W E E K

Planning for and Recruiting Human Resources
The Process of Human Resource Planning Recruiting Human Resources Recruitment Sources Recruiter Traits and Behaviors

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Human Resource Planning

Figure 5.1

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Introduction
 Human

resource planning is a process by which an organization ensures that  it has the right number and kinds of people  at the right place  at the right time  capable of effectively and efficiently completing those tasks that will help the organization achieve its overall strategic objectives.

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10.3

1. Determine future needs Steps Involved in Strategic Human Resources Planning

2. Determine future turnover

4. Offer training and developmen t

3. Recruit, hire, or layoff as necessary 2-4

HUMAN RESOURCE PLANNING

The development of a comprehensive staffing strategy for meeting the organization’s current & future human resource needs.
An effort to anticipate future business and environmental demands upon and organization and to provide personnel to fulfill that business and satisfy that demand.

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HR Planning Process
 HR 

Strategies The means used to anticipate and manage the supply of and demand for human resources.
Provide overall direction in which HR activities will be developed and managed. Overall

Strategic Plan Human Resources Strategic Plan HR Activities
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Linking Organizational Strategy to Human Resource Planning
Assessing

  

current human resources

Succession planning
includes the development of replacement charts portray middle-to-upper level management positions that may become vacant in the near future lists information about individuals who might qualify to fill the positions

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Linking Organizational Strategy to Human Resource Planning
Predicting

       

the Future Labor Supply

Decreases in internal supply come about through:
Retirements Dismissals Transfers-out Lay-offs Voluntary quits Sabbaticals Prolonged illnesses Deaths

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Linking Organizational Strategy to Human Resource Planning
Retirements are the easiest to forecast.  Other factors are much more difficult to project.  Dismissals, transfers, lay-offs, and sabbaticals are more easily controlled by management.

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Linking Organizational Strategy to Human Resource Planning
Where

Will We Find Workers

migration into a community  recent graduates  individuals returning from military service  increases in the number of unemployed and employed individuals seeking other opportunities, either part-time or full-time
The

potential labor supply can be expanded by formal or on-the-job training.

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Linking Organizational Strategy to Human Resource Planning
Matching

Labor Demand and Supply

Employment planning compares forecasts for demand and supply of workers.  Special attention should be paid to current and future shortages and overstaffing.  Decruitment or downsizing may be used to reduce supply and balance demand.  Rightsizing involves linking staffing levels to organizational goals.

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Linking Organizational Strategy to Human Resource Planning
Employment Planning and the Strategic Planning Process

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Estimating Internal Labor Supply

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Elements of Effective HR Planning

3. Implement Plans to Balance Supply and Demand 2. Forecast Future Internal/External Candidates (Supply)

1. Forecast Future HR Needs (Demand)
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Forecasting Future HR Needs (Demand)
Forecasting based on:  projected turnover  quality and nature of employees relative to needs  decisions regarding product quality and new markets  plans for technological and administrative change to increase productivity and reduce headcount  financial resources available

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Forecasting Future HR Needs (Demand)
Quantitative Approaches:  Trend analysis: review past employment levels  Ratio analysis: ratio of business activity/employees  Scatter plot: graph of business activity/employees  Regression analysis: statistical relationship between business activity and employees

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Forecasting Future HR Needs (Demand)
Qualitative Approaches:
2.

3.

4.

Nominal Group Technique  experts meet face-to-face  group discussion facilitates exchange of ideas  possible subjectivity, group pressure Delphi Technique  experts work independently  wide range of views  difficult to integrate diverse opinions Managerial judgment

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Forecasting Future HR Supply:
Markov Analysis tracking the pattern of employee movements through various jobs and developing a transitional probability matrix

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Forecasting Future HR Supply
Skills/Management Inventories summary of each employee’s education, experience, interests, skills for managers, also includes managerial responsibilities, duties in current/previous positions, management training

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Forecasting Future HR Supply
Replacement Charts/Summaries visual representations of likely internal replacement employees for each position, including age, present performance rating, promotability status replacement summaries also list relative strengths and weaknesses, current position

