1

Built Environment Sustainability: A Road Map for Implementation

Developed by:

Dr. Jorge Vanegas
Professor
School of Civil and Environmental Engineering Georgia Institute of Technology Atlanta, GA 30332-0355 USA jorge.vanegas@ce.gatech.edu
June 2005

2

This presentation is best seen as a Slide Show…

3

Can you imagine a world…

4

…without Architects, Engineers, and Constructors, and the facilities and civil infrastructure systems we envision, plan, design, build, and maintain, in response to the problems, needs, opportunities, and desires of a broad and diverse range of stakeholders…?

5 I did not think so… .

and Constructors could no longer do… .6 So the question is: What if Architects. Engineers.

Vorster) . Definition of the Contextual Envelope of a Specific Facility or Civil Infrastructure System Compatibility Resources for the Delivery and Use of a Specific Facility or Civil Infrastructure System ....and with what....7 Characteristics and Requirements of a Specific Facility or Civil Infrastructure System What we do.....how we do it. Processes for the Delivery and Use of a Specific Facility or Civil Infrastructure System . (Inspired by M.

. Processes for the Delivery and Use of a Specific Facility or Civil Infrastructure System Definition of the Contextual Envelope of a Specific Facility or Civil Infrastructure System Compatibility Resources for the Delivery and Use of a Specific Facility or Civil Infrastructure System (Inspired by M. Vorster) . Characteristics and Requirements of a Specific Facility or Civil Infrastructure System QuickTime™ and a TIFF (Uncompressed) decompressor are need ed to see this picture..8 As a result of current unsustainable paradigms and behaviors.

Engineering. and Construction (AEC) Industry … .9 So. let’s take a quick and closer look at the Architecture.

10 It is large… • Global • U. Domestic – Construction – Renovation – Maintenance – Materials $ $ $ $ $ $ 3.S.2 T 1.1 T 710 B 282 B 148 B 353 B Source: Jack Snell. NIST .

11 It is diverse… • Single-family homes • Townhouses • Apartments • Condominiums • Other Residential • Dams • Highways • Airports • Pipelines • Other Heavy Engineering (17%) Industrial (16%) (34%) • Refineries • Power Plants • Steel Mills • Heavy Manufacturing • Other Source: Jack Snell. NIST • Schools • Office Buildings • Warehouses • Shopping Centers • Other Building Construction (33%) .

Vanegas 1987. Halliday 1994.It has many stakeholders… • Owners • Users • Developers • Clients • Others • Planners • Designers • Contractors • Communities • Others Internal Internal Direct Indirect External External Direct Indirect • Investors • Users • Consumers • Dependents • Others • Regulatory Agencies • Manufacturers • Suppliers • Financiers • Others (Jain et al. Hendrickson & Au 1989) . 1994.

disease. and environmental impact and degradation • Complex interrelationship between the economic development needs and the environmental problems resulting from development efforts • … and many more… . pollution. waste generation and accumulation. economic. and political conflicts • Widespread infrastructure deterioration. and social. and urban sprawl • Natural resource depletion and degradation.13 It faces many general challenges… • Overpopulation.

14 It faces many specific challenges… • • • • • • • • • • • Increasing Customer Sophistication Shifting Skill Requirements Destruction of Construction Globalization Consolidation Diversity Limited Capital Supply Restoration Governance Technology … and many more… (FMI 2005) .

3% • Increase in urbanized land relative to population growth: 2. (excluding Alaska): 98.94 billion acres • Developed land in U.S.15 It continues to grow… • Total land area in U. = 1.65 times the rate of population growth • … and much more… (EBN 2001) .S.2 million acres • Increase from 1982 to 1997: 34% • Average annual increase: 2.

000 housing units demolished annually • … and much more… (EBN 2001) .6 million new homes built annually (1.3 million single family) • 245.000 commercial buildings demolished annually • 1.000 commercial buildings constructed annually • 44.16 It continues to evolve… • 170.

4 million square miles total paved surfaces (public roadways.6 million commercial buildings 101.8 single-family) 425.000 brownfield sites 4 million paved miles 35.5 million homes (63. paved parking areas. and driveways) • More than 50% of wetlands lost in the lower 48 states between the late 1700s and the mid-1980s • … and much more… (EBN 2001) .17 It leaves a legacy… • • • • • 4.

The result has been an unsustainable linear approach to development… Resource Depletion and Degradation Environmental Impact and Degradation 18 Waste Generation and Accumulation End-of-ServiceLife Decision Production and Use of Energy Extraction and Use of Primary Resources Processing and Manufacture Transportation and Commercialization Use and Consumption of Technologies. Operation. Roberts) Impacts to Humans . Systems. and Technologies for FCIS (Inspired by D. Products. and Services. and Maintenance of Facilities and Civil Infrastructure Systems (FCIS) Renewable and Nonrenewable Natural Resources Materials. Materials. Products. Systems. in the Delivery.

19 So. what can we do to slow. and eliminate these impacts. and even restore conditions to a better state? . reduce.

which inevitably triggers the question: .20 We could strive to implement sustainability.

21

“What do you mean by sustainability…?”

22

The most cited definition:
• Sustainable Development is “...meeting the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs.” [Brundtland Commission] • Sustainability transcends the concept of SD and cuts across existing disciplines and cultural practices • Sustainability has implications for the total life cycle of A/E/C facilities and civil infrastructure systems, and the technologies, systems, products, materials, and services used in them.

Sustainability has brought together a diverse set of constituencies…
Industries Communities Global and Local Alliances Researchers

23

Engineers

Businesses

And many, many, many more…

Federal, State, and Local Governments Universities Individuals Health Professionals

Social Scientists Non-governmental Educators Organizations (NGOs) Physical Scientists Religious Organizations Financial Institutions Developed Countries Professional and Developing Countries Industry Associations

24

Selected Examples
• World Bank • World Business Council for Sustainable Development (WBCSD) • World Federation of Engineering Organizations (WFEO) • The Business Roundtable (BRT) • The U.S Green Building Council (USGBC) • The U.S. Army Corps of Engineers • U.S. Federal Government (Departments and Agencies) • Urban Land Institute (ULI) • The Construction Industry Institute (CII) • The National Center for Construction Education and Research (NCCER) • … and many others

25 However. one problem is that when you start to discuss sustainability. some people strive to use tactics to leave you … .

26 Some people try to make you feel: Scared (the possible outcomes)… .

many.27 Desertification Aquifer Depletion Starvation Deforestation Solid Waste Soil Loss And many. many more… Air Pollution Global Warming Species Extinction Water Pollution Chemical Contamination Ozone Depletion OverPopulation .

28 Others. will try to make you feel: Bad (the statistics and the blame)… .

The A/E/C Industry takes (in the U. 58% outdoors • … and much more… (Roodman & Lenssen 1996.S. Loken et al.000 gallons/year average household use: – 42% indoors.)… • • • • • • • 65% of total electricity consumption 50% of fossil fuels consumed 40% of materials use 25% of wood harvest 17% of fresh water withdrawals 124 trillion gallons/year total water use 146. 1994) .

SO. YOU WANT TO DESTROY THIS!!! .

31

The A/E/C industry leaves (in the U.S.)…
• 136 million tons of construction and demolition waste annually • 8-20% of solid waste • 25% of CFC emissions • 36% of CO2 emissions • 740 million tons of CO2 from commercial buildings alone • $60 Billion in medical expenses due to Sick Building Syndrome • … and much more…
(Kibert et al. 1994; Zeiher 1996 ; Tchobanoglous et al. 1994; EBN 2001)

SO, YOU WANT TO CREATE THIS!!!

