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.project on… Energy Crises.
which raises manufacturing costs. with many recessions being caused by an energy crisis in some form. higher transportation costs and general price rises. the price of gasoline (petrol) and diesel for cars and other vehicles rises. It usually refers to the shortage of oil and additionally to electricity or other natural resources. The crisis often has effects on the rest of the economy. An energy crisis is any great bottleneck (or price rise) in the supply of energy resources to an economy. For the consumer. the production costs of electricity rise. In particular.Introduction. . leading to reduced consumer confidence and spending.
. SSI units may have to shut shop due to power shortage? Sound like fiction. (All these are news items reported by the leading dailies in India) Power which fuels the economic engine could well become the single biggest limiting factor as India tries to achieve a consistent 8% growth target. So. . Cities reeling under 14 hour power cuts. let us just take a look at some of the important topics about the power sector in our country. well? these are definitely not lines from any fiction book! These spell the reality very much staring at our faces. what's going on? Before we analyze the situation. Power crisis spills onto streets.Some facts.
India faces major energy crisis due to Crude oil refining capacity and compliance to environmental clean up standards. .
287 MW (as of March 2006). The power sector is high on India's priority as it offers tremendous potential for investing companies based on the sheer size of the market and the returns available on investment capital. . about 10 percent on gas. 26 percent on hydro.6 percent on nuclear and 1 percent on diesel. The current installed capacity of power plants is 124. just under 5 percent on renewable sources. • India's power market is the fifth largest in the world.Overview. about 2. Almost 55 percent of this capacity is based on coal.
The Environmental Protection Agency reported in July of 2005 that for personal cars and trucks the average fuel efficiency was 6% less than 20 years ago. Personal vehicles account for 40% of the country's oil consumption. consumed over 24 times more electricity than China. 29 times more than Africa. In 2002.Largest energy producer. Its consumption surpasses that which it can produce from domestic sources. The United States is the world's largest energy producer. This makes the United States the world's largest importer of energy. along with Canada. The United States is the largest consumer of energy. and 47 times more than India. the United States. The United States is 5% of the world's population and accounts for 26% of the world's daily oil consumption. .
. Most human-caused emission of carbon dioxide is a result of combustion of fossil fuels for energy production. This also has a considerable impact on climate changing.5 microns in diameter affect human health.Impacts on the environment from our energy consumption: Carbon dioxide is one of the most prevalent greenhouse gases. particles invisible to the eye and no more than 1/30th of the diameter of human hair. studies have shown that particles smaller than 2. PM2. coal plants are responsible for a great deal of PM2. However.5 that forms in the atmosphere from emissions of sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxides. With regards to the greater Pittsburgh area. Most coal plants emit only a small amount of particles this size due to highly efficient particulate-collection devices. can cause cardiac and respiratory problems in humans.5.
There are three types of generation techniques under the head Thermal: • Coal Based • Gas Based • Diesel Based The next biggest contributor to thermal power supply is Hydro Power Plants.5% and 1.Statistics. India has a total installed capacity of about 100. accounting for nearly 25% of the overall production. roughly 70% comes from Thermal Power Plants.000 MW of which.5% respectively. Nuclear and wind based power plants in addendum account for a dismal 2. .
5 25 70 .5 2. coal-based power plants have a share of about 60% and are the biggest contributors to the power supply in India. 1 PIE CHART 1.As can be seen in the pie chart.
it is clear that we do have a crisis at hand.THE CRISIS: According to a report filed by the Ministry of power with the Prime Minister's office (as an SOS call). The seriousness of the situation can be ascertained from the wordings of the report. out of the total 75 coal based power plants in the country: 22 had less than 7 days stocks left 6 had less than 4 days stocks left (Against a mandatory requirement of 15 days) and could shut anytime (just as NTPC had already shut down one of its unit in Orissa due to coal shortage). Therefore. which says the situation is ?ALARMING? and needs to be redressed on WAR FOOTINGS. So. . almost 50% of the coal-based power plants were experiencing critically short supplies.
the cost of production of electricity would go up by 10 to 15 paisa per unit. the proposition is a costly one as the price of coal is quite high in the international market. However. . if the linked mines are not developed on war footings.2 MT to sustain its operation.) It is projected that to meet the shortfall between demand and supply. 12MT of coal will have to be imported every year for the next 2-3 years and figure could rise to 40MT by now.Steps taken by the government about the coal shortage: To meet the immediate demand the government has asked the plants to import coal (NTPC has already imported 3. Due to this.
Is there really a shortage of coal? • coal Mining in India was started in the year 1774 in the eastern part of the country in the State of West Bengal. • So.K. • Government budgetary support to public sector coal companies was 95% till 1990. Choudhary. the main problem is the production of coal and not natural scarcity. But why is the production not taking off? • Following are some of the reasons cited in a report prepared by Sh. • Administered pricing structure has not been remunerative enough to generate surplus worth investing in. S. Former Chairman. now we know that its not the scarcity but continuous neglect of the coal sector over the years that has led to the current situation . which has now come down to 10% of the plan outlay. • Public sector alone can not meet increasing demand of coal. These reserves are expected to last for another 243 years • Then clearly. Coal India Limited (the biggest coal producing company in India). • The total reserves of coal are estimated at about 248 billion tones (as per Coal India Ltd). • Development of new mines is not taken up for reasons of non-viability etc. India now ranks as the third largest coal producer of the World next only to China and USA.
Inventions Related to Energy Crises? • An Invention that converts solar energy into large amounts of mechanical or megawatts of electrical power. • An invention that can capture megawatts of electrical power from hydroelectric over very low (20 foot tall) dams. • An invention that converts ocean wave energy into megawatts of electrical power. • (Potentially) a concept that may be able to capture unimaginable amounts of electrical power by capturing a tiny bit of the energy of the earth's rotation. .
India’s gas consumption is projected to increase from 0. Over the past decade. India’s rapidly expanding economy requires increasing its energy consumption by an annual rate of 4% in order to maintain an economic growth rate of 6-7% India’s oil demand has increased by 100% between 1990 and 2003 and will increase by 100% again within the next 25 years.5 TCF by 2025. increasing at an alarming annual rate of 4. and it is projected that India will import over 90% of its annual oil requirements within the next 15 years.Conclusion. . India’s oil demand has grown by an annual rate of over 6% and is expected to increase in the near future India does not have the domestic oil resources to meet the growing oil demand. as evidenced by India not discovering a new oil reserve domestically since the 1970’s Two-thirds of India’s annual oil consumption is imported.8 trillion cubic feet (TCF) in 2001 to 2..8% India will be unable to meet natural gas demands through domestic resources and is projected to import 40% of its natural gas by 2025. Some facts on India's energy crises.
– 64. – 40. – 63. – 57.credits… Ashita Rachna Karan Parth Talha Anand – 11. . – 31.
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