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Forecasting Future HR Supply
Succession Planning  analyze demand for managers/professionals  audit existing executives, project future supply  individual career planning/career counselling  accelerated promotions  performance-related training and development  planned strategic recruitment

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Forecasting Future HR Supply
External Candidates
general

economic conditions national labour market conditions local labour market conditions occupational market conditions

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Balancing Supply and Demand
Dealing with a Labour Surplus  hiring freeze  attrition  early retirement buyout programs  reducing hours (job sharing, work sharing, reduced workweek)  layoffs; supplemental unemployment benefits  termination with severance package

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Balancing Supply and Demand
Dealing with a Labour Shortage overtime hiring temporary employees subcontracting work external recruitment transfers promotions

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Balancing Supply and Demand
Canada’s Looming Labour Shortage  over next 20 years, baby boomers will retire, creating a critical undersupply of labour  retention of older workers  more Aboriginals, visible minorities, females  more apprenticeships  aggressive external recruiting  offer flexible work arrangements

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Balancing Supply and Demand
Flexible Work Arrangements sought by younger workers to achieve work-life balance sought by older workers to bridge to retirement also assists in meeting customer needs

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Developing and Using a Strategic HR Plan
Issues

in Matching the Supply of Labor with the Demand for Labor
 Succession Planning  Managing a Human Resources Surplus  Outplacement Services  HR Planning in Mergers and Acquisitions

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Workforce

Managing a Human Resources Surplus
Realignment
“Downsizing”, “Rightsizing”, and “Reduction in Force” (RIF) all mean reducing the number of employees in an organization.  Causes
 

Economic—weak product demand, loss of market share to competitors Structural—technological change, mergers and acquisitions

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Managing a Human Resource Surplus (cont’d)
 Downsizing 

Approaches Attrition and hiring freezes
Not replacing departing employees and not hiring new employees Early retirement buyouts offer incentives to encourage senior employees to leave the organization early.

Voluntary Separation Programs

Layoffs
Employees are placed on unpaid leave until called back to work when business conditions improve.  Employees are selected for layoff on the basis of their seniority or performance or a combination of both.

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Placement
Person-job

Fit

Matching the knowledge, skills and abilities (KSAs) of people to the characteristics of jobs (tasks, duties and responsibilities–TDRs).

KSAs = TDRs = Job Success?

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What is a Job?
 Job

A group of related activities and duties  Position  The different duties and responsibilities performed by only one employee Job  Job Family  A group of individual jobs with similar characteristics

Job

Job

Job

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Person/Job Fit

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Approaches to Understanding Jobs
1. 2. 3. 4.

Workflow analysis Job design Job analysis Job descriptions and job specifications

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Workflow Analysis
Workflow

Analysis

A study of the way work (inputs, activities, and outputs) moves through an organization.
Activities Tasks and Jobs Outputs Goods and Services

Inputs People Materials Equipment

Evaluation

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Job Design
Organizing tasks, duties, and responsibilities into a productive unit of work.
Job Design

Job Performance

Job Satisfaction

Physical and Mental Health

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Job Analysis
Analysis is a systematic exploration of the activities within a job. It defines and documents the duties, responsibilities and accountabilities of a job and the conditions under which a job is performed.
Job

?
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Job Analysis
Goal

Determine the duties and responsibilities of a particular job  Determine how the job relates to other jobs and the level of importance of the job  Determine the necessary qualifications in order to perform the job  Determine the working conditions associated with the job.

