9/14/09

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On page 12 of your notes…

Have you homework out, ready for me to pick up

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Catalyst: What are the three methods for separating mixtures? What method(s) allowed you to separate the pure substances? Identify the following as pure substances of mixtures:
A. B. C.

1. What are the three methods for separating mixtures (that we saw Thursday…)?
Evaporation

Filtration
Separation by magnets

2. What method(s) allowed you to separate the pure substances?
None! You can’t separate a pure substance by physical means.

C.3. Mixture! Pure Substance! Mixture! . Identify the following as pure substances of mixtures: A. B.

Agenda • • • • • Graphing discussion (10 min) Story time (30 min) Human atom (10 min) Practice (25 min) Exit slip (5 min) .

• 1.7 “I CAN define atom!!!” • 1. graph.A “I CAN identify basic features of a table.In <90 min. you too can say….8 “I CAN describe the structure of an atom!!!” . or diagram!!!” • 1.

Good scientists can read all kinds of graphs… Bar graphs .

Good scientists can read all kinds of graphs… Bar graphs .

graphs Good scientists can read all kinds of Line graphs… .

globalreporting.jpg .charts Good scientists can read all kinds of Pie graphs… http://www.org/NR/rdonlyres/7F305318-B658-4D75-B9CD-DEBF2DA3FEC8/1614/pieChart.

Good scientists can read all kinds of Scatter graphs… Plots http://www.gif .analyse-it.com/products/standard/images/scatter-plot.

org/wikipedia/commons/0/0f/Oldfaithful3.Good scientists can read all kinds of Scatter graphs… Plots http://upload.wikimedia.png .

Table Good scientists can read all kinds of Data tables… Experiment 2 Data .

Good scientists can read all kinds of Just for graphs… the fun of it… .

Axes Y X .

first.How do we look at data??? Good scientists. look for the same things on a graph/table Title Axis/column labels Axis/column units .

Title Line Graphs (or bar. or scatter) Axis labels Axis units .

Title Labels/units Pie Charts .

Title Column labels Data Table Experiment 2 Data Column units .

What kind of graph islabel? is is the y-axis label? What is the x-axis What title? x-axis unit? What isWhat the this? the What is the y-axis unit? .

What kind of graph islabel? is is the y-axis label? What is the x-axis What title? x-axis unit? What isWhat the this? the What is the y-axis unit? .

on page 12 of your notes… Good scientists. first. look for the same things on a graph/table: •Title •Axis/column labels •Axis/column units .Underneath your Catalyst.

Let’s narrow from “great scientists” to “great chemists” .

Story time… The History of Atomic Theory .

.We use models of atoms… • A model uses familiar ideas to explain unfamiliar facts observed in nature.

when it looked like a billiard ball → .Models Change… • The atomic model has changed throughout the centuries. starting in 400 BC.

Atom Men… .

Democritus • This is the Greek philosopher Democritus who began the search for a description of matter more than 2400 years ago. 400 BC Could matter be divided into smaller and smaller pieces forever. or was there a limit to the number of times a piece of matter could be divided? .

“Atom” comes from a Greek word that means “unable to be cut” … and you kept Imagine you on cutting the had a piece in leftover piece of gold that half… you then cut in half… …and then you cut one of these smaller pieces in half… GoGold ld .

An atom of gold This tiny. . tiny single piece of gold is called an atom of gold.“Atom” comes from a Greek word that means “unable to be cut” …and kept …and kept going… going… Eventually you would have 1 piece of gold left. you cut it kept wouldn’t have gold any more – going… you’d have something else. An atom is the smallest particle of an element that acts like the element. If you …and in half.

7 “I CAN define atom!!!” .What do we take from him now? Atom: the smallest particle of an element that acts like that element. 1.

C. “Matter is made of atoms!!!” .: Democritus.400 B.

However… This theory was ignored and forgotten for more than 2000 years! Ouch! .

Why? • The renowned philosophers of the time. (and ultimately wrong) theory. had a more respected. . Aristotle and Plato.

“Matter is made of atoms!!!” The next 2200 years: Aristotle/Plato. “No it isn’t!!!” .400 B.C.: Democritus.

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the English chemist and school teacher John Dalton performed a number of experiments that eventually led to the acceptance of the idea of atoms.Dalton’s Model • In the early 1800s. .

400 B. “No it isn’t!!!” 1800’s: Dalton. “Matter is made of atoms!!!” The next 2200 years: Aristotle/Plato.: Democritus.C. “Actually. it is!!!” .

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J.J. Thomson .

