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**Heat Exchanger and
**

Steam Generator Design

Lecture Notes 7 Part 2

Shell-and-Tube Heat Exchangers

Basic Design Procedure

Flow rates & compositions,

temperatures, pressures.

Process Eng ↔ Design Eng

Shell and head types, baffles,

tube passes, etc.

Preliminary design/analysis

Use heat transfer and pressure

drop correlations

Preliminary Design

•

Estimate heat transfer coefficients and fouling resistances.

–

Tables 8.4 and 8.5 give h and U values for various cases

–

Estimating h is preferred (Table 8.4)

• With h, R

f

’s, R

w

, and overall surface efficiencies (in case of

fins on either side) estimated, evaluate the overall heat

transfer coefficient

• This is the most general expression, also estimate U

c

.

•

Take F = 1.0 for counterflow HEX (single tube pass), or F

= 0.9 for any even number of tube passes.

o o o

fo

w t

i

fi

i

t

i i i

t

f

h

1 R

R A

R

A

A

h A

A

1

U

η

+

η

+ +

η

+

η

·

Preliminary Design (continued)

•

Estimate heat load

• Calculate ∆T

lm,cf

•

Estimate the size of the HEX

• This area is also related to tube diameter d

o

and number of

tubes N

t

• The objective is to find the number of tubes with diameter d

o

,

and shell diameter D

s

to accommodate the number of tubes,

with the given tube length.

cf , m o m o

o

T F U

Q

T U

Q

A

∆

·

∆

·

( ) ( ) ( ) ( )

2 h 1 h

h

p 1 c 2 c

c

p

T T c m T T c m Q − · − ·

L N d A

t o o

π ·

Preliminary Design (continued)

• Shell diameter, D

s

is

CL is the tube layout constant

–

CL = 1.0 for 90

o

and 45

o

, CL = 0.87 for 30

o

and 60

o

CTP is the tube count calculation constant

–

CTP = 0.93 for one tube pass

– CTP = 0.90 for two tube passes

– CTP = 0.85 for three tube passes

PR is the tube pitch ratio, P

T

/d

o

• Number of tubes, N

t

is

2 / 1

o

2

o

s

L

d ) PR ( A

CTP

CL

637 . 0 D

1

]

1

¸

·

2

o

2

2

s

t

d ) PR (

D

CL

CTP

785 . 0 N

,

_

¸

¸

·

See Example 8.1

Rating of the Preliminary Design

•

If HEX is available, skip preliminary design and proceed with

rating only. If rating shows that Q and/or pressure drop

requirements are not satisfied, select a different HEX and

iterate.

•

If not, preliminary design output is the rating input. Calculate

the heat transfer coefficients and pressure drops.

•

If length is fixed, rating output is outlet temperatures; if heat

load is fixed, rating output is HEX length.

Rating of the Preliminary Design (continued)

•

Tube side: Chapters 3 & 4 for heat transfer coefficient and

pressure drop calculations (two-phase flow later)

•

Shell side: more complicated

•

If rating output is not acceptable, modify

–

HEX cannot deliver the heat required: increase h or area

• To increase h

i

, increase u

m

in tubes, thus number of passes

• To increase h

o

, decrease baffle spacing or decrease baffle cut

• To increase area, increase length or shell diameter, or use shells in series

∆p

tube

> ∆p

all

: decrease number of tube passes or increase tube

diameter (thus decrease tube length, increase shell diameter and

number of tubes)

∆p

shell

> ∆p

all

: increase baffle spacing, tube pitch and baffle cut, or

change type of baffles

Shell Side Analysis

•

Baffles increase heat transfer coefficient due to increased

turbulence, tube correlations are not applicable

• Without baffles, h can be based on D

e

, similar to double-pipe

HEX, and Chapter 3 correlations can be used

•

On the shell side, McAdams correlation for Nu

Kern Method (simple method)

Shell Side Heat Transfer Coefficient

0.14 1/ 3 0.55

3 6

0.36 2 10 Re 1 10

p

o e e s b s e

s

w

c

h D D G G D

Nu for

k k

µ

µ

µ µ µ

· · × < · < ×

¸ _

¸ _ ¸ _

¸ , ¸ , ¸ ,

perimeter wetted

area flow free 4

D

e

− ×

·

( )

2 2

/ 2 2

T o

e

o

P d

D

d

π

π

−

·

( )