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Uses of Job Analysis Information
Compensation

and job evaluation Recruitment and selection HR planning Training and Development Performance Appraisals

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Job Analysis: What is Analyzed?
 Work

activities  Schedule  Location  Materials used  Job performance  Skills and training  Supervision, promotions  Products, services

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Job Analysis: The Big Picture
The relationships among job analysis, planning, recruitment and selection Job Analysis Recruitment Nature and requirements of specific jobs
Pool of Qualified Applicants

HR Planning

Number of specific jobs to be filled

Selection
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Job Analysis Methods:How do you collect the information?
Interviews Structured Direct

Questionnaire

Observation / Work Diaries
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Logbooks

Interviews
 Most

commonly used method  very adaptable  Usually conducted with  job incumbents  technical experts  supervisors  Questions like:  what are your most typical duties?  How long do they take?  How do you do them?  Caution: people may misrepresent/exaggerate job

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Questionnaire
Lists

of many (>200) job characteristics and activities
rated in term of frequency and importance

method very

is most useful for comparing jobs

commonly used (esp. with interviews)

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Observation
Unobtrusive

method

camera; video; audio

Excellent

for understanding and appreciating conditions under which job is performed analyst to experience aspects of job that worker may not be aware of

Allows

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Logbook / Worker Diaries
Worker

makes systematic entries in book outlining activities May be useful for jobs that are difficult to observe Caution, not commonly used
too much variance in writing skills  can exaggerate tasks performed

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Outcomes of Job Analyses
 Job

Description  written statement of a job and its requirements(tasks to perform)  Job Specification  written statement of the necessary qualifications of the job incumbent  Education  Experience  Specialized training  Personal Traits  Manual dexterity
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Determining Job Requirements
Nature of:
Job Analysis
• • • What employee does Why employee does it How employee does it • Determining job requirements

Basis for:

Job Description
• Summary statement of the job • List of essential functions of the job • Employee orientation • Employee instruction • Disciplinary action

Job Specification
• Personal qualifications required in terms of skills, education and experience • Recruitment • Selection • Development
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WHAT JOBS SHOULD BE ANALYZED FIRST?
Jobs

where adverse impact in hiring has occurred Entry-level jobs Jobs whose content has changed Jobs with incumbents having poor performance or high turnover

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Job Analysis
 Job    

Descriptions Written statement of what jobholder does, how it is done, under what conditions and why. Common format: title; duties; distinguishing characteristics; environmental conditions; authority and responsibilities. Used to describe the job to applicants, to guide new employees, and to evaluate employees. Identification of essential job functions is needed to assure compliance with Americans with Disabilities Act.

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Key Elements of a Job Description
 Job

Title  Indicates job duties and organizational level  Job Identification  Distinguishes job from all other jobs  Essential Functions (Job Duties)  Indicate responsibilities entailed and results to be accomplished  Job Specifications  Skills required to perform the job and physical demands of the job

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Job Analysis
Job

Specifications

States minimum acceptable qualifications.  Used to select employees who have the essential qualifications.

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Job Analysis
Job

Evaluations

Specify relative value of each job in the organization.  Used to design equitable compensation program.

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Job vs. Worker Oriented Analyses
 Job-Oriented

 Worker-Oriented

analysis of tasks necessary to complete the job
e.g. EMBA student
    

analysis of the skills and abilities required
e.g. EMBA student  intelligent  self-motivated  able to work alone  able to integrate diverse information  good long-term memory  time-management skills
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attend lectures take notes read text write reports Do assignments at home

Job Evaluation
Process
 Market

by which wage rates are applied differentially to jobs

Perspective (External Equity)  how difficult is it to fill the position  not an assessment of value  Based on Job Analysis (Internal Equity)  skill  effort  responsibility  working conditions  education requirements

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Nature of Job Design
 Job

Enlargement  Broadening the scope of a job by expanding the number of different tasks to be performed.  Job Enrichment  Increasing the depth of a job by adding the responsibility for planning, organizing , controlling, and evaluating the job.  Job Rotation  The process of shifting a person from job to job.

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Specialized to Enlarged Jobs
Job

Enlargement = same-level activities Job Rotation = moving from one job to another Job Enrichment = redesigning to experience more responsibility, achievement, growth and recognition

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Job Analysis

Sift and shortlist

Job Description Competency profiling

Assessment

Identify Vacancy

Decide on appropriate recruitment/selection methods

Selection Interviews

Induct and Train

Decide how to attract candidates

Take up references

Market the Job

Make a decision And offer

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