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Philippine Revolution

From Indio to Filipino

The Filipinos began to fight the Spaniards the moment they settled permanently in 1565 and continued this resistance to the end of their rule in 1898.

In October 1889, a group of ilustrados in Paris, signing themselves as the Filipinos.

The Philippine Revolt patterns must be treated holistically and not separately.

Personal religious

and

Revolts are categorized into three

Resistance to Spanishimposed economic and religious institutions Land problems

Personal Motives
The revolts were personally led by former barangay datus and maharlikas, as well as babaylans and katalonas, who had lost their prestige and power in their communities with the coming of the Spaniards, and were supplanted by leaders chosen by the Spaniards and by the Spanish friars.

Personal Motives
Lakandula and Soliman Revolt in 1574 due to sequestration of their landed properties and even toleration of the encomenderos abuse and oppression of their people. The conspiracy of the maharlikas headed by Agustin de Legazpi and Martin Pangan.

Personal Motives
In 1621-22, an outlawed babaylan, Tamblot of Bohol employed magic and religion in alluring the unbelieving people to abandon Christianity and to return to their former beliefs. In no time, he was crushed by Juan de Alcarazo, alcalde mayor of Cebu.

Personal Motives
The rebellion in Carigara (Leyte), led by Bankaw, Datu of Limasawa Francisco Dagohoys revolt in Bohol. This was the longest revolt in Philippine history taking 85 years to quell (17441829). Silang Revolt in Ilocos Palaris Revolt in Pangasinan Magtangaga Revolt in Cagayan

Religious Motives
Two Christianized Isnegs of Northwest Cagayan, Miguel Lanab and Alalaban of Capinatan (Apayao), revolted in 1625, by mutilating and beheading the Dominicans Fr. Alonzo Garcia and Bro. Onofre Palao. A nativist revolt with religious overtones was led by Tapar in Oton, Iloilo, whom proclaimed himself, God Almighty.

Religious Motives
The Magtangaga Revolt in Cagayan in October 1718 led by Francisco Rivera, a vissionary who appropriated for himself the title of Papa Rey. Ermano Apolinario de la Cruzs revolt which was divided into two phases: phase 1 from 18321841 was from the founding of the Confradia de San Jose in 1832 to the death of Dela Cruz in 1841, and phase 2 from 1870- 71, with the revival of the Confradia in 1870, terminating with the revolt and capture of Januario Labios in 1871.

Resistance to Spanish- Imposed Institutions


Among the major rebellions belonging to this class were those in the late 16th century led by Magalat of Cagayan, the Sumodoy and the CARAGA revolts in the 17th century.

Name of Date Revolt


Lakandula 1574

Place
Tondo, Navotas

Cause
Failure of Gov. Lavezares to fulfill Legazpis promise to Lakandula
Abuses of Spanish Encomienderos Desire for Independence

Leader

Result

Lakandula Failed

Pampanga

1585

Pampanga

Failed. A woman betrayed the revolt. Magat Salamat, Martin Pangan, Juan Banal, Pedro Balingit Failed because the plot was discovered. Leaders were executed.

Todo

1587- Tondo, 1588 Cuyo, Calamianes

Name of Date Revolt


CagayanIlocos 1589

Place

Cause

Leader

Result
Failed. Easily suppressed.

Cagayan, Refusal to pay Ilocos Norte tributes, tyranny of tribute collectors Cagayan Abuses of the Tribute Collectors Desire for religious toleration Magalat

Magalat

1596

Failed. Hired Assasins killed the Magalat. Failed

Igorot

1601

Northern Luzon

Irrayas

1621

Cagayan Valley

Oppression of the Indios by the Spanish officials

Felipe Cutabay, Gabriel Dayag

It was not materialized due to Fr. Pedro Sto. Tomas preaching.

Name of Date Revolt


Tamblot

Place

Cause

Leader

Result
It was suppressed by the Spaniards and Cebuanos. Failed

1621- Bohol 1622

Desire to Babaylan abandon Tamblot Christianity and return to old religious faith Desire for Religious Toleration Bankaw Pagali

Bankaw

1621

Leyte

Cagayan

1625, Cagayan 1627, 1639

Desire for Miguel independence Lanab, and punishment Aldaban of a woman whom displeases certain Spanish officials

Failed. Leaders were pardoned and later killed when they revolted anew.

