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Cancer is a large group of diseases characterized by the uncontrolled growth and spread of abnormal cells.  Neoplasm is new growth of tissue that serves no physiological function.  A tumor is a clumping of neoplasmic cells.  Malignant means “cancerous.”  Benign means “noncancerous.”  A biopsy is a microscopic examination of cell development.

Metastasis is the process by which malignant tumors that are not enclosed in a protective capsule spread to other organs.  Mutant cells form after a disruption of RNA and DNA within normal cells, which may produce cells that differ in form, quality, and function from the normal cell.

 oncogenes.  . such as hormones. radiation. such as chemicals. and inherited mutations  Cellular change theory says cancer results from  carcinogens. viruses.WHAT CAUSES CANCER? External factors. and lifestyle  Internal factors. immune conditions.

.METASTASIS Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. Inc.

RISKS FOR CANCER Lifetime risk is the probability that an individual. 40 percent for colon cancer in men.  Obesity increases risk to 50 percent for breast cancer in postmenopausal women.  Relative risk is the measure of the strength of the relationship between risk factors and a particular cancer. will develop cancer or die from it.  . over the course of a lifetime.  Smoking is responsible for 30 percent of all cancer deaths and 87 percent of lung cancer deaths.

 .  Genes appear to account for approximately 5 to 10 percent of all cases of breast cancer. stomach. colon. ovary and lung. such as breast. prostate. appear to run in families.BIOLOGICAL FACTORS Some cancers. uterus.  Hodgkin’s disease and certain leukemias show similar patterns.

REPRODUCTIVE AND HORMONAL RISKS FOR CANCER  Pregnancy and oral contraceptives increase a woman’s chances of breast cancer. . early menopause. and having many children have been shown to reduce risk of breast cancer. early first childbirth.  Late menarche.

OCCUPATIONAL AND ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS Asbestos  Nickel  Chromate  Benzene  Arsenic  Radioactive substances  Cool tars  Herbicides and pesticides  .

 Pesticide and herbicide residues in high doses are known to cause cancer.CHEMICALS IN FOODS Sodium nitrate when ingested forms a potential carcinogen.  .  Sodium nitrate is still used because it is effective in preventing botulism. nitrosamine.

 Sleep disturbances. diet. or a combination of factors may weaken the body’s immune system.SOCIAL AND PSYCHOLOGICAL FACTORS Stress has been implicated in increased susceptibility to several types of cancers.  .

has been linked to cervical cancer. Hodgkin’s disease.  Helicobacter pylori causes ulcers. cervical cancer.  . associated with mononucleosis. may contribute to cancer.  Epstein-Barr virus. and Burkitt’s lymphoma. a virus that causes genital warts.INFECTIOUS DISEASE AND CANCERS Herpes-related viruses may be involved in the development of leukemia. which are a major factor in the development of stomach cancer.  Human papillomavirus (HPV).

 Estrogen supplementation contributes to multiple cancer risks.  Chemotherapy used to treat one form of cancer may increase risk for another type of cancer.  Diethylstilbestrol (DES) was used from 1940 to 1960 to control bleeding during pregnancy. the daughters of mothers who used DES were found to have an increased risk for cancers of the reproductive organs.  .MEDICAL FACTORS Some medical treatments actually increase a person’s risk for cancer.

TYPES OF CANCERS  Classification of cancers Carcinomas  Sarcomas  Lymphomas  Leukemias  .

an estimated 161.840 people died from lung cancer. and chemotherapy  Prevention: avoid smoking and environmental tobacco smoke  .  Symptoms: persistent cough.LUNG CANCER In 2008. and chest pain. more women have died from lung cancer than breast cancer. radiation therapy.  Since 1987.  Treatment: surgery. blood-streaked sputum.

BREAST CANCER  One in eight women will develop breast cancer in her lifetime. tenderness  .  One in 210 between birth and age 39  One in 26 between ages 40 to 59  One in 15 between ages 60 to79 Detection: mammograms. skin irritation. dimpling. thickening. regular breast self-exams  Symptoms: lump in the breast. distortion.

long menstrual history. hyperplasia. radiation. radical mastectomy. obesity after menopause. chemotherapy Prevention: exercise .) Risk factors: family history. oral contraceptives Treatment: lumpectomy.BREAST CANCER (CONT.

