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Research ETHICS

FTSL-5098 Metodologi penelitian

What is Ethics ?
o synonyms for morally correct or justified - set

of justified moral principles of obligation, rights, and ideals morality

o particular beliefs or attitudes concerning


o area of study or inquiry an activity of

understanding moral values, resolving moral issues, and justifying moral judgments

Is there Ethics in Research


o Theres no such thing as perfectly ethical

research

Research inherently unethical (in some degree)

o Theres no such thing as totally harmless

research

Research will somehow, at some degree influence its subject

Ethics: General Terms


o Ethics critical reflection on what one does and

why one does it.

o Morality social conventions about right and

wrong conduct.

o Ethics is a guide to personal conduct of a

professional engineer

o Most of the technical societies have a written

code of ethics for their members

Engineering Ethics

Engineering ethics is the study of the moral values, issues, and decisions involved in engineering practice.

responsibilities ideals character traits social policies relationships desirable from individuals and corporations engaged in engineering.

Ethical vs. Moral


acceptable by social norms

unacceptable by legal standard stealing

acceptable by legal standard copyright, patent

Ethical but immoral

Ethical and morally accepted

unacceptable by social norms Talking while eating

Unethical and immoral

Unethical but morally accepted

Ethical Issues in Research Project


Before Research
Participants:
Voluntary participation Informed consent Self-determination

During Research

Participants:
No deception No harming (physical and psychological)

After Research

Participants:
Anonymity and confidentiality

Publications:
No falsification of data No fabrication of data No plagiarism Proper credits IPR, copyrights, patents

Data:
No falsification No fabrication No plagiarism

Ethics in science

Science has a great ethical responsibility: to provide knowledge. Ethics without knowledge is as effective as a geographical exploration without a compass. . In simple words, the role of ethics begins where science and technology have opened possibilities.
Dr. Edward Teller

(Source: Hargittai, I. 2005 The Tragedy of Edward Teller. Hungarian Academy of Sciences)

GOOD SCIENTIFIC PRACTICE (1/2)


1) Scientific practice must be performed with high

integrity, meticulousness and accuracy (in conducting research, in recording and presenting results, and in judging research and its results) 2) Transparency ethically sustainable datacollection, research and evaluation methods (variation by research discipline) and openness in publishing 3) Fairness taking due account of other researchers work and achievements 4) Accountability planning, conducting and reporting according to standards set for scientific knowledge

Good Scientific Practice (2/2)


5) Accountability & Fairness status, rights, co-

authorship, liabilities and obligations of the research team are determined


ownership of data storage of material recording matters agreed before starting research/recruiting reasercher

6) Accountability & Openness sources of funding

and other associations are made known to those participating in research and to public 7) Good management practices good administrative practice and personnel and financial management

Who is Responsible for Maintaining Good Scientific Practices?


o NOT ONLY the researcher him/herself, but also:

research team collectively supervisor as a research director head of research unit/organisation learned societies and publication media (as funding organisations as research policy
makers

mediators of research data and as promoters of science)

Violation of Good Scientific Practices

There are two types of bad science practices


1. Misconduct in science 2. Fraud in science

Misconduct in Science Practices


Some examples: unjustified authorship understatement of other researchers contribution to a publication, or Ghost Writer negligence in referring to earlier findings careless and misleading reporting of research findings and the methods used negligence in recording and preserving results publication of the same results several times as new misleading the research community about ones own research

Fraud in Science Practices

Fabrication
Presentation of fabricated data or results to the research community fabricated data have not been obtained in the manner or by the methods described in the report presenting fabricated results in a research report

Misrepresentation (falsification)
Intentional alteration or presentation of original findings in a way which distorts the result scientifically unjustified alteration or selection of data or results misrepresentation to omit results or data pertinent to conclusions

Plagiarism
Presenting someone elses research plan, manuscript, article or text, or parts thereof, as ones own

Misappropriation
A researcher illicitly presents or uses in his/her own name an original research idea, plan or finding disclosed to him/her in confidence.