Name of Date Revolt


Caraga

Place

Cause
Dissatisfaction of townspeople to Spanish rule Dissatisfaction with Spanish rule

Leader

Result
Failed

1629- Caraga, 1631 Northern Mindanao 1639 Cagayan

Cagayan

It was suppressed. Pedro Ladia Failed

Ladia

1643

Malolos, Weariness from Bulacan and Spanish Southern oppression Luzon Caused by Gov. Fajardos order to send Visayan laborers tyo Cavite for shipbuilding

Visayan

1649- Eastern 1650 Visayas, Northern Mindanao, Zamboanga

Juan Ponce Sumoroy and Pedro Caamug

Leaders were captured and were beheaded.

Name of Date Revolt


Pampanga

Place

Cause
Failure of officials to pay rice purchased; repeated requirements for polo y servico

Leader
Francisco Maniago

Result
General amnesty granted to rebels. Initial payment for services. Failed

1660- Bacoor, 1661 Cavite and Pampanga

Pangasinan 1660- Binalatongan, Quarrel 1661 Pangasinan between Fr. Gorospe and Malong Ilocos 1661 San Nicolas, Spanish Bacarra, aggression Laog, Ilocos

Andres Malong and Pedro Gumpaos Juan Magsanop, Pedro Almazan and Gaspar Cristobal

Failed. Leaders were executed.

Name of Date Revolt


Panay 1663

Place

Cause

Leader

Result
It was suppressed. Failed

Oton, Panay Desire to put up Tapar a modified form of Christianity Usurpation of Filipino lands by religious orders Refusal of Fr. Morales to give Dagohoys brother a Christian Burial Desire to expel the Spaniards from Ilocos Matienza

Agrarian

1745- Bulacan, 1746 Morong (Rizal), Cavite, Laguna 1744- Bohol 1828

Dagohoy

Francisco Dagohoy

Failed but rebels were pardoned.

Silang

1762- Ilocos 1763

Diego silang and Gabriela Silang

Failed. Diego was assasinated .

Name of Date Revolt


Palaris

Place

Cause
Demand for reforms especially the changing of local officials Government monopoly of basi manufacturing

Leader
Juan Dela Cruz Palaris Pedro Mateo

Result
Failed. Palaris was executed Failed. Rebels were crushed by government troops.

1762- Pangasinan 1765 1807 Ilocos

Basi

Hermano Pule

1840- Quezon 1841 Province

Being a native, Pule was denied to be admitted as a monk. He founded the religious brotherhood, Confradia De San Jose, which the government outlawed and ordered to be dissolved.

Apolinario Failed dela Cruz

Moro Resistance
Most united groups were the Muslims. They were bounded by Islam. Continuous military expeditions failed to subdue them. They fought back by raiding the coastal towns under Spain.

Why all these revolts failed?

Absence of national leader

Lukewarm spirit of nationalism among Filipinos

Inadequate training and preparation for warfare

The Development and Growth of Filipino Nationalism

Nationalism
It is the love of ones country and people. It is a feeling of oneness that binds the people to a common past and a common identity. It includes pride in ones cultural heritage, support for the countrys aspirations, patriotism and advocacy of national independence.

What facilitated the development of Filipino nationalism?

1. Influx of liberal ideas from Europe 2. Introduction of modern technology 3. The opening of Philippines to world trade 4. The opening of the Suez Canal traveling to other countries exposed the Filipinos to modern ideas of liberty. 5. The rise of new middle class- occupied a high position in society because of their wealth and prestige. They also criticized the unequal treatment of the Spaniards to the Filipinos.

6.Secularization Issue
Two kinds of priest during the Spanish Regime a.Regular- Spanish priests who belong to any of the religious orders. b.Secular- Priest who obtained their religious training in the Philippines who were under the direct control of the bishops and archbishops. Filipino priests were not only denied access to the parishes but some of them were removed from their parishes to accommodate the regulars . This event turned out to be a racial discrimination against Filipino secular priests.

7. Cavite Mutiny- Soldiers and workers at the Cavite Arsenal rebelled against the withdrawal of their privileges of nonpayment of taxes and exemption from forced labor. 8. Trial and execution of GOMBURZA 9. Disillusionment over Spanish rulecommon sufferings under tyrannical rule of the Spaniards fostered a feeling of unity among Filipinos.