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Biotherapy

Presented by: Group 5

Biotherapy
Biotherapy (also known as Immunotherapy) is the use of medication that increases the ability of the immune system to fight cancer and infection. It can also reduce some side effects of cancer treatment.

Immunotherapy Types

Active immunotherapy Passive immunotherapy

Active Immunotherapy
It is the type of immunotherapy that attempts to stimulate the host intrinsic immune response to a disease
Specific active immunotherapy Non specific active immunotherapy

Specific active immunotherapy The generation of cell mediated and antibody immune responses focused on specific antigen. Eg. cancer vaccines
Non specific immunotherapy The generation of general immune system responseusing cytokines

Specific Active Immunotherapy

Cancer vaccines

Cellular therapies
Adjuvants

Cancer vaccines are active immunotherapy because they meant to trigger the patient immune system to respond. Cancer vaccines may contain cancer cells ,part of the cell, or purified tumor specific antigen.

Two categories of cancer vaccine Cell based in which the patient cancer cell is cultured with patients own immune system cells and derived back to the same patient. Vector based in which the engineered virus or other vector issued to introduce cancer specific proteins and other molecule in order to stimulate the patient immune system to recognize the tumor cells to fight the cancer.

Examples Tumor cell vaccines-kidney,ovarian breast cancer Antigen vaccines-prostate,colorectal cancer. Dentritic cell vaccine DNA vaccines Vector based vaccines

Cellular Therapies
Cellular therapies These are single type agent derived from the cancer patients which are modified in the laboratory to become more adapt at recognizing and killing the tumor cells This type of immunotherapy is designed to boost specific part of immune system to cause tumor cell death Vaccines in contrast attempts to get the body immune system react to specific antigen Eg. lymphocyte activated killer cell therapy

Adjuvant Immunotherapy
Adjuvant immunotherapy an adjuvant is an any material which when injected together with an antigenic protein or other substance like monoclonal antibodies, cancer vaccines increases or boost the immune response to the particular system. Eg; BCG vaccine

Non Specific Immunotherapy


Cytokines destruction of tumor cell by two mechanism Indirect enhancement of antitumor

Passive Immunotherapy
Passive immunotherapy this comprised of antibodies and other immune system component that are made outside the body and administered to the patient to provide immunity against the disease. It do not stimulate a patient immune system to actively respond to a disease in the way vaccines does.

Monoclonal antibodies thearapy Cytokine inhibitors Tolerance induction IV immunoglobulin

Monoclonal Antibody Therapy


Types Naked monoclonal antibodies eg . Cetuximab ;trastuzumab Conjugated monoclonal antibodies antibodies contain immunotoxin eg.gemtuzumab Radiolabelled antibodies eg;tositumomab Chemolabelled antibodies eg;brentuximab

Cytokines Inhibitor
CYTOKINES INHIBITOR these are cytokine specific substance that inhibit the biological activities of specific cytokines in a number of different ways Production can be blocked Eg; etanercept Intracellular process which produce the active protein can be inhibited Cytokines can be neutralized in the circulation eg; infliximab Specific receptor can be blocked eg; kineret

Antibodies kineret

Mechanism of Action IL alpha antagonist

Uses Rheumatoid arthritis Sepsis osteoarthritis Ulcerative colitis Ankylosing spondylites Chrons disease Rheumatoid arthritis Psoriatic arthritis Ankylosing spondylites

Infliximab

TNF alpha antagonistic

enarcept

TNF alpha antagonistic

IV Immunoglobulins It contains the pooled IgG extracted from the plasma of over one thousand blood donors. IVIG's effects last between 2 weeks and 3 months. It is mainly used as treatment in three major categories: Immune deficiencies . Autoimmune diseases e.g. Immune thrombocytopenia Acute infections.