SOILS OF INDIA

– Loose material and uppermost layer of earth’s crust. – Important natural resource. – Formed due to weathering of rocks. – Provides nutrients & water to plants.

• Factors affecting soil formation:
• • • • • Climate Vegetation Age of rock Relief and Parent rock

TYPES OF SOILS • Eight major types according to Indian Council of Agricultural Research (ICAR). – – – – – – – – Alluvial soils Black soils Red soils Laterite soils Desert soils Mountain soils Saline and Alkaline soils Peaty and Marshy soils .

. – Contribute greatly in agricultural development. – Occupies 15 Lakh sqkm area in India. • Two types: KHADAR & BHANGAR • KHADAR: Newer alluvium.ALLUVIAL SOIL – Formed by deposition of alluvium by rivers. – Flooded every year. pale brown composition. – Found in lower areas. – Sandy.

– Coarse in nature. – Represents riverine alluvium of Himalayan rivers. – Clayey & dark in colour.ALLUVIAL SOIL • BANGAR: Older alluvium. . Pebbles and Gravels. – Contains Kankar (lime nodules).

Areas: Punjab. Bihar. Sugarcane. delta regions of S. U. Crops: Rice. Haryana.B. good for all crops (kharif & rabi).India .P. Poor in Phosphorous and Nitrogen. – – – – – – – Coarser in upper section and finest in delta. Rich in Potash & Humus. Light to dark in colour. Wheat. Parts of Orissa. Jute. W. Highly fertile. Cotton.ALLUVIAL SOIL • Characteristics: Transported soils. Assam.

– High clay content.BLACK SOIL – Also known as Regur or Black Cotton soil.4 lakh sqkm. and alumina. – Rich in iron. – Highly suitable for cotton. – Develops cracks in summer. – Highly moist retentive. lime. . – Dark grey to Black in colour. carbonates. – Covers 5. calcium. Magnesium.

W M. Oilseeds.P. – Areas: Deccan Trap which includes: n n Maharastra. Parts of T.P. Groundnut.N and Rajasthan. Parts of A. Nitrogen and Organic matter. Sugarcane. . N Karnataka. Wheat.BLACK SOIL – Poor in Phosphorous. – Crops: Cotton. Millets. Rice.

nitrogen and lime. – More sandy and less clayey. – Porous and Friable. – Rich in iron.km area. .5 lakhs sq.RED SOIL • Formed due to weathering of old crystalline rocks. – 3. – Poor in phosphorus. – Slightly acidic and do not retain moisture. small amount of Humus.

Eastern Rajasthan. West Bengal. Maharashtra. Sugarcane. • Crops : – Ragi. Potato.RED SOIL • Area : – Tamil Nadu. Groundnut. Rice. parts of Madhya Pradesh. Wheat. Southern Karnataka. millet. . Tobacco. North eastern States.

– Remnants of iron and aluminum oxides left behind is know as Laterite.LATERITE SOIL • Latin word meaning brick. – Becomes hard when exposed to atmosphere. . – Formed under high temperature and rainfall with wet and dry spell. – Used as building material. – Silica is leached due to high rainfall. – Brown to Yellowish colour.

Coffee. Cashew. Karnataka.4 Lakh sqkm. T. – Poor in Lime. • Crops: Tea. . & Magnesium. M. Kerala. Rubber and Coconut. A.N. – Occupies 2. Potash.LATERITE SOIL – Rich in Iron.P.P. • Areas: Parts of Assam.

4 Lakh sqkm. . – Rich in Nitrates & Phosphates. – 1.DESERT SOIL – Contains soluble salts. – 90% sand & 5% clay. sandy & low moist content. – Poor in Nitrogen & Humus. – Originated by Mechanical disintegration & wind deposit. – Friable. – Porous and coarse.

N Gujarat.DESERT SOIL • Areas: Arid and Semi arid regions of n n Rajasthan. S Haryana. . Punjab. • Crops: Drought resistant crops like millets and barley.

Coffee. Kashmir. • Areas: Assam. • Crops: Tea. Sikkim & Arunachal Pradesh. – Rich in humus. – Poor in Potash and Lime. – Formed by deposition of organic matter from forest. . Spices & Tropical Fruits.MOUNTAIN SOIL – Found in hill slopes.

P & Maharashtra. U. • Areas: – Parts of Gujarat. unfit for cultivation. Punjab. – Sandy to loamy in texture. Rajasthan. Haryana. . Magnesium. Calcium. – Infertile.SALINE & ALKALINE SOIL – Contains salts like Sodium.

• Areas: – Kottayam & Alleppey in Kerala. – Formed by accumulation of organic matter. – Highly acidic and heavy.B . Sundarbans of W. Coastal Orissa.PEATY AND MARSHY SOIL – Occur in Humid region. – Black in colour.

– Erosion by rivers. • CAUSES: – Deforestation – Overgrazing. . pots. – Faulty method of Agriculture. – Removal of top soil (for bricks.SOIL EROSION – Removal of top soil by different agents. tiles etc) – Shifting cultivation.

– Reduces percolation of ground water.SOIL EROSION • EFFECTS: – Loss of cultivable land. – Results in lots of run off. . – Causes silting & may change river course. – Reduction in soil fertility.

leaves on ground). – Construction of dams and barrages – Crop rotation. • Measures For Soil Conservation: – Contour farming. – Controlled grazing. – Terrace farming. – Sub soiling. – Afforestation and Reforestation.SOIL CONSERVATION – Protection of soil from Erosion and Deterioration. – Mulching ( spreading of grass. .

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