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R5: KINETIC

SCOPE OF STUDY

Boyles Law Charles Law GayLussacs Law

Absolute Temperatur e

Real Gas

gases

Elements that exist as gases at 250C and 1 atmosphere

gases

gases

Physical Characteristics of Gases

Gases assume the volume and shape of their containers. Gases are the most compressible state of matter. Gases will mix evenly and completely when confined to the same container. Gases have much lower densities than liquids and solids.

gases

By international agreement, the reference element is chosen to be the most abundant type of carbon, called carbon-12, and its atomic mass is defined to be exactly twelve atomic mass units, or 12 u.

Molecular mass

The molecular mass of a molecule is the sum of the atomic masses of its atoms. For instance, hydrogen and oxygen have atomic masses of 1.007 94 u and 15.9994 u, respectively. The molecular mass of a water molecule (H2O) is: 2(1.007 94 u) + 15.9994 u = 18.0153 u.

AVOGADROS NUMBER

The number of atoms per mole is known as Avogadro's number NA, after the Italian scientist Amedeo Avogadro (17761856):

Number of moles

The number of moles n contained in any sample is the number of particles N in the sample divided by the number of particles per mole NA (Avogadro's number):

The number of moles contained in a sample can also be found from its mass.

BOYLES LAW

DEFINITION

The volume of a gas is inversely proportional to the absolute pressure applied to it when temperature is constant

BOYLES LAW

GRAPH :

BOYLES LAW

FORMULA

P 1/V P x V = constant P1 x V1 = P2 x V2

Constant temperature Constant amount of gas

BOYLES LAW

Example : A sample of chlorine gas occupies a volume of 946 mL at a pressure of 726 mmHg. What is the pressure of the gas (in mmHg) if the volume is reduced at constant temperature to 154 mL?

P1 x V1 = P2 x V2 P1 = 726 mmHg V1 = 946 mL P2 = P1 x V1 V2 = P2 = ? V2 = 154 mL

= 4460 mmHg

charlesS LAW

DEFINITION

The volume of a gas is directly proportional to the absolute temperature when the pressure is constant

charlesS LAW

GRAPH :

charlesS LAW

FORMULA

Temperature must be in Kelvin

charlesS LAW

A sample of carbon monoxide gas occupies 3.20 L at 125 0C. At what temperature will the gas occupy a volume of 1.54 L if the pressure remains constant?

V1/T1 = V2/T2 V1 = 3.20 L T1 = 398.15 K V2 x T 1 V1 V2 = 1.54 L T2 = ? 1.54 L x 398.15 K 3.20 L = 192 K

T2 =

Gay-lussacS LAW

DEFINITION

The absolute pressure of a gas is directly proportional to the absolute temperature when the volume is constant

Gay-lussacS LAW

GRAPH :

Temperature is a measure of average kinetic energy. As temperature increases, particles move faster. As the temperature of a gas increases the particles will hit the walls with more force.

Gay-lussacS LAW

FORMULA

Constant volume Constant amount of gas, n

Gay-lussacS LAW

A gas has a pressure at 2.0 atm at 18C. What is the new pressure when the temperature is 62C? (V and n constant).

Conditions 2 P2 T2 =

Gay-lussacS LAW

2. Solve Gay-Lussacs Law for P2: P1 = P2 T1 T2 P2 = P1 x T2 T1 P2 = 2.0 atm x 335 K = 2.3 atm 291 K

Temperature ratio increases pressure

Exhibits certain theoretical properties. Specifically, an ideal gas : Obeys all of the gas laws under all conditions. Does not condense into a liquid when cooled. Shows perfectly straight lines when its V and T & P and T relationships are plotted on a graph.