2 / d

2 / d 2 / 2 P 2

D

o

2

o

2

T

e

π

π −

·

square

triangular

G

s

(shell side mass velocity) can be evaluated from

where is the bundle crossflow area at the center

of the shell

D

s

: shell diameter

C: clearance between adjacent tubes

B: baffle spacing

P

T

: pitch size

• G

s

evaluated here is a fictional value because there is actually

no free-flow area on the shell side. This value is based on the

bundle crossflow area at the hypothetical tube row possessing

the maximum flow area corresponding to the center of the shell

Kern Method (simple method)

Shell Side Heat Transfer Coefficient (continued)

s

m

G

A

·

&

T

s

s

P

CB D

A ·

•

Depends on the number of tubes the fluid passes through in

the bundle between baffles and the length of each crossing.

•

The following correlation uses the product of distance across

the bundle, taken as D

s

, and the number of times the bundle is

crossed.

φ

s

= (µ

b

/µ

w

)

0.14

N

b

= L/B – 1 is the number of baffles

(N

b

+ 1) is the number of times the shell fluid passes the tube

bundle

f takes into account entrance and exit losses

where

Kern Method (simple method)

Shell Side Pressure Drop

( )

s e

s b

2

s

s

D 2

D 1 N fG

p

φ ρ

+

· ∆

( )

s

Re ln 19 . 0 576 . 0 exp f − ·

6

e s

s

10 1

D G

Re 400 × ≤

µ

· <

•

Total pressure drop including sudden expansions and

contractions during a return (for multiple tube passes)

•

Ignore second term if single tube pass

•

See Example 8.2 for the application of Kern method on

Example 8.1

Kern Method (simple method)

Tube Side Pressure Drop

2

u

N 4

d

LN

f 4 p

2

m

p

i

p

total , tube

ρ

,

_

¸

¸

+ · ∆

Bell-Delaware Method (complex method)

• Shell side flow is complex, combines crossflow and baffle

window flow, as well as baffle-shell and bundle-shell

bypass streams and other complex flow patterns

• Five different streams are identified; A, B, C, E, and F

• Bell-Delaware method takes into account the leakage and

bypass streams, most reliable method for shell side

• B-stream is the main stream, others reduce it and change

shell side temperature profile, thus decrease h

• A: leakage through tube/baffle clearance, C: bundle

bypass stream, E: baffle bypass stream, F: multi tube pass

Bell-Delaware Method

Shell Side Heat Transfer Coefficient

h

ideal

is the ideal heat transfer coefficient for pure crossflow in an

ideal tube bank

J’s are correction factors

j

i

is the Colburn j-factor for an ideal tube bank (Figures 8.15-

8.17, depend on shell side Re, , tube layout,

and pitch size; or correlation 8.25)

A

s

is the crossflow area at the centerline of the shell for one

crossflow between baffles, A

s

= D

s

CB/P

T

Note that Re

s

is different for this method (based on d

o

)

o ideal c l b s r

h h J J J J J ·

2/3 0.14

,

, ,

0.36

s s s

ideal i p s

s p s s s w

m k

h j c

A c

µ

µ µ

¸ _ ¸ _

¸ _

·

¸ ,

¸ , ¸ ,

&

s s s o s

A / m d Re µ ·

Bell-Delaware Method

Shell Side Heat Transfer Coefficient (continued)

•

Correlation for the Colburn j-factor for an ideal tube bank

a

1

– a

4

from Table 8.6 in book

•

Correlation for ideal friction factor

b

1

– b

4

from Table 8.6 in book as well

( )

( )

4

2

a

s

3

a

s

a

o T

1 i

Re 14 . 0 1

a

a where Re

d / P

33 . 1

a j

+

·

,

_

¸

¸

·

( )

( )

4

2

b

s

3

b

s

b

o T

1 i

Re 14 . 0 1

b

b where Re

d / P

33 . 1

b f

+

·

,

_

¸

¸

·

Bell-Delaware Method

Shell Side Heat Transfer Coefficient (continued)

Correction factors (J’s)

• J

c

is the correction for baffle cut and spacing. For a large baffle

cut, 0.53; for no tubes in window, 1.0; and for small windows

with a high window velocity, 1.15.

• J

l

is the correction factor for baffle leakage effects (A- and E-

streams). Putting baffles too close increases leakage. Typical

value 0.7 - 0.8.

• J

b

is the correction factor for bundle bypassing effects and shell

and pass dividers (C- and F- streams). For small clearance

between outermost tubes and shell for fixed tube sheet

construction, ~0.9. For a pull-through rotating head, ~0.7.