.Thomson Model • Thomson studied the passage of an electric current through a neutral gas in a cathode ray tube. it gave off rays of negatively charged particles. • As the current passed through the gas.

because the atoms of the gas were originally uncharged. Where did they come from? .Thomson Model • This surprised Thomson.

Think. Pair. – 30 seconds to pair. . Share • Where did the negative charges come from? – 20 seconds to think. – Come back. – Share out! • Hint: It wasn’t from the electricity.

a particle smaller than an atom had to exist.” today known as electrons.The negative charge came from within the atom!!! Therefore. Thomson called the negatively charged particles “corpuscles. .

Subatomic particles! Sub = “Smaller” Atomic = referring to the atom Subatomic = “Smaller than the atom” Subatomic particles = the pieces that make up the atom. .

• Thompson discovered negative particles (electrons). meaning without charge.Discussion • Remember that the gas was neutral. • What else could he conclude? .

making the gas neutral. • …But he never found them.• There must have been positively charged particles in the atom to “cancel” the negative charge. .

Thomson’s Plum Pudding Model • Atoms were made from: –A positively charged substance –With negatively charged pieces. . scattered about like raisins in a pudding.

it is!!!” 1897: Thomson.: Democritus.400 B.C. “Matter is made of atoms!!!” The next 2200 years: Aristotle/Plato. “Actually. “No it isn’t!!!” 1800’s: Dalton. “Electrons are inside the atom!!! They have a -1 charge!!!” .

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Rutherford’s Gold Foil Experiment .

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Rutherford’s Gold Foil Experiment .

positive nucleus. • Atoms have a small. . • Electrons are scattered on the outer edge of the atom.• Atoms are made of mostly open space.

“Matter is made of atoms!!!” The next 2200 years: Aristotle/Plato. “Atoms also have a small.400 B. “Actually. positive nucleus in the center!!! Atoms are made of mostly open space!!!” .: Democritus.C. “Electrons are inside the atom!!! They have a -1 charge!!!” 1908: Rutherford. it is!!!” 1897: Thomson. “No it isn’t!!!” 1800’s: Dalton.

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the Danish scientist Niels Bohr hinted at the placement of electrons in the atom. .Bohr Model • In 1922.

• They are on set orbits/energy levels. –Like the planets around the sun.Bohr Model • Electrons aren’t just smeared around the nucleus. .

positive nucleus in the center!!! Atoms are made of mostly open space!!!” 1922: Bohr. “No it isn’t!!!” 1800’s: Dalton. “Actually. “Electrons are inside the atom!!! They have a -1 charge!!!” 1908: Rutherford. “Atoms also have a small. it is!!!” 1897: Thomson.The next 2200 years: Aristotle/Plato. “Electrons travel on specific energy levels!!!” .

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So let’s talk about “now” How will we envision the atom for this course? …using Bohr’s model… .

The (Bohr) Atom Electrons -1 charge Protons +1 charge c c c c c c c Nucleus Energy levels Neutrons neutral. 0 charge .

go on each of the rest.Electrons reside Abbreviation for like so… “electron” • First 2 e.go on the 1st energy level. . c c c c c c c • Up to 8 e.

• Electrons fill up energy levels like stadium seats: Stage .

c c c c c c c .

• Go to your correct location in our giant atom • We will discuss after each run. neutrons. or electron. – What are you? – Where are you? – What’s your charge . • I will display a number of protons. neutron.Human Atom • You will be a proton. and electrons.

Atom… • 1 proton • 2 neutrons • 1 electron .

Atom… • 3 protons • 2 neutrons • 3 electrons .

Atom… • 6 protons • 3 neutrons • 7 electrons .

Smallest pieces of Pause for Clarity an element Matter Mixtures Pure Substance Getting smaller Smallest pieces of matter Elements Atoms Protons Neutrons Electrons .

Drawing Bohr Atoms
• Just fill in the blank. • P= ____ • N= ____

P= 18 N= 20

And you draw electrons in like this…
• The first 2 electrons go on the first energy level. • 8 electrons go on each of the rest.

P= 18 N= 20

On page 13…

5 protons 5 neutrons 5 electrons

5 5

• Notice the front… • Notice the back… – You must work on a separate piece of paper – You must draw your own Bohr models • Need beads to help count. tell me!! . please.Continue to work on pg 13/14… • Put your name on it.

A “I CAN identify basic features of a table.7 “I CAN define atom!!!” • 1. graph.8 “I CAN describe the structure of an atom!!!” .On page 7…Can you say…. or diagram!!!” • 1.??? • 1.

• Quiz Thursday over 1. • DUE THURSDAY: pg 14.1-1.8 and 1.A .Exit slip • Try your best… • …This tells us what we need for Thursday.

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