33

Others, will try to make you feel:

Guilty
(the greater good)…

34

In other words, we need to do this for our children… and the children of our children.. and so on…

will try to make you feel: Confused ( the intellectual base)… .35 Others.

1988) through time of the diversity of human communities and ethical ideals flourishing. biota) and the water. et al. the dynamically balanced development of economic enterprise. 36 And many. mere biological survival) calls for specific solutions through the maintenance of to the particular problems support systems (air. many.existence of infrastructure and institutions which distribute term as well as immediateand protect the components of The sustainabilitySachs.The avoidance of serious perturbances to the materials Sustainability requires that we cycles in nature. of the region in the light ofbasic lifeland. ( of 1974) these systems. 1992) meets the needs of the present A style of development compromising without of life beyond that. (Solow. 1995) conserve the “generalized The capacity to produce economic indefinite survival of the well-being” but not any human species (with a quality that particular set of goods. (Allenby. many more… (Carpenter. in each ecoregion. and the preservation and regeneration of ecological systems and resources that sustain that development. 1998) .human populations involves the persistence needs. cultural as well as ecological data and long. (Liverman.

will try to make you feel: Relieved (the technological fix)… .37 Others.

many. many more… Passive Solar Design Gap Sealing Ground-source Heat Pumps Super Windows Vapor/Air Barriers .Composting Toilets Xeriscaping Disassembly & Material Recovery Mixed-use Planning Supplementary Insulation Waste-based Materials Wind Power Generation Lighting Retrofit Daylighting Faucet Retrofit Value Engineered Framing And many.

39 Although any discussion on sustainability in the AEC industry needs to address all these points of view. this presentation will strive to avoid the polarization they inevitably cause… .

40 … and instead of debating any of these points of view. focus on: what could the A/E/C Industry do to effectively implement Built Environment Sustainability (BES)? .

41 The first thing that we can do to implement BES in the A/E/C Industry is to: .

42 Establish. and influences on BES … . as a point of departure. the elements. scope of BES .

.43 We need to establish that what we need/want to sustain are...

People Individuals Organizations 44 Families Body Heart Mind Soul Communities .

The Built Environment 45 Civil Residential Infrastructure Facilities Systems NonIndustrial Residential Facilities Facilities .

Production Systems Goods 46 Products Services .

The Natural Environment 47 Global Air Water Local Soil Biota (Plant and Animal Species) .

The Resource Base Individuals 48 Organizations Families Body Heart Mind Soul Goods Civil Residential Infrastructure Facilities Systems NonResidential Facilities Industrial Facilities Products Communities Services People Production Systems The Built Environment Global Air Soil Water Biota (Plant and Animal Species) The Natural Environment Local Resource Base .

Goods. Services) Natural Capital (Renewable and Non-renewable Resources) Social Capital Economic Capital (Professional and Non-professional Workforce) .The Resource Base 49 Built Capital (Facilities and Infrastructure) Industrial Capital (Products.

50 The Elements of BES Individuals Organizations Families Body Heart Mind Soul Residential Facilities NonResidential Facilities Civil Infrastructure Systems Industrial Facilities Communities Production Systems for Goods Production Systems for Products Production Systems for Services People The Built Environment Global Air Soil Water Biota (P lant and Animal Species) Built Environment Industrial Base The Industrial Base The Natural Environment Local Natural Capital Economic Capital Social Capital The Resource Base .

51 The Scope of BES Individuals Organizations Families Body Heart Mind Soul Residential Facilities NonResidential Facilities Civil Infrastructure Systems Industrial Facilities Communities Production Systems for Goods Production Systems for Products Production Systems for Services People The Built Environment Global Air Soil Water Biota (P lant and Animal Species) Built Environment Industrial Base The Industrial Base Local Natural Capital Economic Capital Social Capital Perspectives and Levels of Complexity The Natural Environment The Resource Base Spatial and Temporal Scales .

52 Perspectives INDIVIDUAL PROFESSIONAL ENTERPRISE INDUSTRY SOCIETY WORLD .

53 Levels of Complexity MOLECULAR MATERIAL PRODUCTS PROCESSES SYSTEMS COMPLEX SYSTEMS (Inspired by P. Anastas) .

54 Spatial Scale SITE FOOTPRINT LOCAL FOOTPRINT STATE FOOTPRINT REGIONAL FOOTPRINT NATIONAL FOOTPRINT GLOBAL INTERNATIONAL FOOTPRINT .

55 Temporal Scale TODAY 1 YEAR 10 Years Human Lifetime Generation Civilization .

Cultural. Political. and Regulatory Systems Local Natural Capital Economic Capital Social Capital The Resource Base .56 The Influences on BES Environmental and Ecological Systems Families Individuals Economic and Financial Systems Organizations Body Heart Mind Soul Residential Facilities NonResidential Facilities Civil Infrastructure Systems Industrial Facilities Communities Production Systems for Goods Production Systems for Products Production Systems for Services People The Built Environment Global Air Soil Water Biota (P lant and Animal Species) Built Environment Industrial Base The Industrial Base The Natural Environment Social.

57 The second thing that we can do to implement BES in the A/E/C Industry is to: .

the LEED Green Building Rating System. a Closed Loop Production System. Sustainable Product Design.58 Start by implementing what has worked in AEC and other domains: Sustainability Principles. and the Lean Project Delivery System (LPDS)… TM .

• The following compilation highlights the diversity of approaches to sustainability: – The Precautionary Principle – The Earth Charter Principles – The Natural Step System Conditions – The Daly Principles – The CERES Principles – The Bellagio Principles – The Ahwahnee Principles .59 We can apply Sustainability Principles… • The list of principles of sustainability is extensive.

) – The Interface Steps To Sustainability – The Hannover Principles – EBN Checklist for Environmentally Responsible Design and Construction – HOK’s Sustainable Design Considerations – The Twelve Principles of Green Engineering – IISD Compilation of Sustainable Development Principles – … and many. many more… .60 We can apply Sustainability Principles… • The following compilation highlights the diversity of approaches to sustainability: (cont.

We can go beyond a “Linear Process of Production”… Materia ls E xtrac te d From Biosphere Manufacture 61 Manufactu re Manufactu re Material Produc t eru tca fu na M Material gn isse corPProduc t Demanuf acture Demanuf acture Demanuf acture Demanuf acture Mining Materia ls E xtrac te d From Biosphere Manufacture Materi al Processi ng Demanu factur Demanu factur e e Material Produc t Produc t Produc t Dispos al Demanuf acture Demanuf acture Demanuf acture Demanuf acture k Take-Bac Manufactu re Manufactu re Material Material Proc es sing Proc es sing Produc t Produc t Manuf ac ture Manuf ac ture Materia ls Mine d From Lithosphere Material Dispos al E w n i t e E r w h 1= Direct reuse 1= Direct reuse 2= R e m R 2= a e n m u a f a n c u tf Cleanyfuel r Cleanefuel c n g e g r y Reprocessinge recycled mr of recycled mr e y r o r v Reprocessing v E e n aterial ce o y 3= 3= of aterial in t i iproduc tion v iacproduc tion v iaeer/raw 4= n generationmaterial generation h it n h i 4= n c r material eer/raw w i a t ir o a t o Monom Monom py roly sis py roly sis Mining Mining 4 4 3 3 2 2 ment: Env ironment: Land Air-Sea-Land 4 3 4 2 3 2 Air-Sea-Land 1 Man ufacture 1 Us e Produ ct Di strib utio n Produc t Dispos al Take-Bac k Env ironment: Env ironment: Air-Sea-Land Air-Sea-Land Env ironment: n oi tu bir ts iD Dispos al Dispos al Materia ls Mine d From Lithosphere Material Mining Proc es sing Material Produc t ProcManuf ac ture es sing Produc t Distribution Manuf ac ture E E w w n n i i tc udorP t t e e e rutcafu na M r r h h Materi al Processi ng Produ ct Man ufacture Di strib utio n Mining Distribution Us e Material Use Demanuf actur esU Demanu factur e Demanu factur e Clean g yfuel r Cleanyfuel g r produc tion v iac i n produc tion v iac i n py roly sis py roly sis la ire ta M 1= 1= 2= 2= e 3= e 3= i 4= i 4= c o v e Reprocessing of recycled mr c o d eof M sle i reta v a aterial y Reprocessing n i recycled mrM y aterial n eer/raw h pso h iL tmo rF r a t i Monom e rematerialtgeneration o n eer/raw material generation o r a i Monom Direct reuse R e m R e m 1 d et cartx E sl ai reta M Us e e reh pso iB mo rF Produc t Produc t Take-Bac k Take-Bac k Distribution Distribution a a n n u u f f n n a a Man Use Material Proc es sing 4 3 Dema ua Clea g produ n i py ro .