• J

s

is the correction factor for variable baffle spacing at the inlet

and outlet. Usually between 0.85 and 1.0.

• J

r

applies if Re

s

< 100. If Re

s

> 100, J

r

= 1.0.

•

The combined effects of all J’s is ~0.6.

Example 8.3

•

Given specifications for a HEX, first perform preliminary design,

then detailed thermal analysis

•

Compares the heat transfer coefficient on the shell side,

evaluated using three methods:

– Kern Method (note the different equation for A

s

, but gives the same

result as A

s

= D

s

CB/P

T

)

– Taborek Method (just a different Nu correlation than McAdams, other

procedures same as Kern Method, but Re

s

is based on d

o

, not D

e

)

– Bell-Delaware Method (Re

s

is again based on d

o

not D

e

)

• All three methods give comparable h

o

as a result

• Then, h

i

, U

c

, U

f

(R

ft

given in the problem), A

f

, A

c

are calculated

•

OS is evaluated as 43%, but it should not exceed 30% in design

specifications. Therefore, a new OS is assumed (20%) and R

ft

is

recalculated, which will help determine a suitable cleaning

schedule. With this OS, the new A

f

and D

s

are found.

•

With these new constructional parameters, the design must be

re-rated (you can do this as an exercise)

Bell-Delaware Method

Shell Side Heat Pressure Drop

The total nozzle-to-nozzle pressure

drop has 3 components

•

Entrance and exit

•

Internal

•

Window

entrance and exit

window

internal

each is one central

baffle spacing

Bell-Delaware Method

Shell Side Heat Pressure Drop (continued)

Entrance and Exit

•

Affected by bypass but not by leakage

•

Effect due to variable baffle spacing

where ∆p

bi

is the pressure drop in an equivalent ideal tube bank in

one baffle compartment of central baffle spacing

R

b

is the correction factor for bypass flow (C- and F-streams), 0.5-

0.8 depending on the construction type

N

c

is the number of tubes crossed during flow through one

crossflow in HEX

N

cw

is the number of tube rows crossed in each baffle window

R

s

is the correction factor for the entrance and exit section having

different baffle spacing (see literature for tabulated correction

factors)

s b

c

cw c

bi e

R R

N

N N

p 2 p

+

∆ · ∆

Bell-Delaware Method

Shell Side Heat Pressure Drop (continued)

Internal

•

Interior crossflow section (baffle tip to baffle tip)

where R

l

is the correction factor for baffle leakage effects (A- and

E-streams), 0.4-0.5

N

b

is the number of baffles

b l b bi c

R R ) 1 N ( p p − ∆ · ∆

Bell-Delaware Method

Shell Side Heat Pressure Drop (continued)

Window

•

Affected by leakage but not by bypass

•

Combined pressure drop in all windows

where ∆p

wi

is the pressure drop in an equivalent ideal tube bank in

the window section

l b wi w

R N p p ∆ · ∆

Bell-Delaware Method

Shell Side Heat Pressure Drop (continued)

•

The total pressure drop over the shell side is then

•

The pressure drop in nozzles must be calculated separately

∀∆p

bi

is calculated from

• f

i

from Figs. 8.15 – 8.17 or correlation 8.26

• For an ideal baffle window section, ∆p

wi

is calculated from

w c e s

p p p p ∆ + ∆ + ∆ · ∆

,

_

¸

¸

µ

µ

ρ

· ∆

s

w , s

s

2

s

i bi

2

G

f 4 p

( )

100 Re for

A A 2

N 6 . 0 2 m

p

s

w s s

cw

2

s

wi

≥

ρ

+

· ∆

100 Re for

A A

m

D

B

d

N

A A

m

26 p

s

w s s

s

2

w o

cw

w s s

s s

wi

≤

ρ

+

,

_

¸

¸

+

− ρ

ρ

µ

· ∆

( ) [ ] ( )

s b c cw bi l wi b b bi b s

R R N / N 1 p 2 R p N R p 1 N p + ∆ + ∆ + ∆ − · ∆

Bell-Delaware Method

Shell Side Heat Pressure Drop (continued)

• See literature for D

w

, A

w

, and correction factors.

