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BUKU WAJIB : Systems Analysis and Design Kendall & Kendall Sixth Edition
JADWAL PERKULIAHAN KULIAH TOPIK BAHASAN I Assuming the role of the systems analyst II Interactive method III Prototyping IV Data Flow Diagram (DFD) V Data Dictionaries VI Describing process specification and structured decision VII Preparing the systems proposal UJIAN TENGAH SEMESTER (35%) VIII Designing effective output IX Designing effective input X Designing databases XI Designing user interfaces XII Designing accurate data-entry procedures XIII Quality assurance through software engin. XIV Implementing the Information System UJIAN AKHIR SEMESTER (35%),
Kendall & Kendall
REF (ED VI) Ch 1 Ch 4 Ch 6 Ch 7 Ch 8 Ch 9 Ch10
Ch 11 Ch 12 Ch 13 Ch 14 Ch 15 Ch 16 Ch 17
Penilaian lain :presentasi,tugas,quiz dll (30%)
PERTEMUAN 1 Assuming the Role of the Systems Analyst
Systems Analysis and Design Kendall & Kendall Sixth Edition
• Information systems • Phases of analysis and design • System maintenance • CASE tools • Alternate methodologies
Kendall & Kendall
Information • Information is an organizational resource. • Costs are associated with information processing. • Information processing must be managed to take full advantage of its potential. which must be managed as carefully as other resources. Kendall & Kendall 1-5 .
Executive support systems (EES). • Office automation systems (OAS). 1-6 . • Group decision support systems (GDSS) and Computer• Kendall & Kendall Supported Collaborative Work Systems. • Expert systems (ES) and Artificial Intelligence (AI).Categories Information systems fall into one of the following eight categories: • Transaction processing systems (TPS). • Management information systems (MIS). • Knowledge work systems (KWS). • Decision support systems (DSS).
• Open source software.New Technologies New technologies are being integrated into traditional systems: • Ecommerce uses the Web to perform business activities. including mobile commerce (mcommerce). Kendall & Kendall 1-7 . • Wireless and handheld devices. • Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP) has the goal of integrating many different information systems within the corporation.
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• Standard interface design. • Creating a global system. • 24-hour access for users. Kendall & Kendall 1-9 .Advantages of Using the Web • The benefits of using the Web are: • Increasing awareness of the availability of the service. person. or group. industry. product.
• Analyzing the information flows in organizations. • Designing computerized information systems to solve a problem. opportunities.Nature of Analysis and Design Systems analysis and design is a systematic approach to: • Identifying problems. Kendall & Kendall 1-10 . and objectives.
• Supporting experts within a business. • Analysts are problem solvers.Systems Analyst • Systems analysts act as: • Outside consultants to businesses. and require communication skills. • As change agents. Kendall & Kendall 1-11 . • Analysts must be ethical with users and customers.
Kendall & Kendall 1-12 . • It is divided into seven phases. • Each phase has unique activities.Systems Development Life Cycle • The systems development life cycle is a systematic approach to solving business problems.
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Phase 1 • Identifying: • Problems. • User management. • Opportunities. • Systems management. 1-14 Kendall & Kendall . • Personnel involved: • Analyst. • Objectives.
where. and the why for each of these. what.Phase 2 • Determining information requirements: • • Interview management. operations personnel. Learn the who. • Observe the system and personnel involved. when. • Use questionnaires. • Gather systems/operating documents. Kendall & Kendall 1-15 . and how.
• User operations workers. • User management.Phase 2 (Continued) • Personnel involved: • Analyst. Kendall & Kendall 1-16 . • Systems management.
• Document procedural logic for data flow diagram • • • • processes. Complete the data dictionary.Phase 3 • Analyzing system needs: • Create data flow diagrams. Make semistructured decisions. Recommend the optimal solution to management. Kendall & Kendall 1-17 . Prepare and present the system proposal.
Phase 3 (Continued) • Personnel involved: • Analyst. Kendall & Kendall 1-18 . • User management. • Systems management.
• Design output. Kendall & Kendall 1-19 .Phase 4 • Designing the recommended system: • Design the user interface. • Design system controls. • Produce program specifications. • Design files and/or database. • Produce decision trees or tables. • Design input.
• User operations workers. • Systems management. Kendall & Kendall 1-20 . • System designer.Phase 4 (Continued) • Personnel involved: • Analyst. • User management.
Kendall & Kendall • Design computer programs using structure 1-21 . • Document software with help files.Phase 5 • Developing and documenting software: charts. procedure manuals. • Write computer programs. Nassi-Schneiderman charts. and Web sites with Frequently Asked Questions. • Walkthrough program design. and pseudocode.