62 … to a Closed Loop Production System… Manufacture Materia ls E xtrac te d From Biosphere Manufactu re Manufactu re Material Produc t eru tca fu na M gn isse corP Demanuf acture Demanuf acture Materia ls Mine d From Lithosphere Materi al Processi ng Demanu factur Demanu factur e e E w n i t e E r w h 1= Direct reuse 1= Direct reuse 2= R e m R 2= a e n m u a f a n c u tf Cleanefuel c Cleanyfuel r n e g y Reprocessinge recycled mr of recycled mr r ce o e y g r o v Reprocessing v y 3= 3= of aterial aterial iproduc tion v iacproduc tion v iaeer/raw 4= n generationmaterial generation o h i 4= n c i a t i it n r material eer/raw o a t ir n Monom Monom py roly sis py roly sis Manufactu re Mining Distribution Dispos al Material Produc t Produc t Produc t Dispos al Demanuf acture Demanuf acture k Demanuf acture Demanuf acture Take-Bac Material Proc es sing Produc t Manuf ac ture Materia ls Mine d From Lithosphere Material 4 3 2 4 3 4 2 3 2 1 Produ ct Man ufacture 1 Us e Di strib utio n Produc t Take-Bac k Developed from CST/GT Env ironment: Air-Sea-Land ment: Env ironment: Land Air-Sea-Land e rutcafu na M Demanu factur e Materia ls E xtrac te d From Biosphere Manufacture n oi tu bir ts iD Dispos al Mining Material Mining Proc es sing Material Produc t ProcManuf ac ture es sing Produc t ManufDistribution ac ture Distribution E w n i tc udorP t e r h Materi al Processi ng Produ ct Man ufacture Di strib utio n Us e esU Clean g yfuel r produc tion v iac i n py roly sis la ire ta M e Reprocessing of o v e 3= c d enrecycledretr M y i M sl ai material a i 4= n eer/rawrmaterialht iL mo riF o r Monom e eh pa o generation s t 1= Direct reuse 2= R e m 1 d et cartx E sl ai reta M e Us e reh pso iB mo rF Produc t Take-Bac k a n u f n a Use Use ua n .

63 … Integrated with Biological Cycles… Developed from CST/GT .

… At Various Organizational and Temporal Scales of Impact Organizational Scale – Virtual or Geographic 64 Single Product Cycle Developed from CST/GT .

We can go beyond “Traditional Product Design”… Other Processes Post Industrial Waste Renewable Resources Process Non-renewable Resources Environmental Impact Developed from INTERFACE. Inc. Products Post Consumer Waste .

Post Consumer Waste .66 … To Sustainable Product Design Other Processes Renewable Resources Post Industrial Waste Process Products Non-renewable Resources Environmental Impact Developed from INTERFACE. Inc.

S.79 Points – Platinum • > 80 Points SOURCE: U.org .usgbc.59 Points – Gold • 60 . http://www. Green Building Council.49 Points TM – Silver • 50 .We can follow the LEED Green Building Rating System… TM 67 • There are four (4) LEED Ratings: – Certified • 40 .

15 Possible Points SOURCE: U. http://www.usgbc. 10 Possible Points • Energy and Atmosphere – Three Prerequisites.… And implement Sustainable Strategies… • Sustainable Sites – One Prerequisite. 26 Possible Points • Water Efficiency – No Prerequisites. Green Building Council. 35 Possible Points • Materials and Resources – One Prerequisite.S. 14 Possible Points • Indoor Environmental Quality – Two Prerequisites.org 68 .

S.… And implement Sustainable Strategies… • Innovation Credits – Up to four additional points for exceptional actions above LEED requirements or for innovative performance in non-LEED green building attributes • Accredited Professional on Team – One additional point if at least one principal participant has successfully completed the LEED accreditation exam 69 SOURCE: U. Green Building Council. http://www.org .usgbc.

Green Building Council. http://www.usgbc. Transportation • Credit 5: Site Disturbance • Credit 6: Stormwater Management • Credit 7: Landscape/Exterior Design for Heat Islands • Credit 8: Light Pollution Reduction SOURCE: U.S.70 …Such as Sustainable Sites… • Prerequisite: – Erosion and Sedimentation Control • Credit 1: Site Selection • Credit 2: Urban Redevelopment • Credit 3: Brownfield Redevelopment • Credit 4: Alt.org .

Green Building Council.org . http://www.usgbc.S.… Water Efficiency… • Credit 1: Water Efficient Landscaping • Credit 2: Innovative Wastewater Technologies • Credit 3: Water Use Reduction SOURCE: U.

Green Building Council.S.72 … Energy and Atmosphere… • Prerequisites: – Fundamental Systems Commissioning – Minimum Energy Performance – CFC Reduction in HVAC&R Equipment • Credit 1: Optimize Energy Performance • Credit 2: Renewable Energy • Credit 3: More Commissioning • Credit 4: Elimination of HCFCs and Halons • Credit 5: Measurement and Verification • Credit 6: Green Power SOURCE: U. http://www.org .usgbc.

… Materials & Resources
• Prerequisite: – Storage and Collection of Recyclables • Credit 1: Building Reuse • Credit 2: Construction Waste Management • Credit 3: Resource Reuse • Credit 4: Recycled Content • Credit 5: Local/Regional Materials • Credit 6: Rapidly Renewable Materials • Credit 7: Certified Wood
SOURCE: U.S. Green Building Council; http://www.usgbc.org

74

…And Indoor Environmental Quality
• Prerequisites: – Minimum IAQ Performance – Environmental Tobacco Smoke Control • Credit 1: Carbon Dioxide Monitoring • Credit 2: Ventilation Effectiveness • Credit 3: Construction IAQ Management Plan • Credit 4: Low-Emitting Materials • Credit 5: Indoor Pollutant Source Control • Credit 6: Controllability of Systems • Credit 7: Thermal Comfort • Credit 8: Daylight and Views
SOURCE: U.S. Green Building Council; http://www.usgbc.org

We can operate within a Lean Project Delivery System (LPDS)…

75

• The project is structured and managed as a value generating process • Downstream stakeholders are involved in front end planning and design through cross-functional teams • Project control of execution instead of after-the-fact variance detection • Optimization efforts are focused on making work flow reliable, as opposed to improving productivity • Capacity and inventory buffers are used to absorb variability
SOURCE: Lean Construction Institute; http://www.leanconstruction.org

We can operate within a Lean Project Delivery System (LPDS)…
• Pull techniques govern the flow of materials and information through networks of cooperating specialists • Feedback loops are incorporated at every level, dedicated to rapid system adjustment; i.e., built-in learning • The LPDS model consists of 13 modules • Nine modules, which are organized in four interconnecting triads or phases extending from project definition, to design, to supply to assembly
SOURCE: Lean Construction Institute; http://www.leanconstruction.org

76

which links the end of one project to the beginning of the next. http://www.org . 77 SOURCE: Lean Construction Institute.leanconstruction.We can operate within a Lean Project Delivery System (LPDS)… • Two production control modules. which extend throughout all project phases • A work structuring module. which extends throughout all project phases • A post-occupancy evaluation module.

