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Legal Defense Fund

History of Legal Agitation

Scott v. Sandford (1857)

The Court ruled that:

• No Negroes, not even free Negroes, could ever become citizens of the United
States. They were "beings of an inferior order" not included in the phrase "all men" in
the Declaration of Independence nor afforded any rights by the Constitution.

•Dred Scott was not free, because Missouri law alone applied after he returned there.

•Legally, slaves within the United States remained enslaved until the final ratification
of the Thirteenth Amendment to the Constitution on December 6, 1865 (with final
recognition of the amendment on December 18), eight months after the cessation of
Jim Crow Laws

 The term Jim Crow comes from the minstrel show

song "Jump Jim Crow" written in 1828 and performed
by Thomas Dartmouth "Daddy" Rice, a white English
migrant to the U.S., the originator of blackface
 Since Jim Crow law is a blanket term for any of this
type of legislation following the end of Reconstruction,
the exact date of inception for the laws is difficult to
isolate; common consensus points to the 1890s
 Many state governments prevented blacks from
voting by requiring poll taxes and literacy tests, both
of which were not enforced on whites of British
descent due to grandfather clauses. One common
"literacy test" was to require the black would-be voter
to recite the entire U.S. Constitution and Declaration
of Independence from memory.
A depiction of Thomas D. Rice's "Jim

Plessy v. Ferguson (1896)

 The "separate but equal" provision of

public accommodations by state
governments is constitutional under
the Equal Protection Clause.
 This case legalized Jim Crow Laws.

Cumming v. Board of Education

of Richmond County (1899)
Berea College v. Kentucky (1908)
Civil Rights Cases Before Legal
Defense Fund

Guinn and Beal v. United

States (1915)

Powell, et al v. State of
Alabama (1932) All of the Scottsboro Boys were eventually paroled,
“Scottsboro Boys” freed or pardoned, except for Haywood Patterson, who
was tried and convicted of rape and given the death
penalty four times. He escaped north to Detroit. When
he was later arrested by the FBI in the fifties the
governor of Michigan did not allow him to be
extradited back to Alabama.
NAACP Lawyers

Charles Hamilton Houston

Missouri ex rel Gaines v. Canada (1938)

Legal Defense Fund

Smith v. Allwright (1944)

Morgan v. Commonwealth of
Virginia (1946)
Sweatt v. Painter (1950)
Brown et al v. Board of Education

 Thurgood Marshall

After Brown
* 1956: Gayle v. Browder overturns segregation of city buses; see also Montgomery Bus Boycott.

 * 1957: Fikes v. Alabama was a further ruling against forced confessions.

 * 1958: Cooper v. Aaron barred Arkansas Governor Orval Faubus from interfering with the desegregation of Little Rock's Central High School; see also Little
Rock Nine.

 * 1961: Holmes v. Danner began the desegregation of the University of Georgia.

 * 1962: Meredith v. Fair won James Meredith admission to the University of Mississippi

 * 1963: LDF attorneys defended Martin Luther King, Jr. against contempt charges for demonstrating without a permit in Birmingham, Alabama. See Letter
from Birmingham Jail.

 * 1963: Watson v. City of Memphis overruled segregation of public parks.

 * 1963: Simkins v. Moses H. Cone Memorial Hospital overruled segregation of hospitals that received federal construction funds.

 * 1964: Willis v. Pickrick Restaurant required Lester Maddox to integrate his restaurant; he closed it instead.

 * 1964: McLaughlin v. Florida ruled against anti-miscegenation laws.

 * 1965: Williams v. Wallace was a federal court order allowing a voting-rights march in Alabama, led by Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr., which had previously
been stopped twice by state police.

 * 1965: Hamm v. City of Rock Hill overturned the all convictions of demonstrators for participating in civil rights sit-ins.

 * 1965: Abernathy v. Alabama and Thomas v. Mississippi reversed convictions of Alabama and Mississippi Freedom Riders on the basis of Boynton v.

 * 1967: Quarles v. Philip Morris overturned the practice of "departmental seniority", which had forced non-white workers to give up their seniority rights
when they transferred to better jobs in previously white-only departments.

 * 1967: Green v. County School Board of New Kent County ruled that "freedom of choice" was an insufficient response to segregated schools.

 * 1968: Newman v. Piggie Park established that prevailing plaintiffs in civil rights act cases are entitled to receive attorneys' fees from the losing defendant.

 * 1969: Alexander v. Holmes County Board of Education ruled that a Mississippi school district's foot-dragging with respect to desegregation violated the
"all deliberate speed" mandate of Brown v. Board of Education.

 * 1969: Shuttlesworth v. Birmingham ruled against using the parade permitting process as a means of suppressing First Amendment rights.

 * 1969: Thorpe v. Housing Authority of Durham ruled that low-income public housing tenants could not be summarily evicted.

 * 1969: Sniadach v. Family Finance Corp. required due process for the garnishment of wages.

 * 1969: Allen v. State Board of Elections guaranteed the right to a write-in vote.
Get Involved!!!
 Alma Latina
 International Student Organization (ISO)
 PRIDE Black Student Alliance (BSA)
 Asian Pacific American Coalition (APAC)
 Multicultural Alliance
 South Asian Student Association (SOSA)
 Hamline African Student Association (HASA)
 FUSION: Multiracial and Transracial Adoptee Student Association
 Students for Free Tibet (SFT)
 Hmong Student Association (HSA)
 Native American Student Association  (NASA)
 Hamline International Graduate Student Association (HIGSA)