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The probability that one actor within a social relationship will be in a position to carry out his own will despite resistance. -Max Weber The potential ability to influence behavior. To change the course of events, to overcome resistance and to get people to do things that they would not otherwise do. -Jeffrey Pfeffer
Power is a capacity that A has to influence the behavior of B so that B acts in accordance with As wishes. Dependence is Bs relationship to A when A possesses something that B requires.

Power: - Power may or may not be legitimate, whereas authority is the source of power, and hence, is legitimate. Authority clearly brings out the difference between power and authority. Authority has the willing acceptance of the person over whom it is exercised, whereas power is (generally) uni-directional. Influence refers to the ability to modify or change people in general ways, like changing their performance and satisfaction. Therefore, the difference between power and authority is that authority has legitimacy and acceptance, whereas power may or may not. And influence differs from power in terms of scope. It has a broader scope than power.

1. 2.

FORMAL POWER: - Formal power is based on an individuals position in an organization. Coercive power: - The coercive power base is dependent on fear. Reward Power: - Compliance achieved based on the ability to distribute rewards that others view as valuable. Coercive power and reward power are actually counterparts of each other. If you can remove something of positive value from another or inflict something of negative value on him or her, you have coercive power over that person. If you can give someone something of positive value or remove something of negative value you have reward power over that person

3. Legitimate Power: - The power of a person receives as a result of his or her position in the in the formal hierarchy of an organization. 4. Information power: - power that comes from access to and control over information. B. Personal Power: - Power that comes from an individuals unique characteristics. 1. Expert Power: As jobs become more specialized, we become increasingly dependent on experts to achieve goal. 2. Referent Power: - Referent power is based on identification with a person who has desirable resources or personal traits. If I like, respect, and admire you, you can exercise power over me because I want to please you. .

Charismatic Power: - Charismatic power is really an extension of referent power stemming from an individuals personality and interpersonal style

Power Structure: - The power relationships existing between the members of an organization usually match their positions in the organizational chart (i.e. a high ranking person has more power over a low ranking person) Power Blocs: - Power blocs also form an essential part of a social system. Unlike power elites which supplement the power of people who are already powerful, power blocs are large groups of people who possess limited individual power. Trade unions are a good example of power blocs. The formation of power blocs leads to instability in social interactions. Therefore, it is necessary to balance power in such a way that all the parties concerned are satisfied. This can be achieved through collective negotiations and agreements.

Compliance: - The target complies with power because he wants to obtain a favorable response from the agent or because he wants to avoid a negative response. An agent must have it in his power to reward or punish a target. Identification: - The target finds the agent attractive and seeks to emulate his behavior. Internalization: - When a target internalizes the control of the agent over his actions, he usually does so because the values of the agent match the internal value system of the target.

A coalition essentially consists of a group of people who come together to combine their resources, with the aim of increasing their bargaining power of bringing about a balance of power. Example trade unions. In organization it is beneficial to have greater support in coalition in organizations. Consequently, organizational coalitions aim to represent as many interests as possible. Therefore bigger the coalition, greater the power. There is a greater likelihood of coalitions being formed when there is a high degree of interdependence between the different departments or sub units of an organization. The formation of coalitions is also influenced by the nature of the work done by a group. If tasks are more routine and predictable, people become substitutable for one another. Therefore, to protect their interests and obtain more security, they are likely to form coalitions.

Organizational politics has often been called power in action. These are those activities that are not required as part of ones formal role in the organization, but that influence, or attempt to influence, the distribution of advantages and disadvantages within the organization. Legitimate political behavior is that which forms a part of the day-to-day work in an organization. Example forming organizational coalitions, networking and developing contacts within and outside the organization. Illegitimate political behavior protesting violently against rules, deliberately breaking rules, not conforming to the accepted procedures.

Individual Factors: - Individual politicking is a function of a persons personality traits, his background and experiences, and the environment in which he operates. Three aspects of individual personality influence political behavior: 1. The level of self-monitoring 2. The individuals locus of control 3. The strength of the individuals power motive. Example: - When a person has invested a lot in the organization in terms of future expectations, he is unlikely to engage in extreme political behavior that would jeopardize his interest.

Organizational factors: - Research has proved that organizational factors have a greater influence on politicking in organizations than individual factors. 1. Scarce Resources: - To obtain more resources for themselves in the face of competition. 2. Ambiguity of goals: - It provides more opportunity to employees to engage in politics in an attempt to turn outcomes in their favor. 3. Role Ambiguity: - Employees are not aware of the limits to their behavior in the organization. This encourages them to engage in more political activity. 4. Performance appraisals and rewards: - Through politicking, people try to influence outcomes in their favor.

Culture of the organization: - When the culture emphasizes a win-lose approach to the allocation of rewards, more politicking is likely to occur to influence the decision in one partys favor. Lack of mutual trust: - People are likely to do more politicking to protest their own interest and put down competition. Pressure to perform: - Pressure to perform creates a high degree of accountability, which encourages people to disown mistakes. Involvement of top management

It has been recognized that behaving ethically is as important as behaving efficiently and effectively. A lot of importance has been given to the ethical dimensions of power and politics in organizations. It has been realized that the misuse of power and the illegitimate use of politics not only have adverse effects on organizations, they are also unethical.



Question 1 Is the Political action motivated by self serving interests to the exclusion of the organizations goals ?

Question 2 Does the political action respect the Yes individiuals affeced ?
Q-3 Is the political activity fair and equitable ?

Yes Ethical



Decreased Job Satisfaction

Perceptions of Organization al Politics

Increased Anxiety Increased Turnover Reduced Performance

How do people respond to Org. Politics Defensive behaviors :- Reactive and protective behaviors to avoid action, blame or change. 1. Avoiding action Playing dumb :- Avoiding an unwanted task by falsely pleading ignorance or inability. Stretching :- Prolonging a task so that one appears to be occupied for example, turning a two week task into a for-month job. Stalling :- Appearing to be more or less supportive publicly while doing little or nothing privately.

Buffing :- It describes the practice of rigorously

documenting activity to project an image of competence and thoroughness

Playing Safe Justifying

Evading situations that may reflect unfavorably. Developing explanations that lessen ones responsibility for a negative outcome.



Scapegoating :- Placing the blame for a negative

outcome on external factors that are not entirely blameworthy. Misrepresenting :- Manipulation of information by distortion

Prevention :- Trying to prevent a threatening

change from occurring.

Self-Protection :- Acting in ways to protect

ones self interest during change by guarding information or other resources.

The process by which individuals attempt to control the impression others form of them.

Is Everyone concerned with impression management? No! Low

self-monitors tend to present images of themselves that are consistent with their personalities, regardless of the beneficial or detrimental effects for them. In contrast, high self-monitors are good at reading situations and molding their appearances and behavior to fit each situation. Given that you want to control the impression others form of you, what techniques could you use.

Conformity :- Agreeing with someone elses opinion in order to gain his or her approval. Excuses :Explanations of predicamentcreating event aimed at minimizing the apparent severity of the predicament. E.g. :- Sales manager to boss, we failed to get the ad in the paper on time, but no one responds to those ads anyway. Apologies :- Admitting responsibility for an undesirable event and simultaneously seeking to get a pardon for the action.

Self-promotion :- Highlighting ones best qualities, downplaying one deficits, and calling attention to ones achievements. Flattery :- Complimenting others about their virtues in an effort to make oneself appear perceptive and likable. Favours :- Doing something nice for someone to gain that persons approval. Association :- Enhancing or protecting ones image by managing information about people and things with which one is associated.