Purposes Design Concepts Product Design 78 Fabrication & Logistics Commissioning Alteration & Decommissioning Design Criteria Process Design Detailed Engineering Installation Operations & Maintenance Project Definition Lean Design Lean Supply WORK STRUCTURING Lean Assembly Use PRODUCTION CONTROL: WORK FLOW CONTROL PRODUCTION CONTROL: PRODUCTION UNIT CONTROL POST-OCCUPANCY EVALUATION (LESSONS LEARNED) SOURCE: Lean Construction Institute.…And Achieve Lean Design.leanconstruction. and Assembly…. Supply. http://www.org .

79 … and many. many more… .

80 However.” . “There is nothing more tragic than the death of a beautiful theory at the hands of a brutal gang of irrefutable facts.

and Scope Myopia”… • … executes AEC projects as an “Obstacle Course Race” with a “Herd of Cats” who are constantly “Thumb Wrestling” ... Temporal. • … lives in the “Jail of the Status Quo” with “Spatial.… and the irrefutable facts are that the AEC industry… 81 • … operates with a “Horizontal Tunnel Vision” within “Vertical Stovepipes”… • … follows a “Cradle to Grave” path of development combined with a “Turf Mentality” at an industry level… • … is full of “Conventional AEC Enterprises” that operate with “Institutional Amnesia”.

and Time” and a “Cost Minimization Obsession”… • … needs to overcome its “Piece Meal” and “Rice Bowls” mentalities within “Islands of Execution”… • … is living in “Islands of Automation” surrounded by an “Ocean of Data and Information” while suffering from “Paralysis of Analysis” 82 . Cost.) • … has fallen into a “Commodity and Service Trap” while tied by the “Shackles of Quality.… and the irrefutable facts are that the AEC industry… (cont.

compared to other industries… The Aerospace Industry The Automotive Industry .83 In fact.

… The AEC Industry does not seem to have evolved as much… 84 The AEC Industry .

85 … Or done as well … .

in this brutal context.86 So. very few theories have a chance to survive … .

87 The third thing that we can do to implement BES in the A/E/C Industry is to: .

88 Apply a roadmap for the implementation of BES that will enable the AEC industry to move from its current inhibitors to a new set of enabling principles… .

89 From: Operating with a “Horizontal Tunnel Vision” within “Vertical Stovepipes”. To: Vertical and Horizontal Integration… .

Outcomes Sustainability .90 From “Horizontal Tunnel Vision”… • From: – … Public Policy • Through: – … Corporate Policy – … Strategic Plans – … Tactical Plans – … Operational Procedures – … Practices • To: – ...

91 … To Vertical Integration • From: – … Public Policy • Through: – … Corporate Policy – … Strategic Plans – … Tactical Plans – … Operational Procedures – … Practices • To: – . Outcomes Sustainability ...

Management. IT) Sustainability . Heavy/Civil. City Planning. Architecture. Economics. Constructors. Suppliers. Finance. Residential) Within the principal Stakeholders (Owners. Engineering. Users. Designers. Building.92 From “Vertical Stovepipes”… Within Industry Sectors (Industrial. External Parties) Within the various Disciplines (Real Estate.

93 … To Horizontal Integration Within Industry Sectors (Industrial. Users. Management. Designers. City Planning. Constructors. External Parties) Within the various Disciplines (Real Estate. Residential) Within the principal Stakeholders (Owners. Building. Engineering. Heavy/Civil. Architecture. Suppliers. Economics. IT) Sustainability . Finance.

94 From: Following a “Cradle to Grave” path of development combined with a “Turf Mentality” at an industry level. To: Cradle to Cradle and Collaboration… .

in the Delivery. Operation. Roberts) Impacts to Humans . and Technologies for FCIS (Inspired by D. Systems. Materials.95 From “Cradle to Grave”… Resource Depletion and Degradation Environmental Impact and Degradation Waste Generation and Accumulation End-of-ServiceLife Decision Production and Use of Energy Extraction and Use of Primary Resources Processing and Manufacture Transportation and Commercialization Use and Consumption of Technologies. and Services. Systems. Products. and Maintenance of Facilities and Civil Infrastructure Systems (FCIS) Renewable and Nonrenewable Natural Resources Materials. Products.

96 … To “Cradle to Cradle” Reduction/Elimination of Resource Depletion and Degradation Sustainable Resource Management Reduction/Elimination of Environmental Impact and Degradation Sustainable Strategies and Technologies Social/Cultural/Political/Regulatory. Systems. Roberts) GRADUAL CHANGE TOWARDS SUSTAINABILITY Intra. Economic/Financial. Products. Ecological/Environmental Context Reduction/Elimination of Waste Generation and Accumulation Resource Recovery Production and Use of Energy End-of-ServiceLife Decision Extraction and Use of Primary Resources Processing and Manufacture Transportation and Commercialization Use and Consumption of Technologies. Operation. Systems. Materials. Products. and Technologies for FCIS (Inspired by D. and Maintenance of Facilities and Civil Infrastructure Systems (FCIS) Renewable and Nonrenewable Natural Resources Materials. and Services.and Intergenerational Satisfaction of Human Needs and Aspirations Reduction/Elimination of Impacts to Humans . in the Delivery.

& Equipment for FCIS . Materials.From “Turf Mentality”… Planning Planning 97 Total Life Cycle of the Delivery and Use of Facilities Total Life Cycle of the Delivery and Use of Civil Infrastructure Systems Design Design Procurement & Construction Facilities (F) Commissioning & Start-up Civil Infrastructure Systems (CIS) Procurement & Construction Commissioning & Start-up Operations & Maintenance Operations & Maintenance Push End-of-Service Life Technologies. Research & Development Testing. Products. Systems. Systems. Validation. Approval & Certification Manufacturing Commercialization & Transportation Use End-of-Service Life Total Life Cycle Delivery and Use of Technologies. Materials. & Equipment for FCIS Push End-of-Service Life Feasibility Studies. Products.

Technologies.… To Collaboration Planning 98 Pull/Push Planning Total Life Cycle of the Delivery and Use of Civil Infrastructure Systems Total Life Cycle of the Delivery and Use of Facilities Design Design Procurement & Construction Commissioning & Start-up Sustainable Facilities (F) Facilities (F) Collaboration Sustainable Civil Civil Infrastructure Systems (CIS) Procurement & Construction Commissioning & Start-up Operations & Maintenance Operations & Maintenance Pull/Push End-of-Service Life Sustainable Technologies. Products. & Equipment for FCIS . Systems. Materials. Materials. Research & Development Testing. Validation. & Products. Systems. Products. Systems. Materials. & Equipment for FCIS Equipment for FCIS Pull/Push End-of-Service Life Feasibility Studies. Approval & Certification Manufacturing Commercialization & Transportation Use End-of-Service Life Total Life Cycle Delivery and Use of Technologies.

..99 From: Being full of “Conventional AEC Enterprises” that operate with “Institutional Amnesia” To: Streamlined AEC Enterprises that are Learning Organizations. .