Inc.BREAST SELF-EXAMINATION Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. Figure 16.5 .

diets high in fats and low in fiber. obese.  Treatment: radiation.COLON AND RECTAL CANCERS  Third most common cancers in men and women. family history of colon or rectal cancer or polyps. with over 148. a diet heavy in fruits and plant-origin foods. lack of exercise  Ninety percent of colorectal cancers are preventable. surgery. high alcohol consumption. smoking. a healthy weight.810 new cases diagnosed in 2008  Risk factors: over 50 years old. and moderation in alcohol consumption . and possibly chemotherapy  Prevention: regular exercise.

 Malignant melanoma is the deadliest form of skin cancer.  The sun emits three types of harmful rays  UVA  UVB  UVC  .SKIN CANCER Long-term sun exposure can result in skin cancer.

TYPES OF ULTRAVIOLET RAYS Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. . Inc.

SKIN CANCER (CONT.)  Use the ABCD rule to detect melanoma. Asymmetry: half of a mole does not look like the other half  Border irregularity: the edges are uneven  Color: pigmentation is not uniform  Diameter: larger than a pea  .

Inc.TYPES OF SKIN CANCERS Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. .

320 new cases were diagnosed. walnut-sized gland surrounding part of the urethra and whose primary function is to produce seminal fluid.  .  Prostate is a muscular. 186.  One in three men will be diagnosed in his lifetime. excluding skin cancer  In 2008.PROSTATE CANCER Most common cancer in American men.

vitamin E . difficulty starting or stopping urination Risk factors: age. nationality.) Symptoms: weak or interrupted urine flow. diet. and lifestyle Prevention: diet high in lycopenes. race.PROSTATE CANCER (CONT. family history.

age.OVARIAN CANCER Fifth-leading cause of cancer death for women. fertility drugs. childbearing. almost 22.000 new cases diagnosed and more than 15. sleep.000 deaths reported in 2008  Most common symptom is enlargement of the abdomen. and weight control  .  Risk factors: family history. stress management. exercise. talc use in genital area. cancer history. genetic predisposition  Prevention: diet high in vegetables and low in fat.

 Risk factors:  For cervical cancer. cigarette smoking. there were 11. multiple sex partners. and certain STIs  For endometrial cancer: age. overweight. endometrial hyperplasia. 40.100 of endometrial cancer. cells are taken from the cervical region.  In a pap test. and high blood pressure  . early age at first intercourse. diabetes.CERVICAL AND ENDOMETRIAL (UTERINE) CANCER In 2008 in the United States.070 new cases of cervical cancer.

TESTICULAR CANCER Affected nearly 7.  Important to practice regular testicular self-exams  Lance Armstrong Foundation’s LiveStrong campaign raises awareness.  .920 young men in 2007  Men between the ages of 15 and 35 are at the greatest risk.

.TESTICULAR SELF-EXAMINATION Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. Inc.

 Leukemia is a cancer of blood-forming tissues.  .OTHER CANCERS Pancreatic cancer has a 5-year survival rate of 5%.  Lymphomas are cancers of the lymphatic system.

DETECTING CANCER The earlier the diagnosis. the better the prospect for survival.  Tests for detection  Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)  Computerized axial tomography (CAT) scan  Prostatic ultrasound  Regular self-exams and checkups  .

. Inc.CANCER’S SEVEN WARNING SIGNALS Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education.

NEW HOPE IN CANCER TREATMENTS Radiotherapy  Chemotherapy  Immunotherapy  Cancer-fighting vaccines  Gene therapy  Angiogenesis inhibitors  .

RADIATION THERAPY Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. Inc. .

and long-term effects of treatment?  .TALKING TO YOUR DOCTOR ABOUT CANCER Kind of cancer?  Type?  Stage?  Prognosis?  Treatment choices?  Short.

CANCER SURVIVORS Cancer support groups  Cancer information workshops  Low-cost medical consultation  Increased government funding to seek cures  .