Presentation By Jhansirani.R AP/ECE

• Extinct species : When it is not seen in the wild for 50 years at a stretch. Eg., Dodo, passenger pigeon. • Endangered species : When its number has been reduced to a critical level or whose habitats are drastically reduced and if such a species is not protected and conserved, its in immediate danger of extinction.

Jhansirani.R AP/ECE

• Vulnerable species : If a population of a species is facing continuous decline due to overexploitation or habitual destruction. • Rare species : Species which are not endangered or vulnerable at present but at a risk.
• International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources (IUCN) publishes Red Data Book (list of endangered species of plants and animals).

• Nearly 450 plant species have been identified as categories of endangered, threatened or rare. • 150 species of mammals • 150 species of birds • Unknown number of species of insects

Jhansirani.R AP/ECE

Few species of endangered reptiles, birds, mammals and plants Reptiles : Gharial Green sea turtle Tortoise Python

Jhansirani.R AP/ECE

Birds : Great Indian bustard  Peacock  Pelican  Great Indian Hornbill  Siberian White Crane

Great Indian hornbill

Siberian White crane

Carnivorous: Indian wolf  red fox  sloth bear  red panda

Red panda

Mammals : Golden cat  Desert cat

Primates : Golden monkey, Capped monkey

Plants : Orchids  Rhododendrons  Sandal wood tree

Few Extinct species

Passenger pigeon


Saber Toothed Tiger

Endemic Species of India
• Species which are restricted only to a particular area are known as endemic. • Out of 47,000 species of plants in our country 7,000 are endemic. • Indian subcontinent has about 62% endemic flora, restricted namely to Himalayas, Khasi Hills and Western Ghats. • Endemic Flora : Sapria Himalayana, Pitcher plants and Orchids

Jhansirani.R AP/ECE

Endemic Species of India
• Out of 81,000 animal species – large number of species are described to be endemic • Western Ghats: 62% amphibians, 50% Lizards are endemic • Endemic species : reticulated python, Indian Salamander and Viviparous toad.



1. Tiger Salamander 2. Eastern Mud Salamander 3. Super tiger Reticulated Python

Conservation of Biodiversity • In situ conservation (within habitat ) : achieved by protection of wild flora and fauna in nature itself. Eg. Biosphere reserves, National Parks, Sanctuaries, Reserve forests etc. • Ex-situ conservation (outside habitats) : done by establishment of gene banks, seed banks, zoos, botanical gardens, culture collections.

Jhansirani.R AP/ECE

In Situ Conservation  7 major biosphere reserves,  80 national parks,  420 wild-life sanctuaries,  120 Botanical gardens In our country covering 4% of geographic area.
Biosphere serves : conserve some representative ecosystems as a whole for long-term in situ conservation.

Jhansirani.R AP/ECE

• In India, we have biosphere reserves at
       Nanda Devi(U.P.), Nokrek (Meghalaya), Manas (Assam), Sunderbans (West Bengal), Gulf of Mannar (T.N.), Nilgiri (Karnataka, Kerala,T.N.), Great Nicobars, Similipal (Orissa)

 Within the biosphere reserves, 1 or more National parks Avl.  Ex: Nilgiri Biosphere reserve has 2 National parks
 Bandipur National park  Nagarhole National park.

• National Park : area dedicated for the conservation of wildlife along with its environment. Its meant for enjoyment through tourism.
• Grazing of domestic animals, all private rights, forestry activities are prohibited within a National Park. • Each national park aims at conservation of some specific species of wildlife along with others.

Jhansirani.R AP/ECE

Some important national parks in India

• Wildlife Sanctuaries: Protected areas where killing, hunting, shooting or capturing of wildlife are prohibited except under the control of highest authority.

• Plants : gene sanctuary for Citrus, one for pitcher plant in North east India. • • • • • • Specific projects to conserve animals : Project Tiger Gir Lion Project Crocodile Breeding Project Project Elephant Snow Leopard Project.
Jhansirani.R AP/ECE

Some important wildlife sanctuaries in India

Ex-situ Conservation
• Conservation of crop varieties, wild relatives of crops and all local varieties (conserve total genetic variability of crop species for future crop improvement) or afforestation Programmes.

• We have some Important Gene bank/Seed bank facilities

Jhansirani.R AP/ECE

• National Bureau of Plant Genetic Resources (NBPGR) : located in New Delhi. Agricultural, horticultural crops, their wild relatives are preserved by cryo-preservation of seeds, pollen etc by using liquid nitrogen at a temp as low as -196 0c. • Varieties of rice, pearl millet, Brassica, turnip, radish, tomato, onion, carrot, chilli, tobacco, poppy etc : preserved in liquid nitrogen for several years without losing seed viability.

Jhansirani.R AP/ECE

• National Bureau of Animal Genetic Resources (NBAGR) : located at Karnal, Haryana. • It Preserves semen of domesticated bovine animals.
• National Facility for plant tissue culture repository (NFPTCR) : Development of facility of conservation of varieties of crop plants/trees by tissue culture.

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