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Sardines ?

Not all of us canned are sardines!

Term sardine
Interchanged with pilchard Napoleon Bonaparte was the first to canned

sardines to feed his people. Shorter than 6 in (15.4 cm)more pilchard FAO/WHO Codex Standard- 21 species Fishbase- 6 species pilchards the rest sardines any small, oil rich, silvery and soft boned fish that are caught from salt water.

Genus Dussumeria

Sardines species Rainbow sardine Slender rainbow sardine Slender white sardine White sardine European pilchard (true sardine) Round sardinella (gilt sardine, Spanish sardine)

Scientific name Dussumieria acuta Dussumieria elopsoides Escualosa elongata Escualosa thoracata Sardina pilchardus

Escualosa Sardina Sardinella


Sardinella aurita Sardinella longiceps, Sardinella gibbosa (Indian sardines) South American pilchard (Pacific sardine, Sardinops sagax (Jenyns, 1842) California sardine, Chilean sardine, South African sardine)

Table 1. Commercially significant species. Source:, Feb. 25, 2012



Slender rainbow sardines

Rainbow sardine



Reasons: Population decline due to: Overfishing Global warming Prey as plankton (egg larval stage) Taxonomy Conservation and sustainability of fishes Consumer safety

Why egg and larvae

Poorly understood and investigated Location, identification and quantification

of eggs and larvae and calculations of natural mortality rates can directly help to predict the short-term fisheries of many commercially important fishes of the country. Indirectly, such studies will enable assessment of total stocks to confirm statistical estimations (James, 2010).

Eggs, larvae and juvenile are essential in

identifying and establishing relationships among taxa. meristic characters, osteological, morphometric, pigment patterns etc. to assemble characters of both adults and larvae as basis in assigning specimens to order or suborder Meristic characters - complete counts for most structures are obtained in the larval stage

Characters used in identification of early life history stages (Ahstrom et al. 1996).
Fins Pelvic- identification to genera and species within families. pectoral fins- although the first to form as larval fins, last to form rays important ordinal character. ventral fins are as important with regard to their placement on the body caudal fin and its supporting bones to have the most decisively useful set of characters for identifying larvae to order, suborder and often to family.

Rays are important characters for identification to the ordinal level.

CJupeiformes Predominantly pelagic eggs Egg shape Sometimes demersal Round Oval (Engraulidae) Smooth Segmented

Chorion Yolk

Oil globules
Perivitelline space

1 or 0
Various, wide to narrow

Table 2. Characters of Clupeiformes eggs aid in the identification to order or suborder



Predominant body shape Snout to anus length

Character of gut Trailing gut

Elongate, slender 65-95 %SL

Straight Not trailing

Number of vertebrae
Larval stage characters : Larval eyes Larval head spination Early forming fin rays or spines (often ornate) Transformation stage

ca. 40 to 60
ca. Round None No Marked D, A 6 V fins move, Anchovy snout forms

Early juvenile stage (prejuvenile of Hubbs, No 1958)

Table 3. Characteristics of Clupeiformes larvae

clupeiformes Type of fin elements : Pectoral rays* Sequence of formation Ventral rays Sequence of formation Position on body Formula Dorsal fin(s) Anal fin D and A terminal ray bifurcate Adipose fin Rays late late abdominal Var. usually 7-10 1 1, 0 sp + No

Caudal fin type

Principal C. rays Maximum no. hypurals (including parhypura)) Maximum no. purals No. ural centra Neural sp. on vertebra adj. to ural (pu2 of Monod, 1968)

19 4+3 3 3, 2, 1 (occasionally 4) Normal

Table 4. Fin characters for Clupeiformes

Role of larval stages in systematic investigations.

larval characters aid significantly in differentiating taxa

and in defining evolutionary lineages within a family or order, genera Contributions: R.K. JOHNSON (1974)- comprehensive revision of the Scopelarchidae BERTELSEN, KREFFT and MARSHALL (1976) comprehensive revision of the family Notosudidae MOSER and AHLSTROM, 1970, 1972 and 1974 Myctophidae life histories of flatfishes,

Myctophiformes; myctophidae lanternfishes differentiated to a remarkable degree, allowing ready identification to species and clear insights into evolutionary relationships. the most taxonomically tractable of all groups of fish larvae. characters have been useful in defining relationships at the subgeneric level, Used extensively in working out phylogenetic affinities among genera MOSER and AHLSTROM, 1972- postulated a mechanism for the evolution of photophore pattern in myctophids basedon the ontogenetic sequence of photophore development in larvae

Objectives of the review:

Determine morphological variations on the different stages of sardines development, egg and larvae: (Family Clupidae). Characterizing larval fish and eggs according to Size ,Shape , Pigment patterns Identification of larval stages

-Yolk sac Preflexion - Flexion Postflexion - Juvenile Verify that eggs and larvae have significant role in fish identification

Taxonomy of Sardinella species in the Western Atlantic Ocean is poorly understood (Reagan, 1917; Ditty et al 1994)
Bali sardinella Brazilian . sardinella Sardinella lemuru (Bleeker, 1853) Sardinella brasiliensis (Steindachner, 1879) cm 23 cm cm cm cm cm 20 cm cm