Effects and Bias in Experimental Research


Effects
History Effects Maturity Effects Testing Effects Instrumentation Effects Statistical Regression Effects Selection Effects Mortality Effects Participant Bias Experimental Bias

Remarks
Any effect that is produced whenever uncontrolled event alters participants responses Maturity of participants influence their responses (for long lasting experiment wiser, knowledgeable. Contrary to being mature boredom, fatigue, emotional Changes in response caused by measuring (more than once) the dependent variables Changes in the manner in which the dependent variables are measured Effect that occurs when extreme values are observed or measured outliers Effects caused by the manner in which the participants were recruited Caused by the loss or participant during experiment Any intentional effort on the part of participants to alter their response Researchers / experimenters differential treatment on experimental groups

Why does such behavior occur?


o career pressure money and fame (pride)
o peer pressure (fame) competition between

researchers researchers

o financial problems competition between


o target pressure (greed) o sponsored research o alienation from basic rules: do not lie, do not steal

Problems of Sponsored Research

Conflicting interest:

Research may serve the interests of the sponsor more than the participant / community

Sponsors may not be sensitive to local customs, practice or legal requirements Participants / communities may be disillusioned by lack of follow up
Injury may not be adequately compensated

Risk and Benefit to others

Role of Ethics in Research

Research ethics refers to the moral principles guiding research, from its inception through to its completion and publication of results and beyond ESRC (2005) and integrity of scientific practices (including research)

Ethics plays important role in preserving good quality


Ethics aims to protect participants from harm and to
promote their welfare
feel respected may:

Ethics also promotes good science as participants who


actively engage with research requests answer truthfully provide critical & honest feedback return to continue for follow up increasing the quality of the data

What makes research ethical?


The requirements for ethical research:
1. Community Participation 2. Social value

3. Scientific validity
4. Fair selection of participants 5. Favorable risk / benefit ratio 6. Independent review 7. Adequate informed consent 8. Ongoing respect for dignity

What are the key principles in research ethics?


o Non-Maleficence:
o Beneficence:
Do no harm Researchers are obligated not to deliberately harm participants Researchers should take active and positive steps to reduce possible harms to a minimum and to maximize anticipated benefits of the research Self Rule Researchers must respect rights of participants who can make decisions to do so, and must take special measures to protect vulnerable participants whose freedom to make choices is limited, or those with no capacity to choose Fair balance of risks and benefits Researchers must assure fair share burden of research (risk and benefit) to any individual or group

o Respect for Autonomy:

o Justice:

Protecting Your Works


In any circumstances you need the world to know your work (and results!) It is part of your duties and obligations as a scientist
Protecting your work the balance of risk and benefit

Full disclosure Its in your dissertation/thesis. The use of your dissertation is under your approval ( transfer of authority/permit for
usage)

Partial disclosure seminar, scientific publications, limited abstract, extended abstract ( transfer of ownership) IPR copyrights, patents! problem with ownership

How things work around ITB?


o Although there is no single body formally

assigned to handle matters related to research and/or scientific ethics, cases can be processed through:

Academic Senate Commissions Rectors student discipline commission

In the case of cases involving graduate works:


Faculty/Schools Graduate Program Commission (KPPS) Graduate School Commission (KSPS)

Research Ethics in Action


It is nearly the end of your study at a prestigious university. After working hard for a quite sometimes in the laboratory, your research finally come up with some astonishing results, that no one in Indonesia has been able to produce. You are about to prove that a certain condition pertinent to locality does have impact to a certain result. Your advisor is asking you to draft a paper for possible publication in an international journal, while your are working toward finishing your thesis. However, during the preparation of the draft after a period of time, when you examine the laboratory results more closely not all data will be fit with your conclusion. In fact a small group of data behaved differently from the rest. You decided to omit that particular group from the paper, but write up the draft as if all data is conformed.
Points to discuss:
Will you tell your advisor? What will you do with your laboratory work and thesis? Can you assume those data as noise? If so, what conditions might it be OK?

Research Ethics in Action


Supposed you are a fellow student researchers working in the same laboratory under the same supervisor, who just happened to know what is going on with your colleagues work.
Points to discuss:

What will you do?

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