• Systems management.Phase 5 (Continued) • Personnel involved: • Analyst. Kendall & Kendall 1-22 . • System designer. • Programmers.
Phase 6 • Testing and maintaining the system: • Test and debug computer programs. • Test the computer system. Kendall & Kendall 1-23 . • Enhance system.
Kendall & Kendall 1-24 . • Programmers. • Systems management. • System designer.Phase 6 (Continued) • Personnel involved: • Analyst.
• Review and evaluate system. • Install system. • Train users. • Purchase and install new equipment.Phase 7 • Implementing and evaluating the system: • Plan conversion. • Convert files. 1-25 Kendall & Kendall .
1-26 Kendall & Kendall . • User management. • System designer.Phase 7 (Continued) • Personnel involved: • Analyst. • Programmers. • Systems management. • User operations workers.
Rapid Application Development Rapid Application development (RAD) is an object-oriented approach to systems development. Kendall & Kendall 1-27 .
Kendall & Kendall 1-28 . and • Enhancing existing software. • Time spent on maintenance typically ranges from 48-60 percent of total time.System Maintenance • System maintenance is: • Removing undetected errors.
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• Business and governmental requirements change over time. hardware. Kendall & Kendall 1-30 . • Technology. and software are rapidly changing.System Enhancements Systems are enhanced for the following reasons: • Adding additional features to the system.
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• Facilitate communication among analysts and users. microcomputerbased software packages for systems analysis and design. • Providing continuity between life cycle phases. • Four reasons for using CASE tools are: • To increase analyst productivity. Kendall & Kendall 1-32 .CASE Tools • CASE tools are automated. • To assess the impact of maintenance.
used to perform analysis and design. • Lower CASE (also called back-end CASE).CASE Tool Categories CASE tools may be divided into several categories • Upper CASE (also called front-end CASE) tools. • Integrated CASE. These tools generate computer language source code from CASE design. performing both upper and lower CASE functions. Kendall & Kendall 1-33 .
• Store data in a project repository. • These CASE tools model organizational requirements and define system boundaries.Upper CASE • Create and modify the system design. and other project information. screens. diagrams. • The repository is a collection of records. Kendall & Kendall 1-34 . reports. Upper CASE tools: elements.
Kendall & Kendall 1-35 . • Source code may usually be generated in several languages.Lower CASE • Lower CASE tools generate computer source code from the CASE design.
Computer programs may be generated in more than one language. Kendall & Kendall 1-36 . • The time to maintain generated code is less than to • • • maintain traditional systems. Generated code is free from program coding errors. CASE design may be purchased from third-party vendors and tailored to organizational needs.Advantages of Generating Code • Time to develop new systems decreases.
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and converted into repository entities. • Source code is examined. Kendall & Kendall 1-38 .Reverse Engineering • Reverse engineering is generating the CASE design from computer program code. analyzed.
and field. if the program is online. • A structure chart showing the hierarchy of the modules in the program. Kendall & Kendall 1-39 . records. • Report layouts for batch programs. describing the files. • Database design and relationships.Reverse Engineering (Continued) • Reverse engineering produces (depending on the tool set used): • Data structures and elements. • Screen designs.
Unused portions of programs may be eliminated. older programs. Future system maintenance is easier to implement. • Program documentation is produced for loosely • • • documented programs.Advantages of Reverse Engineering Reverse Engineering has the following advantages: • Reduced system maintenance time. Kendall & Kendall 1-40 . Structured programs may be generated from unstructured.
• Objects are grouped into classes for optimal reuse and maintainability. • O-O programming examines the objects of a system.Object-Oriented Analysis and Design • Object-oriented (O-O) analysis and design is used to build object-oriented programs. Kendall & Kendall 1-41 .
Kendall & Kendall 1-42 .The Unified Modeling Language • The Unified Modeling Language (UML) is an industry standard for modeling object-oriented systems. • It breaks down a system into a use case model.
Kendall & Kendall 1-43 .Extreme Programming (XP) • Extreme programming takes good software development practices and pushes them to the limit. • It is based on: • Values. • Principles. • Core practices.
• Feedback. • Simplicity. Kendall & Kendall 1-44 .Extreme Programming (XP) (Continued) • Extreme programming values are: • Communication. • Courage.
• Multi-view. 1-45 Kendall & Kendall . • Project Champions.Alternate Methodologies • Alternate methodologies are available for analyzing systems. • These include: • Prototyping. • Soft Systems Methodology. • ETHICS.
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