MARKETS & CLIENTS GAP ENTERPRISE Infrastructures Physical Human Technological Technical Management Administrative Core Assets and Competencies: Information/Data Knowledge/Experience Abilities/Skills Technological Proficiency INTERNAL CONTEXT (Efficient.100 From “Conventional AEC Enterprises”… EXTERNAL CONTEXT SPEED OF CHANGE IN THE GLOBAL ECONOMY. MARKETS & CLIENTS (Exponential) GLOBAL ECONOMY. Productive & Profitable) SPEED OF CHANGE IN THE ENTERPRISE ORGANIZATION (Lineal) ORGANIZATION .

101 … To Streamlined A/E/C enterprises Develops External Strategic Alliances and Partnerships IMPORTANT INFRASTRUCTURES. MARKETS & CLIENTS Educates and Trains Personnel NON-ESSENTIAL AND UNIMPORTANT INFRASTRUCTURES. & CORE COMPETENCIES (External) ESSENTIAL INFRASTRUCTURES. Flexible. Scalable. & CORE COMPETENCIES (Internal) STREAMLINED ENTERPRISE (Effective. Efficient. ASSETS. & Sustainable) GLOBAL ECONOMY. ASSETS. Adaptable. ASSETS. & CORE COMPETENCIES Streamlines and Right-sizes . Lean.

Operability. Safety. Maintainability. Procurability. and Maintenance Costs.102 From “Institutional Amnesia”… Planning Process Planners Engineers/Architects Special Consultants Design Process Preliminary Studies (At Different Levels of Definition) Architects Engineers Specialty Designers Plans and Specifications (At Different Levels of Definition) Evaluation of Planning Performance Evaluation of Design Performance Construction Process Construction Managers Contractors and Subcontractors Vendors and Suppliers Analyses of Actual Planning and Design Performance Constructability. Health. Health. Quality. Operation. Constructability. Subsystem. and Commissioning & Start-up Evaluation of Construction Performance Constructed Facility (At System. Sustainability Analyses during Planning and Design Analyses of Actual Construction Performance Cost & Schedule. Procurability. Commissioning & Start-up. Ownership. Maintainability. Operability. Sustainability Evaluation of Facility Performance . or Component Levels) Operations & Maintenance Process Construction Managers Operators/Users Maintenance Personnel Institutional Memory Sink Analyses of Actual Facility Performance Production. Productivity.

Productivity. and Commissioning & Start-up Evaluation of Construction Performance Constructed Facility (At System. Constructability. Operability. Health. Sustainability Analyses during Planning and Design Analyses of Actual Construction Performance Cost & Schedule. Operability. Health. Operation. Sustainability Evaluation of Facility Performance Creativity and Innovation Incubator . Procurability. Procurability. Maintainability. Safety.103 … To Learning Organizations Planning Process Planners Engineers/Architects Special Consultants Design Process Preliminary Studies (At Different Levels of Definition) Architects Engineers Specialty Designers Plans and Specifications (At Different Levels of Definition) Evaluation of Planning Performance Evaluation of Design Performance Construction Process Construction Managers Contractors and Subcontractors Vendors and Suppliers Analyses of Actual Planning and Design Performance Constructability. Commissioning & Start-up. and Maintenance Costs. Subsystem. Maintainability. or Component Levels) Operations & Maintenance Process Construction Managers Operators/Users Maintenance Personnel External Benchmarking Repository (Best Practices) Institutional Memory Repository (Lessons Learned) Analyses of Actual Facility Performance Production. Ownership. Quality.

104 From: Living in the “Jail of the Status Quo” with “Spatial. and Scope Myopia” To: Continuous Improvement. Expanded Spatial and Temporal Scales. Temporal. and Expanded Project Scope .

105 From the “Jail of the Status Quo”… Characteristics and Requirements of a Specific Capital Project AEC CAPITAL PROJECT Processes for the Delivery and Use of a Specific Capital Project Resources for the Delivery and Use Contextual Envelope of a Specific Capital Project of a Specific Capital Project .

106 …To Continuous Improvement • Research & Development • Education & Training • Best Practices • Lessons Learned • Creativity & Innovation Enhanced Characteristics and Requirements of a Specific Capital Project Processes for the Delivery and Use of a Specific Capital Project Enhanced AEC CAPITAL PROJECT Resources for the Delivery and Use Enhanced of a Specific Capital Project Enhanced Contextual Envelope of a Specific Capital Project .

and Resources Processes for the Delivery and Use of a Specific Capital Project Enhanced AEC CAPITAL PROJECT Resources for the Delivery and Use Enhanced of a Specific Capital Project Enhanced Contextual Envelope of a Specific Capital Project . Processes.107 …To Continuous Improvement • Research & Development • Education & Training • Best Practices • Lessons Learned • Creativity & Innovation Enhanced Characteristics and Requirements of a Specific Capital Project Enhanced Compatibility among Characteristics.

108 …To Continuous Improvement Attributes and Characteristics of a Sustainable Facility (The “What”) Contextual Envelope of a Sustainable Facility (The Sustainability Octant) Resources for the Delivery and Use of a Sustainable Facility (The “With What”) Unsustainable Processes Processes for the Delivery and Use of a Sustainable Facility (The “How”) Unsustainable Resources Unsustainable Attributes and Characteristics .

109 …in the complete range of types of AEC projects… .

Contextual Envelope of the Project to Deliver an AEC Project
Project Risks Physical and Non-physical Contexts of the Project
Project Scope Project Performance Goals and Objectives Project Stakeholders

AEC Project Typologies by Industry Sector AEC Project Typologies by Project Type
New Greenfield or Brownfield Facility Development Projects Projects for the Rehabilitation of Deteriorated Facilities Projects for the Expansion, Upgrade, or Retrofit of Existing Facilities Disaster Recovery and Reconstruction Projects Historical Restoration, Reconstruction, or Preservation Projects Environmental Remediation Projects Decommissioning, Deconstruction, or Demolition Projects Hybrid Projects Residential Construction Sector Building Construction Sector Industrial Construction Sector Heavy/Civil Construction Sector Mixed Use Development Sector

AEC Project Characterization •By Industry Sector •By Project Type •By Contextual Envelope

111

From “Spatial and Temporal Myopia”…
AEC CAPITAL PROJECT

HERE
(Focus on the Site Footprint for a Specific A/E/C Project)

NOW
(Focus on the Short-term for a Specific A/E/C Project)

… To Expanded Spatial and Temporal Scales
AEC CAPITAL PROJECT

112

Site Footprint Local Footprint State Footprint Regional Footprint National Footprint Global International Footprint

Today 1 Year 1 – 5 Years 5 – 10 Years 10 – 25 Years 25 – 50 Years and +

Spatial Scale of the Project

Temporal Scale of the Project

113

From “Scope Myopia”…
PROJECT DEFINITION AND DELIVERY OF A FCIS PROJECT
Duration

DRIVERS FOR A FCIS PROJECT Problem Need Opportunity Desire

Start
Planning Design

Procurement & Construction

Commissioning & Startup

End

RESOURCE BASE FOR A FCIS

PROJECT ORIGINATOR FOR A FCIS PROJECT Enterprise Organizational Unit Functional Unit Individual

114 … To an Expanded Project Scope PROJECT DEFINITION AND DELIVERY OF A SUSTAINABLE FCIS PROJECT Duration DRIVERS FOR A SUSTAINABLE FCIS PROJECT Problem Need Opportunity Desire Start Planning Design Procurement & Construction Commissioning & Startup End USE OF A SUSTAINABLE FCIS RESOURCE BASE FOR A SUSTAINABLE FCIS Operations & Maintenance End-of-Service Life PROJECT ORIGINATOR FOR A SUSTAINABLE FCIS PROJECT Enterprise Organizational Unit Functional Unit Individual Post-occupancy Evaluation and Feedback OUTCOMES OF A SUSTAINABLE FCIS Problem Solution Need Satisfaction Opportunity Capitalization Desire Realization .