Japanese sardinella Sardinella zunasi (Bleeker, 1854) Indian oil sardine Goldstripe sardinella Round sardinella Madeiran sardinella Sardinella longiceps (Valenciennes, 1847) Sardinella gibbosa (Bleeker, 1849) Sardinella aurita (Valenciennes, 1847) Sardinella maderensis (Lowe, 1839)

Sardinel la





Regan (1917) recognized a single western

Atlantic species (S. aurita Valenciennes). Hildebrand (1963) referred to his western Atlantic material as S. anchovia Valenciennes and recognized a second species with a higher gillraker count, S. brasiliensis (Steindachner), that ranged from south Florida to Brazil. Prosvirov and Varea (1969) believed that only one species (S. anchovia) occurred in the Gulf of Mexico (Gulf).

Whitehead (1973, 1985) synonymized S.anchovia with

S. aurita and recognized S. brasiliensis as a sympatric species. Roithmayr (unpublished data) agreed with Whitehead (1973, 1985) and concluded that both species occur in the Gulf, with S. aurita more abundant than S. brasiliensis. Both also agreed that overlap in gillraker counts at <130 mm SL confounds any clear-cut distinction between taxa, a situation further complicated by the potential influence of exogenous factors on meristics (Whitehead, 1973).

Despite high morphological variability in Sardinella, electrophoretic study of Spanish sardine from the Gulf of Mexico and off Brazil found no clear indication of two sympatric

species (Wilson and Alberdi, 1991). Whitehead, 1985 revealed: Sardinella aurita occur in the eastern and western Atlantic Oceans, the Mediterranean Sea breeding patterns are extremely complex Its numerous populations or races complicate the understanding of its systematics, reproductive biology, and early life ecology.

Pigmentation.usually on nape at all sizes but number and position of these melanophores varied. Twelve different nape pigmentation patterns identified on larvae between 4 and 10 mm (N = 100) (Fig. 2). one small, external melanophore bilaterally on each side of nape (64% of larvae), 8% with single melanophore unilaterally.

Head pigment

primarily concentrated on nape, along cleithra, and above junction of mid- and hind-brain prior to transformation (Fig. 3).

Comparative egg, yolk, and oil globule diameters suggest that Sardinella eggs can be separated from most other northern Gulf c1upeids (except Atlantic thread herring, Opisthonema oglinum, and gulf menhaden, B. patronus): by mean egg size); mean egg diameter in Spanish sardine is smaller eggs of round herring (E. teres) lack an oil globule (Table 3). Scaled sardine (Harengula jaguana) eggs are larger (egg diameter usually >1.5 mm versus <1.4 mm in other species) oil globule diameters smaller than in all other c1upeids

Pacific herring Clupea pallasii specimens from Miyako Bay eggs adhere to the hatching tray spherical in shape diameter ranging from 1.33 to 1.46 mm. Egg yolk - pale yellow, segmented, diameter = 0.99 to 1.11mm oil globule- No periviteline space - relatively wide

Sardinella dayi
Embryonic taxonomy parameters : diameters of the whole egg, yolk and oil globule the distribution of pigment spots confirmed by the number of prearul and postanal myomeres The subtle differences with the closely resembling eggs and larvae of S. dayi, S.fimbriata and S. longiceps

Larva unreliable
larval development is inadequate to

reliably separate Spanish sardine from other clupeids in the Gulf. Illustration and description of Eggs and yolk-sac larvae of S. brasiliensis was based from samples outside the gulf of mexico and of low quality (Matsuura, 1971).

Larval Sardinella <20 mm in length from

southern Brazil cannot be separated into two groups using gillraker counts or other characters no distinct pigmentation pattern has been found to distinguish larvae of Sardinella from that region from larvae of other clupeids (Matsuura, 1975).

The result of reviewed literature does not

establish the claim that characteristics from eggs and larvae are useful in fish taxonomy (Moser et 1976) due to insufficient data, measured parameters are not constant, and specimens used are both fresh and some reared in the laboratories and others preserved in formalin which destroys data needed.

Nutrients in Sardines 3.20 oz-wt (90.72 grams)

vitamin B12135.1% Tryptophan.78.1% Phosphorus44.4% vitamin ..D43.7%

vitamin B3..23.8% Selenium..68.3% omega-3 fats.55.8% Protein.44.6%

Choline.16% Calories .(188)10%

Ahlstrom, Elbert H. and Moser, Geoffrey; Eggs and

Larvae of Fishes and Their Role In Systematic Investigations and In Fisheries. Bensam P.; Planktonic eggs and early larvae of the sardine, Central Marine Fisheries Research Institute, Cochin, Kerala 682 031, 3 June 1991 James, PSBR; Taxonomic status of marine pelagic fishes of India, research priorities and conservation strategies for the sustainability of their fisheries, Indian Journal of Animal Sciences 80 (4) (Suppl. 1): 3945, April 2010

Ditty, G. J., Houde, E.D. Shaw, Richard F.; Egg and

Larval Development of Spanish Sardine, Sardinella Aurita) Family Clupidae with Synopsis of characters to Identify Clupeid larvae from Northern Gulf of Mexico

Thank you !