• Number of tube rows crossed in one crossflow section, N

c

• L

c

is the baffle cut distance from

baffle tip to inside of shell

( )

p

s c i

c

P

D / L 2 2 d

N

−

·

Bell-Delaware Method

Shell Side Heat Pressure Drop (continued)

• Number of tube rows crossed in each window, N

cw

• Number of baffles, N

b

• If B

i

= B = B

o

, then N

b

= L/B – 1

•

The total shell side pressure drop of a typical shell-and-tube HEX

is about 20-30% of the pressure drop that would be calculated

without taking into account baffle leakages and tube bundle

bypass effects.

•

Read the Chapter on Shell-and-Tube HEX from D. Biniciogullari’s

M.S. Thesis, PDF document on web.

1

B

B B L

N

o i

b

−

− −

·

p

c

cw

P

L 8 . 0

N ·

Example 8.4

•

Given the HEX designed in Example 8.3, and other

specifications, calculate the shell-side pressure drop using Bell-

Delaware method to see if HEX is suitable.

•

Takes into consideration all factors mentioned in the previous 7

slides.

•

Compares the result with that obtained through Kern method.

∀∆p

BD

< ∆p

K

, about 48%.

Example 8.5

•

Complete design of a HEX for given process specifications with

the Kern method.

•

The example can be repeated with the Bell-Delaware method as

an execise.

**Basic Design Procedure
**

Flow rates & compositions, temperatures, pressures. Process Eng ↔ Design Eng Shell and head types, baffles, tube passes, etc. Preliminary design/analysis

Use heat transfer and pressure drop correlations

– Tables 8. or = 0.4) • With h. Rw. also estimate Uc.9 for any even number of tube passes.4 and 8. and overall surface efficiencies (in case of fins on either side) estimated.5 give h and U values for various cases – Estimating h is preferred (Table 8. F . • Take F = 1.Preliminary Design • Estimate heat transfer coefficients and fouling resistances. Rf’s.0 for counterflow HEX (single tube pass). evaluate the overall heat transfer coefficient 1 Uf = At A t R fi R fo 1 + + A tR w + + A iηihi A i ηi ηo ηoho • This is the most general expression.

.

.

cf • Estimate the size of the HEX Q Q Ao = = Uo ∆Tm UoF∆Tm.Preliminary Design (continued) • Estimate heat load Q = (mc p ) c ( Tc 2 − Tc1 ) = (m c p ) h ( Th1 − Th2 ) • Calculate ∆Tlm. . with the given tube length.cf • This area is also related to tube diameter do and number of tubes Nt A o = πdoNtL • The objective is to find the number of tubes with diameter do. and shell diameter Ds to accommodate the number of tubes.

90 for two tube passes – CTP = 0. CL = 0.1 . Nt is 2 CTP Ds Nt = 0. Ds is CL A o (PR ) do Ds = 0.Preliminary Design (continued) • Shell diameter.85 for three tube passes PR is the tube pitch ratio.87 for 30o and 60o CTP is the tube count calculation constant – CTP = 0.93 for one tube pass – CTP = 0.637 CTP L 2 1/ 2 CL is the tube layout constant – CL = 1.0 for 90o and 45o. PT/do • Number of tubes.785 2 CL (PR )2 do See Example 8.

• If not. select a different HEX and iterate. . Calculate the heat transfer coefficients and pressure drops. preliminary design output is the rating input. • If length is fixed.Rating of the Preliminary Design • If HEX is available. if heat load is fixed. skip preliminary design and proceed with rating only. If rating shows that Q and/or pressure drop requirements are not satisfied. rating output is HEX length. rating output is outlet temperatures.

increase length or shell diameter. tube pitch and baffle cut. modify – HEX cannot deliver the heat required: increase h or area • To increase hi. thus number of passes • To increase ho.Rating of the Preliminary Design (continued) • Tube side: Chapters 3 & 4 for heat transfer coefficient and pressure drop calculations (two-phase flow later) • Shell side: more complicated • If rating output is not acceptable. increase um in tubes. increase shell diameter and number of tubes) ∆pshell > ∆pall: increase baffle spacing. or change type of baffles . decrease baffle spacing or decrease baffle cut • To increase area. or use shells in series ∆ptube > ∆pall: decrease number of tube passes or increase tube diameter (thus decrease tube length.