Integrated and Aligned Project Teams.115 From: Executing projects as an “Obstacle Course Race” with a “Herd of Cats” who are constantly “Thumb Wrestling” To: Life Cycle Integration. and Partnering .

Service Life Decision Contract Documents End Operation Phase ./SCs) Primary Lead Operations Team (Users/Operators) Primary Lead Procurement Characterization & Performance Goals Setting Planning Phase Design Phase Construction Phase Start–Up Start Operation/ Maintenance/ Management Design Development Construction Planning Construction Operations Conceptual/ Schematic Design Pre-project Planning & Funding Bid or Negotiate./GCs.116 From an “Obstacle Race”… Vendors/Suppliers Team Owner Team (May Include Users/Operators) Primary Lead Design Team (Architects/Engineers) Primary Lead Construction Team (CMs. Award Project Definition Package End-of.

) Primary Lead Construction Team (CMs./GCs./SCs) Primary Lead Operations Team (Users/Operators) Primary Lead Active Participation Sustainable Procurement Phase Characterization & Performance Goals Setting Commissioning Phase Sustainable Planning Phase Sustainable Design Phase Sustainable Construction Phase Start–Up Start Operation/ Maintenance/ Management Design Development Construction Planning End-of. Award End Sustainable Operation Phase Sustainability Sensitive Delivery and Management Systems and Contract Types .… To Life Cycle Integration External Parties Vendors/Suppliers Team Owner Team (May Include Users/Operators) Primary Lead 117 Design Team (Archs.Service Life Decision Pre-project Planning & Funding Contract Documents Construction Operations Project Definition Package Conceptual/ Schematic Design Bid or Negotiate./ Engrs.

. •Financial Institutions •Insurance Companies •Bonding Companies •Regulatory Agencies •The Community •The General Public •Other Owner Team User/ Operator Team External Parties X X X X X X X X X X X X Design Team Construction Team Individuals...... Functional Units... Vendors/ Suppliers Project Goals and Objectives X Key Parties in the Total Supply Chain Internal & External Organizations Internal & External Organizations . Functional Units.... Individuals. Organizational Units. Individuals. Organizational Units. Functional Units.........From a “Herd of Cats”… Internal & External Organizations Organizational Units. Individuals.. Functional Units.... 118 Internal & External Organizations Organizational Units..

.... Functional Units.. Organizational Units. 119 Internal & External Organizations Organizational Units.. Functional Units......To an Integrated Project Team… Internal & External Organizations Organizational Units. Functional Units... Organizational Units. •Financial Institutions •Insurance Companies •Bonding Companies •Regulatory Agencies •The Community •The General Public •Other Owner Team User/ Operator Team External Parties PROJECT TEAM Design Team Construction Team Individuals... XX XX X X X X X X Vendors/ Suppliers Project Goals And Objectives Key Parties in the Total Supply Chain Internal & External Organizations Internal & External Organizations .. Individuals.. Individuals....... Individuals.. Functional Units.

120 … And Aligned Project Team Partnering Development and Team Building Processes Project Stakeholders Common and Well-defined Set of Project Goals and Objectives Partnering and Team Maintenance Processes High Performance Team STRONG LEADERSHIP Acceptable Tolerances and Team Norms Project Alignment and Misalignment Elimination Process .

The User Team vs.121 From “Thumb Wrestling”… The Owner Team vs. External Parties . Vendors and Suppliers vs. The Design Team vs. The Construction Team vs.

all on the same team… .122 … To Partnering The Owner Team with the User Team with the Design Team with the Construction Team with Vendors and Suppliers with External Parties.

Cost.123 From: Having fallen into a “Commodity and Service Trap” while tied to the “Shackles of Quality. and a New Value Paradigm… . within an Enhanced Performance Paradigm. To: The Delivery of Solutions and Experiences. and Time” and a “Cost Minimization Obsession”.

From a “Commodity and Service Trap”… Communicate Specifications Establish Needs 124 SUPPLIERS Resources AEC ENTERPRISE Projects Services CUSTOMERS Quality of Execution (satisfaction with the way the project definition and delivery processes meet the needs of the customer) Quality of Conformance (satisfaction with the way the project surpasses the specifications) .

and better Quality of Performance experiences. the way the project performs over its life span) not just products and (satisfaction with services… Quality of Continuous Improvement (satisfaction with the way the performance of the project can be improved over its life span) Quality of Execution (satisfaction with the way the project definition and delivery processes meet the needs of the customer) .… To the Delivery of Solutions and Experiences… Communicate Specifications Establish Needs 125 Solutions Resources SUPPLIERS AEC ENTERPRISE Projects Services CUSTOMERS Clients are expecting/requiring Quality of Conformance (satisfaction with the way the project surpasses the specifications) better long term solutions.

and Time”… Quality 126 AEC Capital Project Performance Cost Time . Cost.From the “Shackles of Quality.

… To an Enhanced Performance Paradigm 127 Life Cycle Performance Parameters Product Performance Parameters CAPITAL PROJECT PERFORMANCE Delivery Performance Parameters Conventional Performance Parameters .

128 From a “Cost Minimization Obsession”… Customer Value = Less Cost .

what type of management to have in a project… . not just controlling resource expenditures… Customer Value = NOT / MORE Needs + Objectives + Targets Maximum Overall Resources Expended Numerator Management… Denominator Management… The choice then is.129 … To a New Value Paradigm… Based on enhancing the project outcomes.

130 … and a New Value Paradigm Based on balancing quality delivered and resources used… Offered Quality Available Resources Expected Quality Required Resources VALUE Worst Value: Q < 1 R ≥ 1 Low Value: Q = 1 R > 1 Good Value: Q = 1 R = 1 Q>1 R>1 Best Value: Q > 1 R = 1 .

131 From: Needing to overcome its “Piece Meal” and “Rice Bowls” mentalities within “Islands of Execution”. To: Systems Thinking. Funding as a Common Good. and Production-based Construction . Integrated Project Design. and Integrated Project Definition.

132 From “Piece Meal”… Sub.systems Optimization .systems Integration Initial Context Evolving Context System Subsystem 2 Subsystem 1 Subsystem 3 Subsystem 4 Subsystem 5 Subsystem 6 Sub-systems Breakdown and Definition Independent Sub.

systems Inter-relationships and Dependencies . and Characterization Understanding of Sub.133 … To Systems Thinking… Sub. Definition.systems Integration Adaptable Flexible Scalable Sustainable Effective Efficient Robust Initial Context System Evolving Context ExtraSubsystem 2 Subsystem 1 Subsystem 3 InterSubsystem 5 Subsystem 6 Intra- Subsystem 4 Sub-systems Breakdown.

… Including Going From a Non-systems Perspective of Organizations.. Organization Components Organization ORGANIZATION COMPONENT 1 ORGANIZATION COMPONENT 2 134 Internal Context ORGANIZATION COMPONENT 3 External Context Sustainability ..

… To a Systems Perspective of Organizations… Organization Components Organization ORGANIZATION COMPONENT 1 ORGANIZATION COMPONENT 2 135 Internal Context CONTEXTUAL COMPATIBILITY BARRIERS-BREAKERS ORGANIZATION COMPONENT 3 External Context EXTRACOMPONENT RELATIONSHIPS ORGANIZATION ATTRIBUTES: STABILITY FLEXIBILITY SCALABILITY ADAPTABILITY SUSTAINABILITY INTERCOMPONENT RELATIONSHIPS INTRACOMPONENT RELATIONSHIPS .

