kidneys • Nephron.the functional unit of the kidney – Renal corpuscle – Proximal convoluted tubule – Loop of Henle – Distal convoluted tubule • Filtration membrane formed by: – Glomerular capilliaries – Basement membrane – Podocytes of the Bowman’s capsule .

Structure of the Kidney .

Arteries and Veins • Renal arteries give rise to branches that lead to afferent arterioles • Afferent arterioles supply the glomeruli • Efferent arterioles carry blood from the glomeruli to the peritubular capilliaries • Blood from the peritubular capilliaries flows to the renal veins .

Blood Supply of the Kidney .

Nephrons and Urine Formation • Nephrons form the urine product – Filtration – Reabsorption – Secretion • Each kidney contains about 1 million nephrons .

Structure of a Nephron • 2 main structures – Glomerulus – a knot of capillaries – Renal tubule (about 2 inches long) • Bowman’s capsule surrounds the glomerulus • Proximal convoluted tubule • Henle’s Loop • Distal convoluted tubule • Renal tubule enters collecting duct – Receives urine from nephrons – Delivers final urine product into the calyces .

A Typical Nephron .

A Renal Corpuscle .

Blood Supply of the Nephron .

– Blood pH must be 7.0 .5 – 8.Control of Blood Composition by Kidneys • Excretion of nitrogen-containing compounds • Water and electrolyte balance – Regulated by hormones • ADH – increases water reabsorption • Aldosterone – increases sodium reabsorption – Urea – Uric acid • Acid-base balance of blood – Second effect of aldosterone – increase water reabsorption.45 (very narrow range) – Tubule cells secrete whatever is necessary into filtrate – Urine pH = 4.35 – 7.

Regulation of Urine Concentration and Volume .

Hormonal Mechanisms: ADH • ADH is secreted from the posterior pituitary when the concentration of blood increases or when blood pressure decreases. • ADH increases the permeability to water of the distal convoluted tubule and collecting duct. • It increases water reabsorption by the kidneys .

Hormonal Mechanisms: Aldosterone • Aldosterone increases the rate of: – sodium chloride reabsorption. and – hydrogen ion secretion . – potassium secretion.

Hormonal Mechanisms: Atrial Natriuretic Hormone • Secreted from the right atrium in response to the increase in blood pressure • Acts on the kidney to increase the sodium and water loss in the urine .

decreases filtrate in urine formation .Effect of Sympathetic Nerve Innervation on Kidney Function • Increased sympathetic activity decreases blood flow to the kidney. decreases filtration pressure.

Stretch of the urinary bladder stimulates ascending neurons that carry impulses to the brain and inform the brain of the need to urinate .URINE MOVEMENT • Increased volume in the urinary bladder  • • • stretches wall activates micturation reflex Parasympathetic impulses  contraction of the urinary bladder and relaxation of the internal urinary sphincter Reduced somatic potentials cause relaxation of the external urinary sphincter Higher brain centers control the micturation reflex.

in interstitial fluid. and lymph .within cells • 40% outside cells. plasma of blood.Body Fluid Compartments • Water and its electrolytes are distributed in two major compartments • Approximately 60% .

• Extracellular fluid contains more sodium. and proteins than extracellular fluid. . and bicarbonate ions than intracellular fluid. magnesium. sulfate ions. calcium. chloride. phosphate.Composition of Fluid in Body Fluid Compartments • Intracellular fluid contains more Potassium.

Sign up to vote on this title
UsefulNot useful