55 cp µ 1/ 3 0. McAdams correlation for Nu µb Nu = = 0. and Chapter 3 correlations can be used • On the shell side.Shell Side Analysis Kern Method (simple method) Shell Side Heat Transfer Coefficient • Baffles increase heat transfer coefficient due to increased turbulence. similar to double-pipe HEX. h can be based on De.36 k µ k µw ho De DeG s 0.14 for 2 × 10 < Re s = 3 G sD e µ < 1 × 10 6 De = 2 PT2− π d o2/ 2 square ( ) De = π do 2 T 2 2 πdo / 2 P2 / − 2 De = πdo / 2 4 × free − flow area wetted perimeter ( ) triangular . tube correlations are not applicable • Without baffles.

This value is based on the bundle crossflow area at the hypothetical tube row possessing the maximum flow area corresponding to the center of the shell .Kern Method (simple method) Shell Side Heat Transfer Coefficient (continued) Gs (shell side mass velocity) can be evaluated from & m Gs = A DsCB where A s = is the bundle crossflow area at the center PT of the shell Ds: shell diameter C: clearance between adjacent tubes B: baffle spacing PT: pitch size • Gs evaluated here is a fictional value because there is actually no free-flow area on the shell side.

576 − 0. • The following correlation uses the product of distance across the bundle.19 ln Re s ) 400 < Re s = ≤ 1× 10 6 where µ . taken as Ds.Kern Method (simple method) Shell Side Pressure Drop • Depends on the number of tubes the fluid passes through in the bundle between baffles and the length of each crossing. fG2 ( Nb + 1) Ds ∆p s = s 2ρDe φs φ s = (µb/µw)0.14 Nb = L/B – 1 is the number of baffles (Nb + 1) is the number of times the shell fluid passes the tube bundle f takes into account entrance and exit losses Gs D e f = exp( 0. and the number of times the bundle is crossed.

Kern Method (simple method) Tube Side Pressure Drop • Total pressure drop including sudden expansions and contractions during a return (for multiple tube passes) 2 LNp ρum ∆p tube.2 for the application of Kern method on Example 8.1 .total = 4f + 4Np 2 di • Ignore second term if single tube pass • See Example 8.

A. most reliable method for shell side • B-stream is the main stream. thus decrease h • A: leakage through tube/baffle clearance. combines crossflow and baffle window flow. as well as baffle-shell and bundle-shell bypass streams and other complex flow patterns • Five different streams are identified. C. others reduce it and change shell side temperature profile. F: multi tube pass .Bell-Delaware Method (complex method) • Shell side flow is complex. C: bundle bypass stream. B. E. and F • Bell-Delaware method takes into account the leakage and bypass streams. E: baffle bypass stream.

w hideal is the ideal heat transfer coefficient for pure crossflow in an ideal tube bank J’s are correction factors ji is the Colburn j-factor for an ideal tube bank (Figures 8.14 .25) As is the crossflow area at the centerline of the shell for one crossflow between baffles.Bell-Delaware Method Shell Side Heat Transfer Coefficient ho = hideal J c J l J b J s J r ms k s µ s & hideal = ji c p .17. s s s .36 c µ µ As p . depend on shell side Re.15 8. or correlation 8. s 0. and pitch size. Re s = doms / µ s A s tube layout. As = Ds CB/PT Note that Res is different for this method (based on do) 2/3 0. .

.

6 in book as well b .Bell-Delaware Method Shell Side Heat Transfer Coefficient (continued) • Correlation for the Colburn j-factor for an ideal tube bank 1.33 b3 b2 fi = b1 P / d ( Re s ) where b = 1 + 0.33 a3 a2 ji = a1 P / d ( Re s ) where a = 1 + 0.14( Re ) a 4 T o s a1 – a4 from Table 8.6 in book • Correlation for ideal friction factor a 1.14( Re ) b 4 T o s b1 – b4 from Table 8.

Bell-Delaware Method Shell Side Heat Transfer Coefficient (continued) Correction factors (J’s) • Jc is the correction for baffle cut and spacing. Typical value 0.0.0. Usually between 0.7.0. Jr = 1.8.9. • Jr applies if Res < 100.0.and F. For a pull-through rotating head. and for small windows with a high window velocity.85 and 1. • Jl is the correction factor for baffle leakage effects (A. • Js is the correction factor for variable baffle spacing at the inlet and outlet.15. If Res > 100. . For small clearance between outermost tubes and shell for fixed tube sheet construction. 1. for no tubes in window. • Jb is the correction factor for bundle bypassing effects and shell and pass dividers (C. ~0.7 . 1.streams). 0.53. ~0. For a large baffle cut.and Estreams). Putting baffles too close increases leakage.