.. Project Components Project PROJECT COMPONENT 1 PROJECT COMPONENT 2 136 Internal Context PROJECT COMPONENT 3 External Context Sustainability .… And Also Going From a Non-systems Perspective of Projects.

137 … to a Systems Perspective of Projects Project Components Project PROJECT COMPONENT 1 PROJECT COMPONENT 2 Internal Context CONTEXTUAL COMPATIBILITY BARRIERS-BREAKERS PROJECT COMPONENT 3 External Context EXTRACOMPONENT RELATIONSHIPS PROJECT ATTRIBUTES: STABILITY FLEXIBILITY SCALABILITY ADAPTABILITY SUSTAINABILITY INTERCOMPONENT RELATIONSHIPS INTRACOMPONENT RELATIONSHIPS .

138 From “Rice Bowls”… Enterprise $$$ Enterprise Units $$$ Unit Programs $$$ Project $$$ (Inspired by J. Wuichet) .

139 … To Funding as a Common Good Savings $$$ (Inspired by J. Wuichet) .

140 From “Islands of Project Definition”… PROJECT BUSINESS CASE & PLAN (PBCP) Project Area and Site External Parties Design Team (Architects/ Engineers) Owner & User/Operations Team SITE SELECTION (SS) PROJECT DEFINITION PACKAGE (PDP) PROJECT EXECUTION PLAN (PEP) PROJECT TEAM DEFINITION (PT) INTEGRATED DESIGN PACKAGE (IDP) Product Definition PRODUCTION PROCESS PLAN (PPP) Process Definition PHYSICAL AND NON-PHYSICAL CONTEXT Construction Team (Construction Managers/ General Contractors/ Specialty Subcontractors) WORK BREAKDOWN STRUCTURE (WBS) Integrated Product/Process Definition BUILDING SYSTEMS COMMISSIONING PLAN (BSCP) 3-D MODEL FINANCIAL/COST MODEL TIME MODEL PRODUCTION PROCESS MODEL RESOURCE PROCUREMENT PLAN (RPP) Vendors/Suppliers Team (Supply Chain) .

141 … To Integrated Project Definition… .

Commissioning. and Turnover/Start-up . Construction.(1) PROJECT BUSINESS CASE & PLAN (PBCP) Project Area and Site External Parties Design Team (Architects/ Engineers) (2) SITE SELECTION (SS) (3) PROJECT DEFINITION PACKAGE (PDP) Owner & User/Operations Team (4) PHYSICAL AND NON-PHYSICAL CONTEXT (6) PROJECT TEAM DEFINITION (PT) (7) INTEGRATED DESIGN PACKAGE (IDP) Product Definition (5) PROJECT EXECUTION PLAN (PEP) (9) WORK BREAKDOWN STRUCTURE (WBS) Integrated Product/Process Definition (8) PRODUCTION PROCESS PLAN (PPP) Process Definition Construction Team (Construction Managers/ General Contractors/ Specialty Subcontractors) Feedback (10) BUILDING SYSTEMS COMMISSIONING PLAN (BSCP) (12) (13) 3-D FINANCIAL/COST MODEL MODEL (15) (14) PRODUCTION TIME PROCESS MODEL MODEL (11) RESOURCE PROCUREMENT PLAN (RPP) Feedback Vendors/Suppliers Team (Supply Chain) INTEGRATED PROJECT DEFINITION MODEL (IPDM) Vendors/Suppliers Team (Supply Chain) To Project Procurement.

143 … To Integrated Project Design… .

Explicit. Explicit. and Commissioning/Start-up Integrated Design Package (IDP) . Explicit.Project Definition Package (PDP) • Project • Project • Project • Project • Other Characterization Objectives & Scope Context & Risks Execution Plan Project Definition Process From Pre-project Planning Decision-Making & Conflict Resolution Processes Formal. & Systematic Input of Specialized Data/Information & Knowledge/Experience On-going Design Discipline Integration & Coordination Technical Design Solution • Coordinated Architectural & Engineering Drawings • Construction Details • Construction Specifications • Other Analysis/Generation/ Evaluation/Selection/ Specification Process Performance Parameter Check Decision-Making & Conflict Resolution Processes Contract Documents Lessons Learned • Data. Sections • Specific Building Systems • General Specifications • Other Analysis/Generation/ Evaluation/Selection/ Specification Process Performance Parameter Check Decision-Making & Conflict Resolution Processes Schematic Design Formal. Constructability. & Systematic Input of Specialized Data/Information & Knowledge/Experience On-going Design Discipline Integration & Coordination Final Design Solution • Complete Drawings • Building Systems Details • Detailed Specifications • Other Analysis/Generation/ Evaluation/Selection/ Specification Process Performance Parameter Check Decision-Making & Conflict Resolution Processes Design Development Formal. Construction. Explicit. Maintainability. & Systematic Input of Specialized Data/Information & Knowledge/Experience On-going Design Discipline Integration & Coordination 144 Performance Parameter Check Proposed Design Solution • Site Layout • Spatial Solution • Accesses and Circulation • General Building Systems • Other Analysis/Generation/ Evaluation/Selection/ Specification Process Performance Parameter Check Decision-Making & Conflict Resolution Processes Conceptual Design Formal. & Systematic Input of Specialized Data/Information & Knowledge/Experience Other Designs Civil Electrical Mechanical Structural Architectural Design To Project Procurement. Explicit. Knowledge. & Systematic Input of Specialized Data/Information & Knowledge/Experience On-going Design Discipline Integration & Coordination Project Performance Enhancement Analyses • Analyses for Physical & Nonphysical Contextual Compatibility • Functional Analyses • Form/Spatial Analyses • Cost Analyses • Time/Schedule Analyses • Quality & Reliability Analyses • Risk Analyses • Safety Analyses • Procurability. and Experience Base Formal. Information. & Commissionability Analyses • Operability. & Security Analyses • Health Analyses • Sustainability Analyses Preliminary Design Solution • Scaled Drawings • Perspectives.

145 … To Production-based Construction… .

reuse & maintain partially consumed resources Eliminate non-recyclable waste generated safely Project Impacts To The Environment Production Process Plan .146 Resource Procurement Plan Project Definition Package Project Execution Plan Integrated Design Package Regulate flows of inputs to achieve desired results CONTROL FUNCTIONS Establish work processes to change inputs to outputs NO Is project YES complete? Acquire resources for the project NO Is resource on-site? YES Project Outcomes For All Stakeholders Building Systems Commissioning Plan Transport to site. if necessary Distribute resources at various levels to crews Convert inputs to outputs using a work process Recover recyclable waste generated Recover. repair. receive & inspect Commission building systems. when necessary Synthesize outputs into completed building systems and subsystems Store resources temporarily.

more Knowledge. and Wisdom. Experience. To: Fully Integrated and Automated Technologies. and Action .147 From: Living in “Islands of Automation” surrounded by an “Ocean of Data and Information” while suffering from “Paralysis of Analysis”. Strategic Filters.

fiatech. http://www.148 From “Islands of Automation”… SOURCE: FIATECH.org .

http://www.fiatech.org .… To Enhanced Capital Project Delivery and Operation… 149 SOURCE: FIATECH.

fiatech.org . http://www.… Within a Vision of Fully Integrated and Automated Technologies… 150 SOURCE: FIATECH.

2003 http://www. whenever it is needed. All information is available to whomever needs it.fiatech.” FIATECH.151 “The vision of the future is of a highly automated and seamlessly integrated environment across all phases and processes of the capital project/facility life cycle.org . and wherever it is needed.

From an “Ocean of Data & Information”… High 152 Available Quantity Too much WISDOM EXPERIENCE KNOWLEDGE DATA INFORMATION Impact of Use Too little Low Time to Develop .