DEFINITION

The absolute pressure of an ideal gas is directly proportional to the Kelvin temperature and the number of moles of the gas and is inversely proportional to the volume of the gas.

nRT P= V

OR

Volume Pressure Universal Gas Constant

PV=nRT

No. of moles

Temperature

PV = nRT

P V T n R = = = = = pressure volume temperature (Kelvin) number of moles gas constant Standard Temperature and Pressure (STP)

1 mol = 22.4 L @ STP

Recall: 1 atm = 101.3 kPa

Solve for constant (R) PV nT Substitute values: (1 atm) (22.4 L) = R (1 mole)(273 K) R = 0.0821 atm L / mol K

Task 1 : How many moles of H2 is in a 3.1 L sample of H2 measured at 300 kPa and 20C? Solution :

PV = nRT P = 300 kPa, V = 3.1 L, T = 293 K

(300 kPa)(3.1 L) (8.31 kPaL/Kmol)(293 K) = n = 0.38 mol

Task 2 :

How many grams of O2 are in a 315 mL container that has a pressure of 12 atm at 25C?

Solution :

PV = nRT P= 1215.9 kPa, V= 0.315 L, T= 298 K (1215.9 kPa)(0.315 L) (8.31 kPaL/Kmol)(298 K) = n = 0.1547 mol 0.1547 mol x 32 g/mol = 4.95 g

Task 3 :

What is the volume that 500 g of iodine will occupy under the conditions: Temp = 300oC and Pressure = 740 mm Hg?

Solution :

Step 1) Write down given information. mass = 500 g iodine n = 1.9685 mol I2 T = 573 K (300oC) P = 0.9737 atm (740 mm Hg) R = 0.0821 atm . L / mol . K V=?L

Step 2) Equation: PV = nRT Step 3) Solve for variable V = nRT P

Step 4) Substitute in numbers and solve (1.9685 mol)(0.0821 atm . L / mol . K)(573 K) V = 0.9737 atm V = 95.1 L I2

If the amount of gas does not change: N n= NA

R P =n T = N V R N A

Number of molecules

=N T kT

Boltzmanns constant.

Task 4: Hydrogen atom mass. Use Avogadros number to determine the mass of a hydrogen atom. Solution : Dive the mass of 1 mol by the number of atoms in a mole; the mass is 1.67 x 10-27 kg. Task 5: How many molecules in one breath? Estimate how many molecules you breathe in with a 1.0-L breath of air. Solution : 1 L is about 0.045 mol, and contains about 3 x 1022 molecules.

Absolute temperature

Temperature measured using the Kelvin scale where zero is absolute zero. Kelvin scale is a thermodynamic (absolute) temperature scale where absolute zero, the theoretical absence of all thermal energy, is zero (0 K). Kelvin unit and its scale, by international agreement, are defined by two points: absolute zero, and the triple point.

Absolute temperature

Absolute zero is the temperature at which nothing could be colder and no heat energy remains in a substance - exactly 0 K and 273.15 C. The triple point of water is, by definition, exactly 273.16 K and 0.01 C. This definition does three things: It fixes the magnitude of the kelvin unit as being exactly 1 part in 273.16 of the difference between absolute zero and the triple point of water; It establishes that one kelvin has exactly the same magnitude as a onedegree increment on the Celsius scale; It establishes the difference between the two scales null points as being exactly 273.15 kelvins (0 K 273.15 C and 273.16 K 0.01 C).

Absolute temperature

Triple Point of water : The point where water in the solid, liquid and gas states can coexist in equilibrium. The pressure of triple point is 4.58 torr and the temperature is 0.01 degree Celsius.

Absolute temperature

Absolute temperature

The absolute temperature, T at any points for an ideal gas is defined :

where :

P = Pressure in the thermometer when it is at point where T is determined PTP = Pressure of gas in the thermometer at the triple point temperature of water

REAL gas

DEFINITION

Most like an ideal gas when the real gas is at low pressure and high temperature.

REAL gas

At high pressures gas particles are close therefore the volume of the gas particles is considered. At low temperatures gas particles have low kinetic energy therefore particles have some attractive force In real gases, particles attract each other reducing the pressure Real gases behave more like ideal gases as pressure approaches zero. Example : Dry ice, liquid oxygen and nitrogen

Kinetic Molecular Theory (KMT) for an ideal gas states that all gas particles: are in random, constant, straight-line motion. are separated by great distances relative to their size; the volume of the gas particles is considered negligible. have no attractive forces between them. have collisions that may result in the transfer of energy between gas particles, but the total energy of the system remains constant.

The average translational kinetic energy of the molecules in an ideal gas is directly proportional to the temperature of the gas.

The end

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