evaluated using three methods: – Kern Method (note the different equation for As. other procedures same as Kern Method. Ac are calculated • OS is evaluated as 43%.Example 8. but gives the same result as As = DsCB/PT) – Taborek Method (just a different Nu correlation than McAdams. a new OS is assumed (20%) and Rft is recalculated. first perform preliminary design.3 • Given specifications for a HEX. but Res is based on do. which will help determine a suitable cleaning schedule. Uf (Rft given in the problem). the new Af and Ds are found. Therefore. With this OS. but it should not exceed 30% in design specifications. not De) – Bell-Delaware Method (Res is again based on do not De) • All three methods give comparable ho as a result • Then. • With these new constructional parameters. then detailed thermal analysis • Compares the heat transfer coefficient on the shell side. Uc. hi. Af. the design must be .

Bell-Delaware Method Shell Side Heat Pressure Drop The total nozzle-to-nozzle pressure drop has 3 components • Entrance and exit • Internal • Window each is one central baffle spacing entrance and exit internal window .

Bell-Delaware Method Shell Side Heat Pressure Drop (continued) Entrance and Exit • Affected by bypass but not by leakage • Effect due to variable baffle spacing Nc + Ncw ∆p e = 2∆pbi RbR s Nc where ∆pbi is the pressure drop in an equivalent ideal tube bank in one baffle compartment of central baffle spacing Rb is the correction factor for bypass flow (C.and F-streams). 0.8 depending on the construction type Nc is the number of tubes crossed during flow through one crossflow in HEX Ncw is the number of tube rows crossed in each baffle window Rs is the correction factor for the entrance and exit section having different baffle spacing (see literature for tabulated correction .50.

4-0.Bell-Delaware Method Shell Side Heat Pressure Drop (continued) Internal • Interior crossflow section (baffle tip to baffle tip) ∆pc = ∆pbi (Nb − 1)RlRb where Rl is the correction factor for baffle leakage effects (A. 0.and E-streams).5 Nb is the number of baffles .

Bell-Delaware Method Shell Side Heat Pressure Drop (continued) Window • Affected by leakage but not by bypass • Combined pressure drop in all windows ∆p w = ∆p wiNbRl where ∆pwi is the pressure drop in an equivalent ideal tube bank in the window section .

∆pwi is calculated from s m2 ( 2 + 0. 8.15 – 8.w ∆pbi = 4fi s µ 2ρs s • fi from Figs.Bell-Delaware Method Shell Side Heat Pressure Drop (continued) • The total pressure drop over the shell side is then ∆p s = ∆p e + ∆p c + ∆p w ∆p s = [ ( Nb − 1) ∆pbiRb + Nb ∆p wi ] Rl + 2∆pbi (1 + Ncw / Nc ) RbR s • The pressure drop in nozzles must be calculated separately ∀∆pbi is calculated from G2 µ s.17 or correlation 8.6Ncw ) ∆p wi = for Re s ≥ 100 2ρs A s A w µ sms Ncw ms B ∆p wi = 26 ρ − d + D2 + ρ A A for Re s ≤ 100 ρs A s A w o w s s w .26 • For an ideal baffle window section.

Nc d (2 2 c / D s ) − L Nc = i Pp • Lc is the baffle cut distance from baffle tip to inside of shell .Bell-Delaware Method Shell Side Heat Pressure Drop (continued) • See literature for Dw. • Number of tube rows crossed in one crossflow section. and correction factors. Aw.

• Read the Chapter on Shell-and-Tube HEX from D.8L c = Pp • Number of baffles.Bell-Delaware Method Shell Side Heat Pressure Drop (continued) • Number of tube rows crossed in each window. then Nb = L/B – 1 • The total shell side pressure drop of a typical shell-and-tube HEX is about 20-30% of the pressure drop that would be calculated without taking into account baffle leakages and tube bundle bypass effects.S. . Nb L − Bi − B o Nb = −1 B • If Bi = B = Bo. Thesis. Biniciogullari’s M. Ncw Ncw 0. PDF document on web.

. ∀∆pBD < ∆pK. • The example can be repeated with the Bell-Delaware method as an execise. calculate the shell-side pressure drop using BellDelaware method to see if HEX is suitable.4 • Given the HEX designed in Example 8. Example 8. • Compares the result with that obtained through Kern method.Example 8.3. and other specifications.5 • Complete design of a HEX for given process specifications with the Kern method. • Takes into consideration all factors mentioned in the previous 7 slides. about 48%.

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