High 153 Available Quantity Too much WISDOM EXPERIENCE KNOWLEDGE DATA INFORMATION Impact of Use Need More Too little Low Time to Develop .… To more Knowledge. and Wisdom... Experience.

.. Moderate Probability of Making the Right Decision Conflicting and Confusing Decision-making Environment .154 From Paralysis of Analysis.

… Fueled by a Lack of a Unified Theory of Sustainability… • Sustainability is currently expressed in multiple forms: – Principles – Concepts – Heuristics – Strategies – Guidelines – Specifications – Standards – Processes/Tools – Best Practices – Lessons Learned 155 Which of these forms of Sustainability must/should/could/would we use? .

. High Probability of Making the Right Decision Moderate Probability of Making the Right Decision Sustainability D/I&K/E Strategic Filters Conflicting and Confusing Decision-making Environment .156 … To Strategic Filters..

as long as it in the right direction… • Sustainability: – Principles – Concepts – Heuristics – Strategies – Guidelines – Specifications – Standards – Processes/Tools – Best Practices – Lessons Learned Sustainable Attributes and Characteristics of a Facility (The “What”) 157 Contextual Envelope of a Sustainable Facility (The Sustainability Octant) Sustainable Resources for the Delivery and Use of a Facility (The “With What ”) Unsustainable Processes Unsustainable Attributes and Characteristics ble na tai ces sus r Un esou R Sustainable Processes for the Delivery and Use of a Facility (The “How”) .… And Action.

158 … and many. many more… .

159 The challenge. though. is that all these enablers require various degrees of change… .

160 The fourth thing that we can do to implement BES in the A/E/C Industry is to: .

161 Acknowledge. address. and manage change. and then just do it! .

changes toward sustainability are inevitable. and how organizations respond to these changes will make them: end with a Pile of CASH… or end as a Pile of ASH… .What will be the trigger of change…? ATTITUDE TOWARD CHANGE Proactive SOURCE OF CHANGE External Internal Reactive 162 FLASH Triggers are changes in: • Values • Mission • Perceptions CRASH Triggers are changes of: • Functional Requirements • Physical Integrity /Function SPLASH Triggers are changes caused by: • Market • Benchmarks • Competition CLASH Triggers are changes in: • Codes • Regulations • Standards (Developed by A. Pearce) Regardless of the trigger.

...You reallyshoulda. ATTITUDE TOWARD CHANGE Proactive Reactive 163 SOURCE OF CHANGE FLASH Internal CRASH “.” (Inspired by P.You reallygonna-hafta.. Melhus) .” SPLASH “..You reallygonna-wanna...” “....stated in another way...You reallyoughta-wanna..........” CLASH External “.

and embrace new paradigms...164 However. to achieve change we must also get rid of several mental blocks (which many times we do no even realize we have). .

. The perceived value of the Vision The perceived value of the Status Quo The perceived cost of change ... and within this challenge.165 The Challenge The Conventional Paradigms of the Status Quo of Today (The Champion) The New Paradigms of a Vision for Tomorrow (The Challenger) versus . there is a need to prove that..

166 We need to be willing to Unlearn… to be able to Learn… .

Form. and feel most comfortable with: Math. and Engineering… Function. and Aesthetics..167 We need to stop talking to ourselves in the language we know best.. . Space. Science.

168 … And start speaking to society in the languages that currently drive it. and which it understands: .

169 We need to be willing to not just look at the needs created by the problems of today… and start looking at the opportunities posed by the aspirations for tomorrow… .

170 We need to stop listening to those (including ourselves) who only know how to say Why Not…! and start listening to those who only know how to say Why Not…? .

& Imagineering....... Optioneering. .171 We spend less time just doing Engineering… and spend more time doing Visioneering.

. consequence-based. and the “Uh-Oh” approaches to design… and replace them with performance-based. specification-driven. ..172 We need to eliminate the compliancedriven . and integrated and holistic approaches to design.

. ..173 We need to stop focusing so much on precision… and remember that accuracy is what really counts .

.. if not more.. emphasis on doing the right thing and on effectiveness.174 We need to stop placing so much emphasis on just doing things right and on efficiency… and start to place equal.

Conventional Design and Construction Green Design and Construction < .175 We need to overcome the prevalent perception that...

.176 … and embrace the reality that… Green Design and Construction Conventional Design and Construction < … when you look at long-term Value and Life Cycle Performance...

177 We need to go beyond just discussing the Theoretical Dimensions of sustainability… and start focusing on the Practical Implementation of sustainability… .

178 … and many. many more… .

the fifth thing that we can do to implement BES in the A/E/C Industry is to: .179 Finally.

180 Answer the following question: What if the A/E/C Industry had…? .

181 A Solid Conceptual Framework and Implementation Roadmap for BES Reliable Data and Analyses of the Economic Impact of Achieving and Not Achieving BES A Coordinated Public and Private Sectors National Agenda for BES Industry and Multistakeholder Alignment and Partnering toward BES Reliable Data and Analyses of the Benefits of BES Public and Private Investment in BES (Inspired by R. Jackson) .

182 .. and in addition.. we were able to overthrow the Tyranny of the OR… and embrace the Genius of the AND… .

(Inspired by R.183 It would not have to be GREEN OR GREEN ($).. Jackson) ..

..184 It would not have to be GREEN OR GREEN ($). Jackson) . (Inspired by R.

(Inspired by R... Jackson) .185 It would not have to be GREEN OR GREEN ($).

(Inspired by R. Jackson) .186 It would not have to be GREEN OR GREEN ($)...

187 It would not have to be GREEN OR GREEN ($). (Inspired by R. Jackson) ...

188 It would not have to be GREEN OR GREEN ($).. (Inspired by R. Jackson) ..

(Inspired by R...189 It would not have to be GREEN OR GREEN ($). Jackson) .

190 It would not have to be GREEN OR GREEN ($). (Inspired by R... Jackson) .

(Inspired by R.. Jackson) ..191 It would not have to be GREEN OR GREEN ($).

192 It would not have to be GREEN OR GREEN ($). Jackson) . (Inspired by R...

. Jackson) .193 It would not have to be GREEN OR GREEN ($). (Inspired by R..

Jackson) ...194 It would not have to be GREEN OR GREEN ($). (Inspired by R.

.. Jackson) . (Inspired by R.195 It could be GREEN AND GREEN ($).

196 Is all this hard to imagine…? Impossible to achieve…? Not really. but it will require some level of change in: In our Paradigms… In our Decisions… In our Choices… In our Actions… .

one paradigm at a time . or one action at a time .... in a gradual shift to a sustainable future…… .. Sustainability can be implemented: . one product or one process at a time ....197 Remember.. one choice.... one industry at a time .... phase by phase in a product’s or a project’s life cycle . one project or one program at a time . one enterprise at a time .. one decision..

198 THANK YOU! .

Jorge A.edu . Georgia 30332-0355 U. – Tel.A.vanegas@ce.S.gatech.: (404) 894-9881 – Fax: (404) 894-5418 – Email: jorge..199 Full Contact Information • Dr. Vanegas Professor Construction Engineering and Management Program School of Civil and Environmental Engineering College of Engineering Georgia Institute of Technology – Mailing Address: CEM/CEE/0355 790 Atlantic Dr. Mason Building Georgia Institute of Technology Atlanta.

iies.cecer.org http://www.org/ http://www.army.wbdg.mil/SustDesign/Index.cfm http://www.wbcsd. .sbicouncil.org/ http://www.usgbc.org/ http://www.es/FMOIWFEO/desarrollosostenible/ • And many more….200 Selected Resources • • • • • • http://www.