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What are Bacteria? How Bacteria Spreads Diseases caused by bacteria How to avoid these diseases Proper ways and tips to eliminate and prevent these diseases

Bacteria are a large domain of prokaryotic microorganisms whose single cells have neither a membraneenclosed nucleus nor other membraneenclosed organelles


a few micrometers in length, bacteria have a wide range of shapes, ranging from spheres to rods and spirals.

Some types of bacteria can cause diseases and become harmful to the environment while other types offer benefits. The good or friendly bacteria inside the body that helps us digest food is the gut flora. Lactobacilli is also considered as a good bacteria.

The vast majority of the bacteria in the body are rendered harmless by the protective effects of the immune system, and a few are beneficial. However, a few species of bacteria are pathogenic and cause infectious diseases, including cholera, syphilis, anthrax, leprosy, and bubonic plague.


Coccus (COCCI for plural) refers to spherical or round- shaped bacteria that may live as individual cells, or pair up to form chains or bunches.

Bacillus (BACILLI for plural) refers to rod shaped bacteria that are usually Gram-positive or negative. E. coli and Salmonella are the most commonly encountered species responsible for food poisoning and typhoid fever, respectively.

Spirillum (SPIRILLA for plural) refers to corkscrew or spiral-shaped bacteria that are Gram-negative.

How Bacteria Spreads:

As we all know, pathogenic bacteria uses the human body as a source of their own nutrients and energy. Their growth can be increased by warmth and sweat and large populations of bacteria in humans are the cause of body odor. Humans spread bacteria eventually from the mouth and nose which includes kissing, sneezing, and by skin contact.



Bubonic plague is another lifethreatening disease caused by bacteria. The bacteria that cause the plague are the yersinia pestis variety. It spreads through flea bites. The bubonic plague is not common in humans. The bacteria usually infects squirrels, rabbits and prairie dogs. People who handle these animals, especially if the animals are wild, are at risk of being bit by their fleas which are carrying the bacteria. The fever persists for a while, before abating. The incubation period for the infections that are life-threatening range from 2 to 7 days.

How to Avoid Bubonic Plague:

If you live in an area where plague outbreaks occur you may help prevent the plague by not coming into contact with sick or dead animals, rodent proofing your home, attempt to keep your pets flea free and take precautions such as insect repellent and watching children and pets closely while outdoors.


Cholera is an acute, diarrheal illness caused by infection of the intestine with the bacterium Vibrio cholerae. The infection is often mild or without symptoms, but sometimes it can be severe. Approximately one in 20 infected persons has severe disease characterized by profuse watery diarrhea, vomiting, and leg cramps. In these persons, rapid loss of body fluids leads to dehydration and shock. Without treatment, death can occur within hours.

How to Avoid Cholera:

Individuals living or traveling to places where cholera is found should drink boiled or chlorineor iodine-treated water or bottled beverage.

Foods should be thoroughly cooked, and individuals should peel their own fruits. Also, avoid ice, raw foods, and ice cream. Be wary of foods and beverages from street vendors.


Pertussis is also referred to as 'whooping cough'. The bacteria that spread this disease are referred to as bordetella pertussis. The disease takes a toll on the immune system of younger people within 6 weeks. The symptoms of Pertussis include nausea, severe coughing, and fever. The term 'whooping cough' is the result of the sound that the patient makes while coughing.

How to Avoid Pertussis:

Practice good hand washing. Drink plenty of fluids, including water, juices, soups, and eat fruits to prevent dehydration. The best way to prevent it is to get vaccinated. For kids, vaccinations start at 2 months. Do not give cough medications or other home remedies unless otherwise instructed by your doctor. Keep the home environment free from irritants that can trigger coughing, such as smoke, aerosols, and fumes.

Typhoid Fever

Typhoid fever and paratyphoid fever (also known as enteric fever, but collectively referred to here as typhoid fever) are severe systemic illnesses characterized by sustained fever and abdominal symptoms. A characteristic symptom of typhoid is a slowly progressive fever, as high as 40 C (104 F), gastroenteritis, profuse sweating and sometimes rash is also observed. Diarrhea and constipation can occur. By the third stage fever becomes very

How to Avoid Typhoid Fever:

One good strategy for preventing typhoid fever is to get vaccinated against the illness. Two vaccines are available: a shot that contains killed Salmonella typhi bacteria and a vaccine taken by mouth containing a live but weakened strain of the bacteria.

risky foods and beverages (especially when traveling in the developing world) is another way to reduce your risk.

Tuberculosi s

Tuberculosis is an infectious disease. The bacteria that cause tuberculosis are called mycobacterium tuberculosis. People with TB or tuberculosis cough excessively and suffer a terrible pain in the chest. They cough up blood and display excessive weight loss, fatigue, loss of appetite and a persistent fever. TB spreads from the infected person to others in the peripheral. When the patient sneezes, coughs or spits, the bacteria infect those around.

How to Avoid Tuberculosis:

Preventive measures include strict standards for ventilation, air filtration, and isolation methods in hospitals, medical and dental offices, nursing homes, and prisons.

If someone is believed to have been in contact with another person who has TB, preventive antibiotic treatment may have to be given.

In countries where tuberculosis is more common, infants should be vaccinated with bacillus CalmetteGuerin (BCG) vaccine because it can prevent severe tuberculosis in children.

Proper Ways and Tips to Eliminate and Prevent these Diseases

Step 1

Wash your hands. The hands are exposed to a myriad of bacteria from surfaces in the home and work environments. Bacteria thrive on coins, other humans and animals. Hands should be washed with warm water and soap, or an alcohol hand gel, after touching bodily fluids, before and after using the restroom, after touching animals, after touching an injury of any kind, and after exposure to soil and dirt. Wash the hands more frequently when exposed to sick people at home or work.

Step 2

Disinfect home and work. Use a product that uses the word "disinfectant" to clean all surfaces that are routinely used. Products that destroy germs are registered with the Environmental Protection Agency and have received an official registration number.

Disinfect your KITCHEN you LAUNDRY


Step 3

Practice sound food preparation safety. Hands should be washed before, during and after food preparation, especially when cooking beef, poultry, eggs and seafood.

Never reuse plates used in preparation of these items. Disinfect all kitchen surfaces, tools and cutting boards.

Never thaw foods on the countertop, eat food that has passed its expiration date, or eat raw or uncooked food.

Step 4

Practice proper food storage. Store refrigerated food at 40 degrees Fahrenheit and frozen food at 0 degrees or below.

Refrigerated and frozen food should not be left out for more than two hours. If this happens, discard the items.

Thank you for listening!

Group 1 members:
Patricia Soliven Jean Marasigan Clairisse De Leon Jaemee Lim Jason Geronimo Oliver Santos Kenneth Regio Paolo Peaverde Ezra Paz Rouiji Ogata